Timeline of weight loss

From Timelines
Revision as of 16:30, 27 August 2021 by Sebastian (talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of weight loss, attempting to describe significant events mostly focused on the several strategies attempted throughout history with the purpose of losing weight.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some of the numerous regimens of weight loss having been introduced?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Regimen introduction".
    • You will mainly see two approaches: dietary supplements and diets.
  • What are some sample products launched with the purpose to achieve weight loss?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Product launch".
    • You will mostly see dietary supplements.
  • What are the different approaches for weight loss covered on this timeline?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Approach".
    • You will mostly see three categories: Diet (food), dietary supplement (drugs), and surgery. Other approaches, such as specific lifestyles, are named.
  • What are some medical interventions having been developed for the purpose to attain weight loss?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Medical development".
    • You will see surgical interventions such as liposuction, as well as those involving devices such as adjustable gastric bands.
  • What are some books covering the topic of weight loss?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
  • What are some figures illustrating the magnitude of the weight loss industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Industry".
  • What are some figures illustrating the state of weight related health among populations?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
    • You will see some figures showing the rate of obesity, among other conditions.
    • For more information on this topic, visit Timeline of malnutrition.
  • What are some sample studies on weight loss?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
    • You will see miscellaneous studies ranging from those assessing weight loss regimens, others linking weight loss to diseases, and others linking weight loss to lifestyle, etc.
    • For more information related to this topic, visit Timeline of calorie restriction.

Other events are described under the following types: "Concept development", "Discovery", "Organization", "Regimen removal", and "Policy".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
Ancient history Early practices Fitness training is already popular among Ancient Greeks, with many hours per day spent at the gymnasium. Hippocrates recommends fat people to follow a strict diet, exercise, and vomit.[1]
Middle Ages Religious voluntary starvation Gluttony is condemned in the Christian world. Devouts often starve themselves to be holy, experiencing hallucinations due to "anorexia mirabilis".[1]
19th century Beginnings of modern dieting Thin bodies are established as ideals for men and women in the Western World. Clothing becomes form-fitting for both sexes, becoming a disadvantage for overweight people.[2] Modern plastic surgery is introduced, including procedures for weight loss such as abdominoplasty.[3]
20th century Modern weight loss industry The dieting business explodes in throughout this century, encompassing plans, drugs, foods, drinks and equipments. The 1960s see the beginning of the massive commercialization of dieting in the United States[4] In the 1980s, it is understood that reduced calorie diets result in weight loss when caloric intake is sufficiently lower then what the participant is accustomed to.[5] At around the same time, reduced dietary fat is replaced by increased refined carbohydrate. Meanwhile, evolving technologies, including the personal computer, starts reducing physical activity.[6] It is not until the 1980s that modern nutrition science begins to meaningfully consider nutrition in association with chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.[7]

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of August 16, 2021.

Year "weight loss"
1900 32
1910 12
1920 48
1930 96
1940 374
1950 1,170
1960 2,380
1970 4,880
1980 9,230
1990 17,100
2000 43,200
2010 134,000
2020 62,200
Weight loss google schoolar.png

Google Trends

The chart below shows Google Trends data for Weight loss (Topic), from January 2004 to August 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[8]

Weight loss gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for X, from1900 to 2019.[9]

Weight loss ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Weight loss, from July 2015 to July 2021.[10]

Weight loss wv.png

Full timeline

Year Event type Approach (when applicable) Details Location/researcher affiliation
c.129 AC–c.216 AC Literature Diet Greek physician Galen writes On the Power of Foods, which contains an all-round explanation of the dietary habits of the Roman Empire.[11] Italy (Ancient Rome)
400 BC Regimen introduction Diet Greek physician Hippocrates recommends overwheight people to follow a strict diet of light and emollient foods plus exercising like slow running, wrestling, sea-water enemas, walking about naked and vomiting after lunch.[12][13] Greece (Ancient Greece)
600 AD Concept development Pope Gregory I defines gluttony not just as eating too much, but also as eating wildly or eagerly or eating between meals. He says that "picky" eaters and gourmands are also guilty of this deadly sin.[2] Italy (Roman Empire)
1066–1087 Concept development Diet Dieting is mentioned again when Norman monarch William the Conqueror, being too heavy to ride his horse, decides that he would stop eating solid foods and only partake in a "liquid diet" consisting only of alcohol in an attempt to lose weight.[13][14][15][2] United Kingdom (Kingdom of England)
1550 Regimen introduction Diet English surgeon John Halle advises people to eat simply because, "More die of gluttony than the sword or the plague."[2] United Kingdom (Kingdom of England)
1558 Literature Diet Venetian nobleman Luigi Cornaro publishes what is arguably the first diet book. Previously an overweight person, he limits himself to 12 ounces of food a day and 14 ounces of wine. His book, The Art of Living Long, advises others to do the same. Cornaro would live to be almost a hundred years old, and toward the end of his life, he woul only eat egg yolks.[2][16] Italy (Republic of Venice)
1614 Literature Diet Italian travel writer Giacomo Castelvetro publishes The Fruits, Herbs and Vegetables of Italy (Brieve racconto di tutte le radici, di tutte l'erbe e di tutti i frutti che crudi o cotti in Italia si mangiano), which criticizes the English people for eating too much meat and sugar, and promotes the Italian way of eating fresh vegetables. His book was a forerunner to today's popular "Mediterranean Diet."[2] Italy
1660 Regimen introduction Diet During a famine in Europe, people eat hunger-suppressing foods like potatoes.[2] Europe
1727 Regimen introduction Lifestyle English physician Thomas Short observes that overweight people live near swamps, and proposes his Avoiding Swamps Diet, which recommends moving away from swamps.[16] United Kingdom (Kingdom of Great Britain)
1730 Literature Diet Scottish physician George Cheyne publishes The Natural Method of Cureing the Diseases of the Body, which is considered to be the second real diet book. Previously grossly fat, Dr. Cheyne would become a lifelong vegetarian, writing that "the nervous diseases of man come from confined animals. I cannot find difference between feeding on human flesh or animal flesh,” an attitude that still exists today among certain vegetarians.[2] United Kingdom (Scotland)
1776 Regimen introduction Diet Some women are reported to use vinegar for weight loss around this time.[17]
1779 Discovery Diet Hoodia is discovered by Colonel Robert Jacob Gordon Ephedra.[18] A succulent plant growing in the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa[19], it is marketed as an appetite suppressant to aid weight loss.[20] Southern Africa
1817 Research English surgeon James Parkinson reports weight loss in his first publication on Parkinson's disease.[21] United Kingdom
1825 Literature Diet French lawyer and politician Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin The Physiology of Taste or Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy (Physiologie du Goût, ou Méditations de Gastronomie Transcendante). Brillat-Savarin argues that "fat is not a disease but a lamentable result of an inclination to which we give way." He states that people must give up bread and flour-based foods, root vegetables like potatoes, sugar and starches, and eat only fruits, vegetables and lean meats.[2] France
