Difference between revisions of "Timeline of wild animal suffering"

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(removed called for master and postdoc grants; not notable)
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! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
 
! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
 
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| 1851 || || Publication || Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Schopenhauer|first1=Arthur|title=On the Sufferings of the World|date=1851|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180720223325/https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World<!--https://archive.fo/GMP30-->|archivedate=2018-07-20|deadurl=no|quote=The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let zir compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other.}}</ref>
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| 1851 || || Publication || Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Schopenhauer|first1=Arthur|title=On the Sufferings of the World|date=1851|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180720223325/https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World<!--https://archive.fo/GMP30-->|archivedate=2018-07-20|deadurl=no|quote=The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let him compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other.}}</ref>
 
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| 1856 || {{dts|July 13}} || Publication || In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.<ref name="Murray">{{cite book|last1=Murray|first1=Michael|title=Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering|date=April 30, 2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0199596324|url=https://www.amazon.com/Nature-Red-Tooth-Claw-Suffering/dp/0199596328/}}</ref>
 
| 1856 || {{dts|July 13}} || Publication || In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.<ref name="Murray">{{cite book|last1=Murray|first1=Michael|title=Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering|date=April 30, 2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0199596324|url=https://www.amazon.com/Nature-Red-Tooth-Claw-Suffering/dp/0199596328/}}</ref>
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| 1995 || || Publication || Economist [[wikipedia:Yew-Kwang Ng|Yew-Kwang Ng]]'s paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in ''Biology and Philosophy''.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ng|first=Yew-Kwang|title=Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering|journal=Biology and Philosophy|year=1995|volume=10|issue=3|pages=255–285|url=https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622113129/https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archivedate=2018-06-22<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713tcQYz0 (downloads as attachment), https://archive.is/K4xZa (somewhat screwed up as it's a Google Cache of a PDF)-->|deadurl=no|doi=10.1007/BF00852469}}</ref> Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. [[wikipedia:conservation biology|conservation biology]]), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
 
| 1995 || || Publication || Economist [[wikipedia:Yew-Kwang Ng|Yew-Kwang Ng]]'s paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in ''Biology and Philosophy''.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ng|first=Yew-Kwang|title=Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering|journal=Biology and Philosophy|year=1995|volume=10|issue=3|pages=255–285|url=https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622113129/https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archivedate=2018-06-22<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713tcQYz0 (downloads as attachment), https://archive.is/K4xZa (somewhat screwed up as it's a Google Cache of a PDF)-->|deadurl=no|doi=10.1007/BF00852469}}</ref> Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. [[wikipedia:conservation biology|conservation biology]]), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
 
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| 1995 || || Publication || [[wikipedia:David Pearce (philosopher)|David Pearce]] publishes zirs transhumanist manifesto ''The Hedonistic Imperative'', which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.<ref>{{cite book|author=Pearce, David|title=The Hedonistic Imperative|url=https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180527232626/https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archivedate=2018-05-27|deadurl=no|date=1995|publisher=hedweb.com}}</ref> It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
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| 1995 || || Publication || [[wikipedia:David Pearce (philosopher)|David Pearce]] publishes his transhumanist manifesto ''The Hedonistic Imperative'', which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.<ref>{{cite book|author=Pearce, David|title=The Hedonistic Imperative|url=https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180527232626/https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archivedate=2018-05-27|deadurl=no|date=1995|publisher=hedweb.com}}</ref> It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
 
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| 1996 || December || Publication || ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Olivier |first1=David |last2=Bonnardel |first2=Yves |title=Éditorial |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721033959/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/<!--https://archive.is/AdO7s--> |archivedate=2018-07-21 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref> It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bonnardel |first1=Yves |title=Contre l’apartheid des espèces |trans-title=Against the apartheid of species |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171003100009/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/ |archivedate=2017-10-03 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref>
 
| 1996 || December || Publication || ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Olivier |first1=David |last2=Bonnardel |first2=Yves |title=Éditorial |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721033959/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/<!--https://archive.is/AdO7s--> |archivedate=2018-07-21 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref> It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bonnardel |first1=Yves |title=Contre l’apartheid des espèces |trans-title=Against the apartheid of species |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171003100009/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/ |archivedate=2017-10-03 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref>
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| 2005 || {{dts|May}} || || Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.<ref name="howistarted">{{cite web|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|title=How I Started Writing about Wild-Animal Suffering|date= 10 August 2012|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721225830/http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2005 || {{dts|May}} || || Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.<ref name="howistarted">{{cite web|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|title=How I Started Writing about Wild-Animal Suffering|date= 10 August 2012|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721225830/http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2005 || {{dts|July}} || || Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's ''Animal Rights & Human Morality'', which introduces zir to the possibility of insect sentience.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
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| 2005 || {{dts|July}} || || Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's ''Animal Rights & Human Morality'', which introduces him to the possibility of insect sentience.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
 