1830 Regimen introduction Diet American Presbyterian minister and dietary reformer Sylvester Graham writes that fat is bad for the health, and makes the person corrupt morally and sexually promiscuous. He advises parents to teach temperate eating as a matter of morals. Graham would preach vegetarianism and the avoidance of tea, coffee, tobacco and alcohol.[2] United States
1832 Concept development Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet introduces the idea behind the body mass index (BMI), as he tries to define a healthy weight but to model a bell curve or normal distribution of human body sizes.[22] “That's why one of the most widely used gauges of whether a person needs to shed pounds is body mass index (BMI) — an indicator of body fatness developed by Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet in 1832 that's based on the ratio of height to weight”[23] Belgium
1833 Product launch Exercise Swedish physician Gustav Zander invents a belt-driven fat massager that wrapps around the body. He claims the device jiggles fat away and can also cure gout, arthritis, nervous exhaustion, ladies' ailments, and improves quality of life.[2] Sweden
1835 Concept development Adolphe Quetelet introduces the notion of the average man (homme moyen), combining the social and physical characteristics of populations. This generates a methodological framework through which ‘normal’ physicality could be distinguished, including what constitutes an average body weight.[24] Belgium
1856 Literature Diet A.W. Moore publishes a diet guide that includes a section where readers can record what they ate at each meal along with their weights.[2]
1863 Regimen introduction Diet English undertaker William Banting, an obese man weighing 202 pounds, manages to lose 50 pounds on a diet he invented himself. Banting publishes it in a pamphlet called "Letter on Corpulence." The Banting diet is high in proteins and low in fats and carbohydrates.[25] The pamphlet would sell thousands of copies all over the world, and the term "I am banting" would become popular as a means to say "I am on a diet".[2][26] Further studies would find that calories do count and that low-carbohydrate diets produce weight loss by reducing calorie intake, thus reaffirming that the first law of thermodynamics articulated by Hermann von Helmholtz still applies to humans.[27] United Kingdom
1881 Literature A book is published advising governments to arrest and imprison fat people.[2]
1883 Research Diet A treatise by Ebstein in Germany suggests that fat is produced “merely by overeating and drinking”.[25] Germany
1890 Medical development Surgery (abdominoplasty) Drs. Demars and Marx in France perform the first recorded tummy tuck, known then as a dermolipectomy.[3] France
1899 Medical development Surgery (abdominoplasty) The first tummy tuck in the United States is performed in Baltimore by a gynecologic surgeon named Howard Kelly, who manages to remove 15 pounds of fat from a patient's "apron belly". [3] United States
Early 1900s Regimen introduction Diet American food faddist Horace Fletcher proposes his Chewing Diet, which consists in chewing food until it becomes liquid to prevent overeating.[16] United States
Early 1900s Regimen introduction Diet The Tapeworm Diet is populatized around this time. Theoretically, one would swallow a tapeworm or tapeworm pills. The worm would then live in the stomach and consume some of the food.[16]
1905 Concept development The word fletcherism is first recorded. Alluding to Horace Fletcher, it is the practice of eating in small amounts and only when hungry and of chewing one's food thoroughly.[28][12][29]
1917 Literature Diet American doctor Lulu Hunt Peters publishes Diet and Health, a successful book which would be attributed to the concept of counting calories. It is the first bestselling American diet book. Dr. Peters urges readers to view the calorie as a measurement and rather than judge meals by portion size. She recommends that the amount of calories in any given food be counted and totaled each day. Peters concludes that to lose weight it is important to stay under 1,200 calories a day.[13][2] United States
1938 Regimen removal Dietary supplement The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 labeled DNP as “extremely dangerous and not fit for human consumption.” DNP, which stands for 2,4-Dinitrophenol, is sold illegally as a weight-loss supplement. From 1933 to 1938, it was sold over-the-counter to more than 100,000 people. By 1938 it would be pulled from the market due to safety concerns as cases of poisoning, deaths, and other serious complications emerged.[30]
1930s Regimen introduction Diet The Hollywood Grapefruit Diet is introduced. A forerunner of the Scarsdale and similar ones in the 1970s, it consists in eating half a grapefruit with every meal out of a belief that the fruit contained fat-burning enzymes.[31][4] United States
1942 Metric introduction American corporation MetLife creates the first age and weight tables that show "ideal" weights for men and women based on their height.[31] United States
1948 Organization Esther Manz in Milwaukee creates the TOPS Club ("Take Off Pounds Sensibly") a non-profit charitable corporation with a twofold objective to sponsor research and foster support groups in human body weight control.[31] United States
1956 Research Mellinkoff suggests that an elevated concentration of blood or plasma amino acids, which cannot be channeled into protein synthesis, serves as a satiety signal for a food intake regulating mechanism and thereby results in depressed food intake.[32]
1958 Product launch Diet drink Diet Rite is introduced as a no-calorie soft drink.[33] United States
1959 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement Phentermine is introduced as a weight loss drug. Doctors recommend using it for short-term weight loss along with topiramate, diet, and daily exercise.[34][35] United States
1950s Research American psychiatrist Albert Stunkard summarizes his findings about weight-loss methods available at that time, concluding that 95% of diets fail.[36] United States
1950s Regimen introduction Diet The Cabbage Soup Diet is popularized by celebrities. It involves consuming nothing but soup for seven days. The original recipe consists in cabbage, vegetables, water and dry onion soup mix, but other renditions would add ingredients like fruit, skim milk and beef.[16]
1950s Regimen introduction Diet The Apple Cider Vinegar Diet is popularized. It instructs people to drink a mixture of equal parts honey and vinegar.[16]
1960s–1970s Policy Throughout this period, the United States FDA initially argues that dietary supplements are “drugs”, therefore attempting to regulate the potency and the combination of the ingredients in supplements, just as they would do for other drugs.[37] United States
1960 Organization The first Overeaters Anonymous group is formed to use a 12-step system to fight food addiction based on the success of Alcoholics Anonymous.[31] United States
1961 Regimen introduction Diet The American Heart Association starts suggesting a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat.[38][6]
1962 Organization New York overweight housewife Jean Nidetch forms a weekly group with friends to support one another in weight loss. The group uses a diet designed for cardiac patients from the New York Department of Public Health. Within a year "Weight Watchers" would go public, with hundreds of people lining up to join. In 2018 Weight Watchers International would be rebranded WW International. As of 2021, WW International is a global company that offers weight loss and maintenance, fitness, and mindset services.[31] United States
1963 Product launch Soft drink Coca Cola introduces Tab soda, for those who want to keep "tabs" on their weight.[31] United States
1964 Literature Diet American photographer Robert Cameron publishes The Drinking Man's Diet, which would sell two million copies within two years. Cameron advises people to keep carbs below 60 grams a day, and to fill up on meat, lobster and other rich foods topped off with one's favorite martini.[31] United States
1968 Product launch Dietary supplement Proctor and Gamble creates Olestra as a fat substitute to increase fat intake for premature babies. This use would result a failure but P&G quickly realize that Olestra could have beneficial purposes for people trying to lose weight.[39] United States
1960s Regimen introduction Diet The Drinking Man’s Diet is introduced as an alcohol-focused plan. This includes the so-called “manly” foods like steak and fish, along with as much alcohol as desired.[16]
1972 Regimen introduction Diet American physician Roger Atkins publishes Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution, thus introducing the Atkins diet, a low-carbohydrate fad diet.[31] Unitede States
1972 Medical development Surgery (uterin curette) German surgeon Josef Schrudde publishes a new less invasive technique to remove subcutaneous fat, using a uterine curette in a “sharp” technique of subcutaneous surgery.[40] Germany
1972 Organization (subsidiary) Dietary supplement Nutrisystem is founded. Headquartered in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, it is a commercial provider of weight loss products and services.[41] United States
1973 Product launch Dietary supplement United States FDA approves fenfluramine (Pondimin) as a drug to suppress appetite.[39] United States
1975 Medical development Surgery (liposuction) Arpad and Giorgio Fischer develop the modern technique of liposuction, being the first to introduce blunt hollow cannula attached to a suction source and the criss-cross suctioning technique from multiple incision sites.[40] Italy
1975 Regimen introduction Diet American physician Sanford Siegal introduces the cookie diet, consisting in cookies made in his private bakery to help his bariatric patients control their hunger and stick to a reduced-calorie diet.[31][42] United States
1975–2014 Statistics The global average body mass index (BMI) of women increases from 22.1 kg/m2 in 1975 to 24. 4 kg/m2 in 2014, and that of men increases from 21.7 kg/m2 to 24.2 kg/m2 over the same period.[43][44] Worldwide
1976 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves phendimetrazine, which is meant for the first few weeks of a diet and exercise program for the obese.[39] United States
1976 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement French pharmaceutical company Servier introduces weight loss drug Benfluorex (sold under the brand name Mediator).[45] France
1976 Regimen introduction Diet Robert Linn and Sandra Lee Stuart publishes The Last Chance Diet--when Everything Else Has Failed, which proposes drinking a very low-calorie liquid based on a substance called prolinn, obtained as a form of a blend of predigested animal byproducts – think hide, horns and tendons. This diet would be removed from the market after several followers die.[46][47][16] United States
1976 Medical development Surgery (cutting curette) L.K. Kesserling and R. A Meyer use a large, double blade cutting curette connected to a low-power aspirator to suck the fat, previously separated from the deep plane by scissors. This “sharp” technique restricts its use only to poorly vascular regions to limit the complications, which are already high.[40][48]
1977 Program launch Diet Following a major report issued by the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, and then with studies by the National Academy of Sciences and other research groups, the United States Government starts telling Americans to alter their diets if they want to have long and healthy lives.[49] United States
1977 Product launch Diet Slim-Fast is introduced as a liquid meal replacement. The Slim-Fast Diet is one shake for lunch and breakfast, followed by a "sensible dinner."[31] United States
1978 Medical development Surgery (non-adjustable band) Wilkinson and Peloso become the first to place, by open procedure, a non-adjustable band (2cm Marlex mesh) around the upper part of the stomach.[50]
1980 Regimen introduction Diet A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat is incorporated into Dietary Guidelines for Americans, with an upper limit of 30% of total calories to be derived from fat.[38]
1981 Index introduction The glycemic index (GI) is first introduced by David J. Jenkins and co-workers.[51] as a way to categorize foods based on how they elevate blood glucose level. Originally focused on diabetes management as a way to manage post-meal blood glucose level, the use of GI would later receive more recognition as a possible means to achieve long-term weight management.[52]
1981 Regimen introduction Diet The Beverly Hills Diet is introduced by author Judy Maze as a fad diet.[31] It commences with a 42-day initiation phase, which is based largely on fruit.[53] The Beverly Hills Diet would be described by nutrition experts as quackery and based on the discredited idea of food combining.[54] United States
1984 Product launch Dietary supplement Liquid protein weight loss supplement Calorad is introduced.[55] United States, Canada
1985 Statistics As of date no U.S. state has an obesity rate above 15%. By 2019, more than 20% of adults in all states would be obese, with seven states having rates over 35%.[56] United States
1985 Medical development Surgery (Adjustable gastric band) Dr. Dag Hallberg is granted a patent in the Scandinavian countries for the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band (SAGB).[57] Sweden
1986 Medical development Surgery (Adjustable gastric band) Ukranian–American surgeon Lubomyr Kuzmak reports on the clinical use of the "adjustable silicone gastric band" (ASGB) via open surgery. Having previously rearched for a simple and safe restrictive procedure for severe obesity, Kuzmak modified his original silicone non-adjustable band, which he had been using since 1983, by adding an adjustable portion. His clinical results showed improved weight loss and reduced complication rates compared with his original non-adjustable band.[58] United States
1987 Research Wing et al. suggest that weight loss may be more difficult in people with diabetes than in people without diabetes.[59][60] United States (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania)
1987 Regimen introduction Diet Thge GM diet is developed by General Motors to help employees lose weight and improve their health. Claiming to help one lose weight — up to 15 pounds or 6.8 kgs — in just one week, diet can be both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. It works on “providing simple nutrients to burn calories than adding further to your body, on a seven-day schedule which would enable weight loss, body detox and giving body cleansing benefits too.”[61][62][63][64] United States
1988 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement FDA approves Bupropion. It is prescribed for anxiety/depression as well as weight loss.[39] United States
1980s Statistics The percent of overweight Americans skyrockets in this decade, climbing from 17% in 1980 to 35% by 1989.[31] United States
1990 Statistics By this time, adults with obesity make up less than 15% of the U.S. population. This figure would increase towards the following decades.[4] United States
1990 Publication The Institute of Medicine issues its Weighing the Options report, which evaluates the pool of weight-loss research and includes a summary of those factors with proven links to weight-loss success.[36] United States
1990 Publication The Institute of Medicine (IOM) updates the international gestational weight gain (GWG) cut-off points published in 1990, based on the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) following the BMI classification of the World Health Organization.[65]
1990 Statistics A Gallup Poll in the United States finds that over 60% of women and 42% of men want to lose weight, but yet only 18% are on a reducing diet at the time.[31] United States
1990–2001 Statistics The prevalence of obesity in the United States increases from less than 15% in 1990 to 36% in 2010.[66] United States
1991 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement The United States FDA approves Pfizer's sertraline (manufactured under trade name Zoloft), which increases serotonin levels in the body. While prescribed as antidepressant, weight loss is a common side effect of this drug.[67][68] United States
1992 Medical development Surgery (adjustable silicone gastric band) Guy-Bernard Cadière becomes the first to apply an adjustable band (the Kuzmak ASGB device) by the laparoscopic approach.[69]
1992 Industry Diet, dietary supplement According to FDA, U.S. citizens spent an estimated US$30 billion in the year on all types of diet programs and products, including diet foods and drinks.[70] United States
1992 Research An expert panel from the National Institutes of Health reports that people who completed a weight loss program could expect to regain about two-thirds of the loss after one year and virtually all their lost weight after five years.[36] United States