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| 2005 || {{dts|October 17}} || || Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking zir whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.<ref name="howistarted" />
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| 2005 || {{dts|October 17}} || || Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking him whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.<ref name="howistarted" />
 
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| 2005 || {{dts|June}} || || Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
 
| 2005 || {{dts|June}} || || Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
 
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| 2006 || {{dts|June}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to zirs website at utilitarian-essays.com.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061222015250/http://www.utilitarian-essays.com/|title=Utilitarian Essays|date=2006-12-22|website=web.archive.org|access-date=2019-07-20}}</ref>
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| 2006 || {{dts|June}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to his website at utilitarian-essays.com.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061222015250/http://www.utilitarian-essays.com/|title=Utilitarian Essays|date=2006-12-22|website=web.archive.org|access-date=2019-07-20}}</ref>
 
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| 2006 || (summer) || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf |date=2006 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150412175611/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf| archivedate=2015-04-12 |deadurl=no |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
 
| 2006 || (summer) || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf |date=2006 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150412175611/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf| archivedate=2015-04-12 |deadurl=no |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
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| 2006 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716035926/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=August 2007<!-- when it was posted to utilitarian-essays.com --> |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
 
| 2006 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716035926/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=August 2007<!-- when it was posted to utilitarian-essays.com --> |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
 
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| 2008 || (early) || || Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of zirs articles. Horta and Tomasik agreed that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta began to discuss it with zirs Spanish / Latin American friends.<ref name="howistarted" />
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| 2008 || (early) || || Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of his articles. Horta and Tomasik agree that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta begins to discuss it with his Spanish / Latin American friends.<ref name="howistarted" />
 
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| 2009 || {{dts|April}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Do Bugs Feel Pain? |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705034003/http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |archivedate=2018-07-05 |deadurl=no |date=April 2009}}</ref>
 
| 2009 || {{dts|April}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Do Bugs Feel Pain? |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705034003/http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |archivedate=2018-07-05 |deadurl=no |date=April 2009}}</ref>
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| 2009 || {{dts|June 4}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/caring-about-animal-suffering/|title=Caring about Animal Suffering|date=4 June 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171206162913/http://reducing-suffering.org:80/caring-about-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-12-06|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2009 || {{dts|June 4}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/caring-about-animal-suffering/|title=Caring about Animal Suffering|date=4 June 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171206162913/http://reducing-suffering.org:80/caring-about-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-12-06|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2009 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes the first version of zirs article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|website=Foundational Research Institute|url=https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|title=The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705014223/https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|date=July 2009|archivedate=2018-07-05|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2009 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes the first version of his article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|website=Foundational Research Institute|url=https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|title=The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705014223/https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|date=July 2009|archivedate=2018-07-05|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2009 || || Publication || David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".<ref>https://www.hedweb.com/abolitionist-project/reprogramming-predators.html</ref> The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.<ref>http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2009/08/28/predatory-animals-are-bad/</ref>
 
| 2009 || || Publication || David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".<ref>https://www.hedweb.com/abolitionist-project/reprogramming-predators.html</ref> The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.<ref>http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2009/08/28/predatory-animals-are-bad/</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|February}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
 