1992 Literature Diet The Atkins diet reaches its peak in popularity with the release of Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution.[31] United States
1994 Policy Dietary supplement The United States Congress passes the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, which exempts dietary supplements (including those promoted for weight loss) from the requirement to demonstrate safety and efficacy.[71] United States
1994 Policy Diet United States FDA requires that all packaged foods must have a label that provides nutritional information.[31] United States
Mid-1990s Concept development The term thermogenesis, or calorie burning, becomes very popular around this time when a popular weight-loss book suggests that certain foods cause the body to burn extra energy in order to digest and absorb them. However, while the concept of thermogenesis is based on science, the relative contribution of this extra energy burning is so minor that it is irrelevant for weight loss.[36]
1996 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves Dexfenfluramine (Redux), which would be pulled from the market in 1997 after being found it damages the heart valves of users.[39] United States
1996 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves topiramate (sold under the brand name Topamax) for treatment of seizures. The drug has the side effect of weight loss and is therefore also prescribed as a weight-loss drug as an off-label use. Topiramate users report a significant decrease in appetite.[39] United States
1997 Regimen removal Dietary supplement Weight-loss drug fenfluramine/phentermine (Fen-phen) is pulled from the market, after it is shown to cause postpartum hemorrhage in patients who had formerly been in good health.[39]
1998 Research Dietary supplement A multi-state survey finds that 7 percent of adults use over-the-counter weight-loss supplements in the United States, with the greatest use noted among young obese women (28%).[72] United States
1999 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves Orlistat (Xenical) for long-term use by obese patients.[39] United States
2001 Research Diet A meta-analysis concludes that using a very low energy diet (VLED) for weight loss or losing more than 20 kg are two predictors of weight maintenance. However, one study assessing the method of weight loss would declare that patients on VLED gain more weight after the end of the weight loss period, but a self-directed approach was more successful in this regard.[73]
2001 Research Exercise Study by M. Kiernan et al. concludes that men gain additional psychological benefits by adding exercise to a weight-loss program.[74] United States (Stanford University School of Medicine)
2001 Medical development Surgery (adjustable gastric band) The United States FDA approves the Lap-Band System for severely obese adults. It consists in a gastric band placed around the stomach in the course of a minimally invasive, outpatient laparoscopic surgery.[75] United States
2002 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement Hydroxycut is introduced as a brand of dietary supplements that is marketed as a weight loss aid.
2003 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement GlaxoSmithKline releases Wellbutrin, a new formulation of Bupropion. Sales of Wellbutrin would be impressive, totaling US$1.4 billion in 2005. Bupropion is prescribed off label for weight loss.[39] United States
2003 Literature Diet Mindy Weisel, Carolyn Weisel Miller, and Jessica Weisel Courtney publish The 7-day Color Diet: The New Way to Health & Beauty, which suggests eating foods of only one color each day. For example, red day would include tomatoes, apples and cranberries. This diet emphasizes colors of foods have definite health-promoting virtues.[16]
2004 Program launch The World Health Organization proposes the creation of a set of strategies and goals to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Meanwhile, the prevalence of obesity increases around the world.[76]
2004 Product withdrawal Dietary supplement The United States FDA prohibits the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra) because such supplements present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury. The banning would be reversed a short time later due to a ruling of a Utah judge These diet pills contains ephedra extracts which have been proven to bring amazing weight loss.[18][77] United States
2005 Research A study concludes that past participation in weight loss programs and past dieting attempts are associated with poorer subsequent weight loss outcomes. For example, in one study reviewed, more dieting episodes in the past year predicted poorer weight loss outcomes during a behavioral weight loss intervention in 158 overweight and obese individuals.[78][79] Portugal (Technical University of Lisbon)
2005 Research Diet, dietary supplement A study concludes that weight loss achieved with a very-low-calorie diet is more effectively maintained with sibutramine in combination with a recommended diet and exercise program than with placebo over a follow-up period of 18 months. It is found that sibutramine is well tolerated.[80] Netherlands (University of Amsterdam)
2006 Statistics Dietary supplement Study at the University of Minnesota finds that the use of over-the-counter diet pills by high school–age females have nearly doubled over a five-year period, from 7.5 percent to 14.2 percent.[39] United States
2006 Literature Diet Seth Roberts publishes The Shangri-La Diet, which claims that hunger could be beaten by drinking olive oil about an hour before each meal.[16] United States
2006 Research Diet Study conducted with the purpose to assess the independence of changes made in diet and physical activity for weight loss concludes that dietary changes appear to be more effective than increased physical activity for weight loss. For women, the cumulative effect of concomitant changes in diet and exercise on weight loss is more than additive.[81] United States (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis)
2007 Research Dietary supplement A study seeking to assess prevalence and duration of nonprescription weight-loss supplement use concludes that the use of supplements for losing weight seems to be common among many segments of the U.S. adult population. It is found that many adults are long-term users and most do not discuss this practice with their physician.[82] United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta)
2007–2008 Statistics A survey conducted around this time in China among 46,239 adults, finds that the prevalence of overweight or obese is 36.67% and 29.77% in men and women, respectively, which double compared with the rate in 2002.[43] China
2008 Industry In this year, costs to treat obesity total US$147 billion in the United States.[83]
2008 Research Dietary supplement A study finds that approximately 34 % of adults who made a serious weight loss attempt reported using a dietary supplement. It is found that supplement use is more common among women (44.9 %), those between the ages of 25–34 years, and those who have made more lifetime weight loss attempts. It is concluded that dietary supplements are a popular choice despite a lack of rigorous evidence of their efficacy.[79][84] United States (Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
2008 Research A study aimed at determining weight loss outcomes for African-American, Hispanic, and white men and women in a diabetes prevention program concludes that, within lifestyle treatment, all race-gender groups lost comparable amounts of weight with the exception of black women who exhibited significantly smaller weight losses.[85] United States
2008 Research A study examining the effects of an intervention of weight loss induced by diet and comparing these with those of a similar intervention of weight loss by diet with exercise concludes that clinically significant weight loss in the absence of increased physical activity ameliorates insulin resistance and intramyocellular content of lipid but does not increase muscle mitochondrial capacity in obesity.[86] United States (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine)
2008 Research A study concludes that self-efficacy in weight loss correlates positively with success in all realms of personal endeavour, a result which can help overweight patients become more self-reliant.[87]
2009 Product launch Dietary supplement Alli is approved by FDA as effective for weight loss, being the only FDA-approved drug sold over the counter. It comes with a "success plan" that includes a reducing diet. Its active ingredient, orlistat, prevents the absorption of fats from the human diet by acting as a lipase inhibitor, thereby reducing caloric intake. It is intended for use in conjunction with a healthcare provider-supervised reduced-calorie diet. Many people cannot tolerate orlistat for its unwanted effects, such as fatty stools, increased defaecation, and oily spotting.[88][31] United States
2009 Industry The market for weight loss products and services is worth nearly US$121 billion in the year.[89]
2009 Regimen removal Dietary supplement French weight loss drug Benfluorex is withdrawn from the market, after health experts estimate that that the drug, which treats overweight diabetics, could have killed between 500 and 2,000 people. Believed to be one of France's biggest healthcare scandals, Benfluorex manufacturer Servier would go on trial in 2019 for manslaughter and deception[90], and would be found guilyu in 2021.[91] France
2009 Publication The Institute of Medicine (IOM) updates the international gestational weight gain (GWG) cut-off points published in 1990, based on the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) following the BMI classification of the World Health Organization.[65]
2009–2010 Statistics According to the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 78 million (35.7%) adults and 12.5 million (16.9%) children and adolescents are obese.[83] United States
2011 Research A study examining changes in symptoms of depression reported in trials of weight loss interventions concludes that, on average, obese individuals in weight loss trials experience reductions in symptoms of depression.[92] United States ( University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine)
2011 Medical development Surgery (adjustable gastric band) The United States FDA approves adjustable gastric bands to patients with a BMI between 30 or higher and one weight-related medical condition, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. However, an adjustable gastric band may be used only after other methods such as diet and exercise have been tried.[93] United States
2012 Legal Diet Jason Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of American nutrition and weight loss company Medifast, agrees to pay a US$3.7 million civil penalty for false advertising, after the Federal Trade Commission and United States Department of Justice said that advertisements for the "Medifast 5 & 1 Plan" low-calorie diet told consumers they could "lose up to 2-5 pounds per week", and that these weight-loss claims lacked a reasonable scientific basis, and were unsubstantiated.[31] United States
2013 Policy The American Medical Association recognizes obesity as a disease.[31] United States
2013 Regimen introduction Diet The Cotton ball diet is introduced as a fad diet that involves consuming cotton balls dipped in liquids such as juices or smoothies.[94] With its unfortunate side effect of intestinal obstruction, this diet would fade away.[16]
2013 Policy The American Psychiatric Association changes its criteria for eating disorders by adding binge eating disorder, keeping anorexia and bulimia, and taking out "eating disorder unspecified." [31] United States
2013 Research A study investigating the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations, concludes that weight loss through diet or diet plus exercise increases adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreases in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurs with diet plus exercise. Weight loss and exercise exert some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin.[95] Germany (National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg)
2013–2016 Statistics In this period, almost half (49.1%) of adults in the United States tried to lose weight in the last 12 months.[96] United States
2014 Statistics By this time, almost two billion adults are overweight and more than 600 million are obese.[31] Worldwide
2014 Research A randomized controlled trial concludes that greater weight loss, achieved through a reduced calorie diet or exercise, is associated with increased total ghrelin concentrations in overweight or obese postmenopausal women.[97] United States (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle)
2014 Research A review investigating differences in weight loss across different BMI classes after lifestyle interventions concludes that average weight change only differs to a small extent among people with body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m². This implies that these interventions are equally appropriate for these BMI classes.[98] Netherlands (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven)
2014 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves empagliflozin (sold under the brand name Jardiance) to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[99][100]
2015 Industry It is estimated that weight loss programs, products, and other therapies generated more than US$150 billion in profits in the United States and Europe combined.[101] United States, Europe
2015 Research Liposuction A study by I. Chow et al. finds that sixty-nine of 4534 patients (1.5 percent) experienced a liposuction postoperative complication. The stud concludes that: "Liposuction by board-certified plastic surgeons is safe, with a low risk of life-threatening complications. Traditional liposuction volume thresholds do not accurately convey individualized risk. The authors' risk assessment model demonstrates that volumes in excess of 100 ml per unit of body mass index confer an increased risk of complications."[102]
2015 Surgery Liposuction Liposuction surpasses breast augmentation surgery as the most commonly performed cosmetic procedure in the United States.[103] United States
2015 Study A study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concludes that overweight and obese women who replaced diet beverages with water after their main meal showed greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program.[104]
2015 Statistics Some experts writing in various journals peg the obesity rate in the United States at 38%.[31] United States
2015 Industry In this year, Amazon sells over 23,000 weight loss books, 19,000 diet books, 31,500 fitness books, and 10,000 weight loss cookbooks. The Atkins diet category alone has 482 books.[31]
2015–2016 Statistics The proportion of people trying to lose weight increases to 42% in 2015-2016 in the United States, up from 34% in 1999-2000, according to federal survey data.[105] United States
2016 Research Lifestyle A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism links increased light exposure at night with a 10% increase in body mass index over a 10-year period in older adults.[106]
2017 Statistics The World Health Organization estimates more than 1.9 billion adults (39% of the world population) to be considered overweight at the age of 18 years or older in the year.[107] Worldwide
2018 Public opinion It is reported that 49% of American adults would like to lose weight. This same study found that the higher a person’s starting weight, the more likely they are to want to lose weight”[108][109] Sweden (Umeå University)
2018 Research A study comparing behavioral with pharmacotherapy weight loss interventions finds that behavior-based weight-loss interventions with or without weight loss medications result in more weight loss than usual care conditions.[110] United States (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland)
2018 Research Exercise Swedish researchers report that 70-year-olds who do regular resistance training for 10 weeks not only increase lean muscle tissue but also lose body fat.[111] Sweden
2021 Regimen introduction Dietary supplement United States FDA approves brand Wegovy (semaglutide) for chronic weight management in adults with obesity or overweight with at least one weight-related condition (such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol). It is administered by injection.[112] United States

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Infographic: History of Dieting". Skyterra Wellness. Retrieved 25 August 2021. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 "The History of Dieting". skyterrawellness.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "History of the Tummy Tuck". southernplasticsurgery.com. Retrieved 25 August 2021. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sifferlin, Alexandra. "The Weight Loss Trap: Why Your Diet Isn't Working". time.com. Retrieved 16 January 2021. 