| 2016 || {{dts|February}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
 
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 15}} || Publication || Catia Faria submits zir PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".<ref>{{cite book |last1=Faria |first1=Catia |title=Animal ethics goes wild: the problem of wild animal suffering and intervention in nature |date=2016-03-15 |publisher=Universitat Pompeu Fabra |url=https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--PDF: https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y--> |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180616130628/https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180716085310/https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y, http://www.webcitation.org/713vMYllk (download)--> |archivedate=2018-06-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 15}} || Publication || Catia Faria submits her PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".<ref>{{cite book |last1=Faria |first1=Catia |title=Animal ethics goes wild: the problem of wild animal suffering and intervention in nature |date=2016-03-15 |publisher=Universitat Pompeu Fabra |url=https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--PDF: https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y--> |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180616130628/https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180716085310/https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y, http://www.webcitation.org/713vMYllk (download)--> |archivedate=2018-06-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 20}} || Publication || Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".<ref>{{cite book|title=The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”|first1=Magnus|last1=Vinding|date=March 20, 2016|publisher=Smashwords|url=https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/624122|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/715bJLXWP|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2016 || {{dts|March 20}} || Publication || Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".<ref>{{cite book|title=The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”|first1=Magnus|last1=Vinding|date=March 20, 2016|publisher=Smashwords|url=https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/624122|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/715bJLXWP|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 23}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue zir research on invasive species.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/|website=Animal Ethics|date=23 March 2016|title=Announcement regarding the Animal Ethics Essay Prize|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721050403/https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.fo/6bIUy-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 23}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue her research on invasive species.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/|website=Animal Ethics|date=23 March 2016|title=Announcement regarding the Animal Ethics Essay Prize|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721050403/https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.fo/6bIUy-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
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| 2016 || {{dts|April 22}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable |url=https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/ |website=Philosophical Multicore |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125415/https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/<!--https://archive.is/8aZzr, http://www.webcitation.org/713vVdHG9--> |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=April 22, 2016}}</ref>
 
| 2016 || {{dts|April 22}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable |url=https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/ |website=Philosophical Multicore |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125415/https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/<!--https://archive.is/8aZzr, http://www.webcitation.org/713vVdHG9--> |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=April 22, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|August 25}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering |url=http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/--> |website=Effective Altruism Forum |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716061454/http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125500/https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/, https://archive.is/cisBJ, https://archive.is/bywFo--> |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=August 26, 2016}}</ref>
 
| 2016 || {{dts|August 25}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering |url=http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/--> |website=Effective Altruism Forum |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716061454/http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125500/https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/, https://archive.is/cisBJ, https://archive.is/bywFo--> |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=August 26, 2016}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || {{dts|September 1}} || Publication || Phillipp Ryf submits zirs Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".<ref>http://www.academia.edu/28500092/Environmental_Ethics_The_Case_of_Wild_Animals</ref>
+
| 2016 || {{dts|September 1}} || Publication || Phillipp Ryf submits his Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".<ref>http://www.academia.edu/28500092/Environmental_Ethics_The_Case_of_Wild_Animals</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2016 || {{dts|September 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|first1=Luke|last1=Hecht|title=Wild Animal Suffering Survey Report|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|date=September 5, 2016|quote=This study provides some evidence that encouraging people to reduce their consumption of animal products on environmental grounds makes them less supportive of intervening in nature to alleviate wild-animal suffering. If true, this suggests that animal advocates who are concerned about wild animals should place less emphasis on the environmental harms of animal agriculture. The results should reduce concerns that cruelty-focused farmed animal advocacy messages may reduce people’s willingness to help wild animals.|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722013227/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2016 || {{dts|September 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|first1=Luke|last1=Hecht|title=Wild Animal Suffering Survey Report|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|date=September 5, 2016|quote=This study provides some evidence that encouraging people to reduce their consumption of animal products on environmental grounds makes them less supportive of intervening in nature to alleviate wild-animal suffering. If true, this suggests that animal advocates who are concerned about wild animals should place less emphasis on the environmental harms of animal agriculture. The results should reduce concerns that cruelty-focused farmed animal advocacy messages may reduce people’s willingness to help wild animals.|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722013227/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|November 19}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=2nd Animal Ethics Essay Prize on Animal Suffering in the Wild |url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/ |website=Animal Ethics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716080018/https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.is/rWnL8--> | archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=19 November 2016}}</ref>
 