  5. "Dieting Through The Decades: The History Of Weight Loss". Whole Body Fitness. Retrieved 12 April 2021. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Weight loss in healthy people". This Changed My Practice. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  7. Mozaffarian, Dariush (1 September 2019). "Dairy Foods, Obesity, and Metabolic Health: The Role of the Food Matrix Compared with Single Nutrients". Advances in Nutrition. 10 (5): 917S–923S. ISSN 2161-8313. doi:10.1093/advances/nmz053. 
  8. "Weight loss". Google Trends. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  9. "weight loss". books.google.com. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  10. "Weight loss". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  11. Foxcroft, Louise (5 January 2012). Calories and Corsets: A history of dieting over two thousand years. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-84765-458-8. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Jones, About the Author / Emma (26 April 2018). "The history of diets and weight loss: infographic". MAN v FAT. Retrieved 20 March 2021. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Greenlaw, Peter; Greenlaw, Drew. "The History of Dieting and Weight Loss: It Started 2,300 Years Ago With the Greeks". christianpost.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021. 
  14. "To Reach Weight-Loss Targets, Start with Small Goals". Yale Insights. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  15. "150 Years of Dieting Fads: An American Story". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 17 March 2021. 
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 Wdowik, Melissa. "The long, strange history of dieting fads". The Conversation. Retrieved 21 August 2021. 
  17. Almenara, Carlos A; Aimé, Annie; Maïano, Christophe (June 2020). "Vinegar and weight loss in women of eighteenth-century France: a lesson from the past". History of Psychiatry. 31 (2): 232–236. doi:10.1177/0957154X19888623. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Ephedra Diet Pills With Hoodia". Just Us. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  19. "By the way, doctor: Can Hoodia help you lose weight?". Harvard Health. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2021. 
  20. "Can herbal hoodia help you lose weight?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 4 August 2021. 
  21. Ma, Kai; Xiong, Nian; Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Guoxin; Wang, Luxi; Guo, Shiyi; Guo, Xingfang; Xia, Yun; Wan, Fang; Huang, Jinsha; Lin, Zhicheng; Wang, Tao (2018). "Weight Loss and Malnutrition in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects". Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 10. ISSN 1663-4365. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2018.00001. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  22. Cheng, Eugenia (30 January 2020). "Weight Loss Is Harder Than Rocket Science". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  23. Rettner, Rachael. "The Best Way to Lose Weight Safely". livescience.com. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  24. Purce, Emma (20 October 2017). "Scales of Normality: Displays of Extreme Weight and Weight Loss in Blackpool 1920–1940". Cultural and Social History. 14 (5): 669–689. ISSN 1478-0038. doi:10.1080/14780038.2017.1375720. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Chríodáin, Louise Ní. "Weight-loss remedies: Obesity soap, laxative water and fat massage". The Irish Times. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  26. Kolata, Gina (10 December 2018). "What We Know About Diet and Weight Loss (Published 2018)". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  27. Bray, George. "Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Realities of Weight Loss" (PDF). Lakes Internal Medicine. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  28. "Fletcherism definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 13 August 2021. 
  29. "Medical Definition of FLETCHERISM". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 24 August 2021. 
  30. "DNP Steroid for Fat Burning, Weight Loss: What to Know". Healthline. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  31. 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 31.14 31.15 31.16 31.17 31.18 31.19 31.20 31.21 "The History of Dieting (Part 2)". Skyterra Wellness. Retrieved 5 August 2021. 
  32. Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.; Lemmens, Sofie G.; Westerterp, Klaas R. (2012). "Dietary protein – its role in satiety, energetics, weight loss and health". British Journal of Nutrition. 108 (S2): S105–S112. ISSN 0007-1145. doi:10.1017/S0007114512002589. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  33. Albala, Ken (27 March 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Food Issues. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-5063-0073-3. 
  34. LLC, Sponsored by Norcal Marketing. "Best Weight Loss Supplements: Top 5 Diet Pills For 2021". Riverfront Times. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  35. "Obesity Makes COVID-19 Harder to Fight". UVA Health Newsroom. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2021. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 M.D, James M. Rippe; Watchers, Weight (1 December 2004). Weight Watchers Weight Loss That Lasts: Break Through the 10 Big Diet Myths. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-70528-4. 
  37. "The deal with diet pills—Weight loss supplements remain a 'Wild West'". Medill Reports Chicago. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Bosomworth, John. "Weight loss in healthy people". thischangedmypractice.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 39.6 39.7 39.8 39.9 May, Suellen (2009). Weight-Loss Drugs. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60413-204-5. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Bellini, Elisa; Grieco, Michele P.; Raposio, Edoardo (6 November 2017). "A journey through liposuction and liposculture: Review". Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 24: 53–60. ISSN 2049-0801. doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2017.10.024. 
  41. "Nutrisystem | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 24 August 2021. 
  42. "Cookie Diet Review: How It Works, Benefits, and Downsides". Healthline. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2021. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Yao, Junpeng; He, Zhiqiong; Chen, Ying; Xu, Mingmin; Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ying (August 2019). "Acupuncture and weight loss in Asians: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis". Medicine. 98 (33): e16815. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000016815. 
  44. Lubowiecki-Vikuk, Adrian; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Kantanista, Adam (5 November 2019). "Consumption of dietary supplements to support weight reduction in adults according to sociodemographic background, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat and physical activity". Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 38 (1): 31. ISSN 2072-1315. doi:10.1186/s41043-019-0191-3. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  45. "Mediator: French weight-loss drug trial over 'up to 2,000' deaths begins". BBC News. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2021. 
  46. "Healthfully". Healthfully. Retrieved 23 August 2021. 
  47. Linn, Robert; Stuart, Sandra Lee (1976). The Last Chance Diet--when Everything Else Has Failed: Dr. Linn's Protein-sparing Fast Program. L. Stuart. ISBN 978-0-8184-0239-5. 
  48. Kesselring, Ulrich K.; Meyer, Rodolphe (August 1978). "A SUCTION CURETTE FOR REMOVAL OF EXCESSIVE LOCAL DEPOSITS OF SUBCUTANEOUS FAT:". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 62 (2): 305–306. doi:10.1097/00006534-197808000-00040. 
  49. Specter, Michael. Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Harms the Planet and Threatens Our Lives. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-15102-0. 
  50. Wilkinson LH, Peloso OA (1981). "Gastric (reservoir) reduction for morbid obesity". Archives of Surgery. 116 (5): 602–5. PMID 7235951. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1981.01380170082014. 
  51. Jenkins, FJ; Wolever, TM; Taylor, RH; Barker, H; Fielden, H; Baldwin, JM; Bowling, AC; Newman, HC; Jenkins, AL; Goff, DF (1981). "Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange". Am J Clin Nutr. 34 (3): 362–6. PMID 6259925. doi:10.1093/ajcn/34.3.362. 
  52. Boucher, J. L.; Benson, G. A.; Kovarik, S.; Solem, B.; VanWormer, J. J. (1 July 2007). "Current Trends in Weight Management: What Advice Do We Give to Patients?". Diabetes Spectrum. 20 (3): 153–158. doi:10.2337/diaspect.20.3.153. 
  53. "Beverly Hills Diet Investigated". www.freedieting.com. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  54. Butler, Kurt (1992). A Consumer's Guide to "alternative Medicine": A Close Look at Homeopathy, Acupuncture, Faith-healing, and Other Unconventional Treatments. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-733-5. 
  55. "Calorad - 2 definitions - Encyclo". www.encyclo.co.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2021. 
  56. York, Jody Yip, PharmD Candidate 2020 St John’s University, College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences Queens, New York Emily M. Ambizas, PharmD, MPH, BCGP Associate Clinical Professor St John’s University, College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences Queens, New York Clinical Specialist, Rite Aid Pharmacy Whitestone, New. "Weight Loss: Diet, Exercise, or Orlistat?". www.uspharmacist.com. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  57. "Swedish Adjustable gastric band". gastricband.org.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2021. 
  58. Kuzmak LI (1986). "Silicone gastric banding: a simple and effective operation for morbid obesity". Contemporary Surgery. 28: 13–8. 
  59. Franz, M. J. (1 July 2007). "The Dilemma of Weight Loss in Diabetes". Diabetes Spectrum. 20 (3): 133–136. doi:10.2337/diaspect.20.3.133. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  60. Wing, R. R.; Marcus, M. D.; Epstein, L. H.; Salata, R. (1 September 1987). "Type II Diabetic Subjects Lose Less Weight Than Their Overweight Nondiabetic Spouses". Diabetes Care. 10 (5): 563–566. doi:10.2337/diacare.10.5.563. 
  61. "GM diet: Know all about the diet plan that promises weight loss in just seven days". The Indian Express. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  62. "Calling BS on the GM Diet Plan". Greatist. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  63. "GM diet: Know all about the diet plan that promises weight loss in just seven days". The Indian Express. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  64. "The GM Diet Plan: Lose Your Excess Weight in Just 7 Days". GMDiet. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 Martínez-Hortelano, Jose Alberto; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Soriano-Cano, Alba; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente (27 October 2020). "Monitoring gestational weight gain and prepregnancy BMI using the 2009 IOM guidelines in the global population: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 20 (1): 649. ISSN 1471-2393. doi:10.1186/s12884-020-03335-7. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  66. Modave, François; Shokar, Navkiran K.; Peñaranda, Eribeth; Nguyen, Norma (October 2014). "Analysis of the Accuracy of Weight Loss Information Search Engine Results on the Internet". American Journal of Public Health. 104 (10): 1971–1978. ISSN 0090-0036. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302070. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  67. "Zoloft & Weight Gain or Loss". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 6 August 2021. 
  68. Fox, Margalit (14 October 2015). "Kenneth Koe, an Inventor Behind Zoloft, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 August 2021. 
  69. Cadière, G B; Bruyns, J; Himpens, J; Favretti, F (8 December 2005). "Laparoscopic gastroplasty for morbid obesity". British Journal of Surgery. 81 (10): 1524–1524. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800811042. 
  70. "Spending on weight-loss programs and products in the USA". worldometers.info. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  71. "Weight Management: State of the Science and Opportunities for Military Programs.". 
  72. Saper, Robert B.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S. (1 November 2004). "Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss". American Family Physician. 70 (9): 1731–1738. ISSN 0002-838X. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  73. Soeliman, FA; Azadbakht, L (March 2014). "Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies.". Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 19 (3): 268–75. PMID 24949037. 
  74. Kiernan, Michaela; King, Abby C.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Killen, Joel D. (December 2001). "Men Gain Additional Psychological Benefits by Adding Exercise to a Weight-Loss Program". Obesity Research. 9 (12): 770–777. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.106. 
  75. "FDA approves Lap-Band for less obese adults". www.healio.com. Retrieved 26 August 2021. 
  76. Machado, Eduardo Coelho; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Silveira, Vera Maria Freitas da (August 2012). "Prevalence of weight-loss strategies and use of substances for weight-loss among adults: a population study". Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 28 (8): 1439–1449. ISSN 0102-311X. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2012000800003. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  77. "Ephedra". ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  78. Teixeira, P. J.; Going, S. B.; Sardinha, L. B.; Lohman, T. G. (February 2005). "A review of psychosocial pre-treatment predictors of weight control". Obesity Reviews. 6 (1): 43–65. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2005.00166.x. 
  79. 79.0 79.1 Myers, Valerie H.; McVay, Megan A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hollis, Jack F.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Funk, Kristine L.; Gullion, Christina M.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; Stevens, Victor J.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Brantley, Phillip J. (December 2013). "Weight loss history as a predictor of weight loss: results from Phase I of the weight loss maintenance trial". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 36 (6): 574–582. doi:10.1007/s10865-012-9450-0. 
  80. Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H. (August 2005). "Long-term maintenance of weight loss with sibutramine in a GP setting following a specialist guided very-low-calorie diet: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59 Suppl 1: S31–38; discussion S39. ISSN 0954-3007. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602172. 