| 2016 || {{dts|November 19}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=2nd Animal Ethics Essay Prize on Animal Suffering in the Wild |url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/ |website=Animal Ethics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716080018/https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.is/rWnL8--> | archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=19 November 2016}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || {{dts|November 25}} || Publication || Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Plant|first1=Michael|title=The Unproven (And Unprovable) Case For Wild Animal Suffering – Planting Happiness|url=https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|website=www.plantinghappiness.co.uk|date=25 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171109005703/https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-11-09|deadurl=no}}</ref> Brian Tomasik responds on zirs blog.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|title=Is There Net Suffering in Nature? A Reply to Michael Plant {{!}} Essays on Reducing Suffering|url=https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|date=28 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622134433/https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|archivedate=2018-06-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
+
| 2016 || {{dts|November 25}} || Publication || Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Plant|first1=Michael|title=The Unproven (And Unprovable) Case For Wild Animal Suffering – Planting Happiness|url=https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|website=www.plantinghappiness.co.uk|date=25 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171109005703/https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-11-09|deadurl=no}}</ref> Brian Tomasik responds on his blog.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|title=Is There Net Suffering in Nature? A Reply to Michael Plant {{!}} Essays on Reducing Suffering|url=https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|date=28 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622134433/https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|archivedate=2018-06-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2017 || {{dts|April 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Kieran|last1=Greig|title=Effects of farmed animal advocacy messaging on attitudes towards policies and decisions affecting wild animal suffering|date=April 5, 2017|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722014714/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2017 || {{dts|April 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Kieran|last1=Greig|title=Effects of farmed animal advocacy messaging on attitudes towards policies and decisions affecting wild animal suffering|date=April 5, 2017|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722014714/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|April 26}} || Project || Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=Utility Farm has launched its 2017 essay contest |url=https://www.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |website=Facebook |author1=Utility Farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716071130/https://m.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=April 26, 2017}}</ref> The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.<ref>{{cite web |title=2017 essay contest |url=https://www.utility.farm/prize |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716070800/https://www.utility.farm/prize |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
| 2017 || {{dts|April 26}} || Project || Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=Utility Farm has launched its 2017 essay contest |url=https://www.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |website=Facebook |author1=Utility Farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716071130/https://m.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=April 26, 2017}}</ref> The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.<ref>{{cite web |title=2017 essay contest |url=https://www.utility.farm/prize |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716070800/https://www.utility.farm/prize |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || {{dts|April}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that He is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=April 2017: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/tI97LtH5AsIkgUa2IMCKi|website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=April 2017}}</ref>
+
| 2017 || {{dts|April}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that he is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=April 2017: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/tI97LtH5AsIkgUa2IMCKi|website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=April 2017}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2017 || {{dts|May 3}} || Community || Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion |url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/wildanimalwelfareprojectdiscussion/ |website=Facebook |accessdate=16 July 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2017 || {{dts|May 3}} || Community || Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion |url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/wildanimalwelfareprojectdiscussion/ |website=Facebook |accessdate=16 July 2018}}</ref>
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* [https://www.reddit.com/r/wildanimalsuffering/comments/cghlge/timeline_of_wild_animal_suffering/ Reddit group on Wild Animal Suffering]
 
* [https://www.reddit.com/r/wildanimalsuffering/comments/cghlge/timeline_of_wild_animal_suffering/ Reddit group on Wild Animal Suffering]
 
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/suffering.in.nature/permalink/2788774647818982/ Facebook Group on Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering]
 
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/suffering.in.nature/permalink/2788774647818982/ Facebook Group on Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering]
 +
 +
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
 +
* [[Timeline of effective altruism]]
 +
* [[Timeline of Foundational Research Institute]]
 +
* [[Timeline of the environmentalist movement]]
 +
 +
==External links==
 +
 +
* [http://www.stafforini.com/blog/wild/ Wild animal welfare: a bibliography]
 +
 +
* [http://www.animal-ethics.org/publications-about-wild-animal-suffering/ Publications about wild animal suffering]
 +
 +
==References==
 +
 +
{{Reflist|30em}}
 +
 +
----- OLD -----
 +
 +
This is a '''timeline of the movement to reduce [[wikipedia:wild-animal suffering|wild-animal suffering]]''' (sometimes also called the "WAS" or "RWAS" movement).
 +
 +
==Big picture==
 +
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 +
! Year/period !! Key developments
 +
|-
 +
| 1800s–1970 || Wild-animal suffering is occasionally mentioned by philosophers as an example of the amorality of nature. In general, there is little discussion of whether humans should intervene to improve the situation.
 +
|-
 +
| 1970–2000 || After the emergence of the contemporary animal rights/welfare movement, wild-animal suffering is discussed by animal rights philosophers and their critics. The critics consider intervention in nature a reductio ad absurdum of animal rights, while some animal rights authors take it to be a serious moral issue.
 +
|-
 +
| 2000–present || Online communities dedicated to utilitarian ethics and effective altruism discuss wild-animal suffering as a serious issue. Activists begin forming organizations dedicated to WAS research and outreach. The academic moral philosophy community also continues debating the issue.
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
==Full timeline==
 +
 +
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 +
! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
 +
|-
 +
| 1851 || || Publication || Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Schopenhauer|first1=Arthur|title=On the Sufferings of the World|date=1851|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180720223325/https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Sufferings_of_the_World<!--https://archive.fo/GMP30-->|archivedate=2018-07-20|deadurl=no|quote=The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let him compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other.}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1856 || {{dts|July 13}} || Publication || In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.<ref name="Murray">{{cite book|last1=Murray|first1=Michael|title=Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering|date=April 30, 2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0199596324|url=https://www.amazon.com/Nature-Red-Tooth-Claw-Suffering/dp/0199596328/}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1860 || {{dts|May 22}} || Publication || In a letter to Asa Gray, Charles Darwin cites wild-animal suffering—in particular, the suffering inflicted by parasitic wasps to caterpillar hosts—as an example of the theological [[wikipedia:problem of evil|problem of evil]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2814 | title=Letter 2814&nbsp;— Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860] |date= |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721013446/https://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/letter/DCP-LETT-2814.xml<!--https://archive.is/u1c9H--> |archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no|quote=With respect to the theological view of the question; this is always painful to me.— I am bewildered.— I had no intention to write atheistically. But I own that I cannot see, as plainly as others do, & as I [should] wish to do, evidence of design & beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent & omnipotent God would have designedly created the [[wikipedia:Ichneumonidae|Ichneumonidæ]] with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice.}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1874 || || Publication || John Stuart Mill's essay "On Nature" is published posthumously. The essay discusses the amorality and cruelty of nature and argues that humans should struggle against it.<ref>JS Mill. On Nature.</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1973 || {{dts|June 14}} || Publication || [[wikipedia:Peter Singer|Peter Singer]] responds to a question about predation, arguing against interference in practice because the long-term consequences of intervention cannot be predicted. However, he accepts that intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering would be morally justified if one could be reasonably confident that the long-term effects would be positive.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Singer|first1=Peter|title=Food for Thought|url=https://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1973/jun/14/food-for-thought/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180509205824/https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1973/06/14/food-for-thought/<!--https://archive.fo/WkUXS-->|archivedate=2018-05-09|deadurl=no|journal=The New York Review of Books|date=June 14, 1973}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1979 || || Publication || [[wikipedia:Stephen R. L. Clark|Stephen R. L. Clark]]'s article "The Rights of Wild Things" is published. It argues that humans should defend wild animals against unusually large dangers, but should not try to regulate all of nature.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1080/00201747908601871|last1=Clark|first1=Stephen R. L.|title= The Rights of Wild Things|journal=Inquiry|volume=22|number=1-4|pages=171-188|year=1979|publisher=Routledge|url=https://www.stafforini.com/docs/Clark%20-%20The%20rights%20of%20wild%20things.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722002829/http://www.stafforini.com/docs/Clark%20-%20The%20rights%20of%20wild%20things.pdf|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no|quote=It has been argued that if non‐human animals had rights we should be obliged to defend them against predators. I contend that this either does not follow, follows in the abstract but not in practice, or is not absurd. We should defend non‐humans against large or unusual dangers, when we can, but should not claim so much authority as to regulate all the relationships of wild things.