  81. Dunn, C L; Hannan, P J; Jeffery, R W; Sherwood, N E; Pronk, N P; Boyle, R (January 2006). "The comparative and cumulative effects of a dietary restriction and exercise on weight loss". International Journal of Obesity. 30 (1): 112–121. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803046. 
  82. Blanck, Heidi Michels; Serdula, Mary K.; Gillespie, Cathleen; Galuska, Deborah A.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Conway, Joan M.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Ainsworth, Barbara E. (March 2007). "Use of nonprescription dietary supplements for weight loss is common among Americans". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (3): 441–447. ISSN 0002-8223. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.12.009. 
  83. 83.0 83.1 Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur (16 April 2013). "Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss". ISRN Obesity. 2013: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2013/210524. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  84. Pillitteri, Janine L.; Shiffman, Saul; Rohay, Jeffrey M.; Harkins, Andrea M.; Burton, Steven L.; Wadden, Thomas A. (April 2008). "Use of Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss in the United States: Results of a National Survey". Obesity. 16 (4): 790–796. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.136. 
  85. West, Delia S.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; Bursac, Zoran; Felix, Holly C. (June 2008). "Weight Loss of Black, White, and Hispanic Men and Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program". Obesity. 16 (6): 1413–1420. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.224. 
  86. Toledo, F. G.S.; Menshikova, E. V.; Azuma, K.; Radikova, Z.; Kelley, C. A.; Ritov, V. B.; Kelley, D. E. (1 April 2008). "Mitochondrial Capacity in Skeletal Muscle Is Not Stimulated by Weight Loss Despite Increases in Insulin Action and Decreases in Intramyocellular Lipid Content". Diabetes. 57 (4): 987–994. doi:10.2337/db07-1429. 
  87. Cochrane, Gordon (April 2008). "Role for a sense of self-worth in weight-loss treatments: helping patients develop self-efficacy". Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien. 54 (4): 543–547. ISSN 1715-5258. 
  88. "XENICAL (orlistat)" (PDF). accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 14 August 2021. 
  89. "Weight Loss Markets for Products and Services: FOD027C | BCC Research". www.bccresearch.com. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  90. "France braced for diabetic drug scandal report". BBC News. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2021. 
  91. "Servier guilty of manslaughter over deadly weight loss pill". www.pharmaceutical-technology.com. Retrieved 5 August 2021. 
  92. Fabricatore, A N; Wadden, T A; Higginbotham, A J; Faulconbridge, L F; Nguyen, A M; Heymsfield, S B; Faith, M S (November 2011). "Intentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis". International Journal of Obesity. 35 (11): 1363–1376. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.2. 
  93. Miller, Kelli. "FDA OKs Lap-Band Surgery for More Patients". WebMD. Retrieved 26 August 2021. 
  94. Bijlefeld, Marjolijn; Sharon K. Zoumbaris (25 November 2014). Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society, 2nd Edition: Understanding Science and Society. ABC-CLIO. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6. 
  95. Abbenhardt, C.; McTiernan, A.; Alfano, C. M.; Wener, M. H.; Campbell, K. L.; Duggan, C.; Foster-Schubert, K. E.; Kong, A.; Toriola, A. T.; Potter, J. D.; Mason, C.; Xiao, L.; Blackburn, G. L.; Bain, C.; Ulrich, C. M. (August 2013). "Effects of individual and combined dietary weight loss and exercise interventions in postmenopausal women on adiponectin and leptin levels". Journal of Internal Medicine. 274 (2): 163–175. doi:10.1111/joim.12062. 
  96. "Products - Data Briefs - Number 313 - July 2018". www.cdc.gov. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  97. Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Kong, Angela; Wang, Ching-Yun; Alfano, Catherine M.; Blackburn, George L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne (March 2015). "The effects of separate and combined dietary weight loss and exercise on fasting ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese women: a randomized controlled trial". Clinical Endocrinology. 82 (3): 369–376. doi:10.1111/cen.12483. 
  98. Barte, Jeroen C. M.; Veldwijk, Jorien; Teixeira, Pedro J.; Sacks, Frank M.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E. (October 2014). "Differences in Weight Loss Across Different BMI Classes:A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Interventions with Diet and Exercise". International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 21 (5): 784–793. doi:10.1007/s12529-013-9355-5. 
  99. Gaal, Luc Van; Scheen, André (1 June 2015). "Weight Management in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Emerging Approaches to Treatment". Diabetes Care. 38 (6): 1161–1172. ISSN 0149-5992. doi:10.2337/dc14-1630. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  100. Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik (March 2016). "Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research. 13 (2): 119–126. doi:10.1177/1479164115616901. 
  101. "Do Diets Really Just Make You Fatter?". Healthline. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  102. Chow I, Alghoul MS, Khavanin N, et al. Is There a Safe Lipoaspirate Volume? A Risk Assessment Model of Liposuction Volume as a Function of Body Mass Index. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;136(3):474-483. doi:10.1097/PRS.0000000000001498
  103. Chia, CT; Neinstein, RM; Theodorou, SJ (January 2017). "Evidence-Based Medicine: Liposuction.". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 139 (1): 267e–274e. PMID 28027260. doi:10.1097/PRS.0000000000002859. 
  104. "Yes, drinking more water may help you lose weight". The Hub. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  105. "More Americans Trying to Lose Weight, But Few Succeeding". WebMD. Retrieved 17 January 2021. 
  106. CNN, Jacqueline Howard. "Sleeping with lights on tied to weight gain in new study". CNN. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  107. Ahmed, Nada; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail; Abouelfetouh, Alaa; El-Kamel, Amal (2019). "Over-the-Counter Herbal Weight Loss Supplements in Egypt: Label Claim, Microbiological and Pharmaceutical Quality, and Safety Assessments". Medical Principles and Practice. 28 (2): 167–177. ISSN 1011-7571. doi:10.1159/000495986. 
  108. "Weight Loss & Heart Disease: How a New Study is Changing What We Thought We Knew". The Heart Foundation. 19 October 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  109. "Strength training helps the over 70s bulk up". sciencenorway.no (in norsk bokmål). 19 December 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2021. 
  110. LeBlanc, Erin L.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Webber, Elizabeth M.; Redmond, Nadia; Rushkin, Megan; O’Connor, Elizabeth A. (2018). "Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: An Updated Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). 
  111. Graves, Ginny. "6 Surprising Reasons You Can't Lose Weight". AARP. Retrieved 18 January 2021. 
  112. Commissioner, Office of the (21 June 2021). "FDA Approves New Drug Treatment for Chronic Weight Management, First Since 2014". FDA. Retrieved 16 August 2021.