}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1980 || || Publication || Environmental philosopher [[wikipedia:J. Baird Callicott|J. Baird Callicott]]'s article "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" is published. It discusses conflicts between animal liberation and environmental ethics.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Callicott|first1=J. Baird|title=Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair|journal=Environmental Ethics|date=1980|volume=2|issue=4<!-- |page=336 -->|pages=311–338|doi=10.5840/enviroethics19802424|url=http://www.pdcnet.org/8525737F00580E30/file/8813D88B6BDC1D56C12573E50035E78D/$FILE/enviroethics_1980_0002_0004_0023_0050.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180409171357/https://www.pdcnet.org/8525737F00580E30/file/8813D88B6BDC1D56C12573E50035E78D/$FILE/enviroethics_1980_0002_0004_0023_0050.pdf|archivedate=2018-04-09|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1984 || (summer) || Publication || Environmental philosopher Mark Sagoff's article "Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce" is published.<ref name=Sagoff1984>{{cite journal|last=Sagoff|first=Mark|title=Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce|journal=Osgode Hall Law Journal|year=1984|volume=22|issue=2|pages=297–307|url=https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1936&context=ohlj|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160602215206/https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1936&context=ohlj|archivedate=2016-06-02|deadurl=no}}</ref> The article argues that animal liberation and environmental ethics are incompatible. It claims that animal liberationists may be committed to supporting large-scale intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering, and argues that this should be taken as a reductio if one supports environmental ethics.
 +
|-
 +
| 1987 || || Publication || Animal rights philosopher [[wikipedia:Steve Sapontzis|Steve Sapontzis]]'s article "Predation" is published in ''Ethics and Animals''.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Sapontzis |first1=Steve F. |title=Predation |journal=Ethics and Animals |date=1984 |volume=5 |issue=2 |doi=10.15368/ea.1984v5n2.1 |url=https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/ethicsandanimals/vol5/iss2/4/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180712170231/https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/ethicsandanimals/vol5/iss2/4/ |archivedate=2018-07-12 |deadurl=no |language=en |issn=0197-9094}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1991 || || Publication || Deep ecologist [[wikipedia:Arne Naess|Arne Naess]] publishes an article arguing that humans should intervene in some cases of wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Naess|first1=Arne|title=Should We Try to Relieve Clear Cases  of Suffering in Nature?|journal=Pan Ecology|date=1991|volume=6|pages=1–5|url=https://www.abolitionist.com/reprogramming/suffering-nature.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161120150703/https://www.abolitionist.com/reprogramming/suffering-nature.pdf<!--https://www.webcitation.org/713wSNSo3, https://archive.fo/GCANh-->|archivedate=2016-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1993 || {{dts|June}} || Publication || David Olivier publishes the article "Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste" (Why I am not an environmentalist) in the French animal rights journal ''Les Cahiers antispécistes''.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Olivier |first1=David |title=Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste |trans-title= Why I am not an environmentalist |journal= Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=June 1993 |volume=7 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/pourquoi-je-ne-suis-pas-ecologiste/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171016183648/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/pourquoi-je-ne-suis-pas-ecologiste/ |archivedate=2017-10-16 | deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || || Publication || Economist [[wikipedia:Yew-Kwang Ng|Yew-Kwang Ng]]'s paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in ''Biology and Philosophy''.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ng|first=Yew-Kwang|title=Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering|journal=Biology and Philosophy|year=1995|volume=10|issue=3|pages=255–285|url=https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622113129/https://www.stafforini.com/library/ng-1995.pdf|archivedate=2018-06-22<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713tcQYz0 (downloads as attachment), https://archive.is/K4xZa (somewhat screwed up as it's a Google Cache of a PDF)-->|deadurl=no|doi=10.1007/BF00852469}}</ref> Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. [[wikipedia:conservation biology|conservation biology]]), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || || Publication || [[wikipedia:David Pearce (philosopher)|David Pearce]] publishes his transhumanist manifesto ''The Hedonistic Imperative'', which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.<ref>{{cite book|author=Pearce, David|title=The Hedonistic Imperative|url=https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180527232626/https://www.hedweb.com/hedab.htm|archivedate=2018-05-27|deadurl=no|date=1995|publisher=hedweb.com}}</ref> It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
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|-
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| 1996 || December || Publication || ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Olivier |first1=David |last2=Bonnardel |first2=Yves |title=Éditorial |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721033959/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/editorial-14/<!--https://archive.is/AdO7s--> |archivedate=2018-07-21 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref> It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bonnardel |first1=Yves |title=Contre l’apartheid des espèces |trans-title=Against the apartheid of species |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=December 1996 |volume=14 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171003100009/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contre-lapartheid-des-especes/ |archivedate=2017-10-03 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref>
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| 1998 || {{dts|October 20}} || Presentation || David Olivier of ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' discusses wild-animal suffering at a debate at the Maison de l’Écologie in Lyon.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Olivier |first1=David |title= Contribution au débat à la maison de l’écologie |trans-title=Contribution to the debate at the Maison de l’Écologie  |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |date=April 1999 |volume=17 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/contribution-au-debat-a-la-maison-de-lecologie/  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180102133652/http://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org:80/contribution-au-debat-a-la-maison-de-lecologie/ |archivedate=2018-01-02 |deadurl=no |language=fr-FR}}</ref>
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| 2003 || (summer) || Publication || [[wikipedia:Tyler Cowen|Tyler Cowen]]'s paper "Policing Nature" is published in ''Environmental Ethics''.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Cowen|first=Tyler|title=Policing Nature|journal=Environment Ethics|year=2003|volume=25|issue=2|pages=169–182|doi=10.5840/enviroethics200325231|url=https://www.stafforini.com/docs/Cowen%20-%20Policing%20nature.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180317182237/https://www.stafforini.com/docs/Cowen%20-%20Policing%20nature.pdf|archivedate=2018-03-17|deadurl=no}}</ref> Cowen gives arguments from utilitarian, rights-based, and holistic moral perspectives in support of policing nature. He criticizes the argument that humans should refrain from interfering in nature because it is hard to predict the results of intervention. Cowen discusses predator population reduction as a possible intervention.
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| 2005 || {{dts|May}} || || Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.<ref name="howistarted">{{cite web|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|title=How I Started Writing about Wild-Animal Suffering|date= 10 August 2012|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721225830/http://reducing-suffering.org/how-i-started-writing-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2005 || {{dts|July}} || || Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's ''Animal Rights & Human Morality'', which introduces him to the possibility of insect sentience.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
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| 2005 || {{dts|October 17}} || || Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking him whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.<ref name="howistarted" />
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| 2005 || {{dts|June}} || || Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.<ref name="howistarted" /> He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
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| 2006 || {{dts|June}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to his website at utilitarian-essays.com.
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| 2006 || (summer) || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf |date=2006 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150412175611/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wild-animal-suffering-calculations.pdf| archivedate=2015-04-12 |deadurl=no |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
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| 2006 || {{dts|December}} || Community || [[wikipedia:Seth Baum|Seth Baum]] starts a utilitarian community blog Felicifia.com.<ref>{{cite web |title=Felificia Blog Post List |url=http://utilitarianism.wikia.com/wiki/Felificia_Blog_Post_List |website=Utilitarianism Wiki |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716035556/http://utilitarianism.wikia.com/wiki/Felificia_Blog_Post_List |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en}}</ref> He had previously had a personal blog under the same name. Wild-animal suffering would become a popular topic of discussion on the site and its successor forum Felicifia.org.<ref>{{cite web|title=Google search results for wild animal suffering on Felicifia|url=https://google.com/search?hl=en&q=wild+animal+suffering+site%3Afelicifia.org|website=google.com|archiveurl=https://archive.is/60u51|archivedate=17 March 2018|deadurl=no|language=en}}</ref>
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| 2006 || {{dts|April 29}} || Publication || Matthew Clarke and Yew-Kwang Ng publish an article analyzing a kangaroo cull from the perspective of welfare biology.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Clarke|first1=Matthew|last2=Ng|first2=Yew-Kwang|title=Population Dynamics and Animal Welfare: Issues Raised by the Culling of Kangaroos in Puckapunyal|journal=Social Choice and Welfare|date=29 April 2006|volume=27|issue=2|pages=407–422|doi=10.1007/s00355-006-0137-8|url=https://stafforini.com/docs/Clarke%20&%20Ng%20-%20Population%20dynamics%20and%20animal%20welfare.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180317234706/https://stafforini.com/docs/Clarke%20&%20Ng%20-%20Population%20dynamics%20and%20animal%20welfare.pdf<!--http://www.webcitation.org/715RsjOdY, https://archive.fo/q2IxR-->|archivedate=2018-03-17|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2006 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716035926/https://reducing-suffering.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/wild-animals_2015-02-28.pdf |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=August 2007<!-- when it was posted to utilitarian-essays.com --> |website=A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism}}</ref>
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| 2008 || (early) || || Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of his articles. Horta and Tomasik agreed that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta began to discuss it with his Spanish / Latin American friends.<ref name="howistarted" />
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| 2009 || {{dts|April}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Do Bugs Feel Pain? |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705034003/http://reducing-suffering.org/do-bugs-feel-pain/ |archivedate=2018-07-05 |deadurl=no |date=April 2009}}</ref>
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| 2009 || {{dts|June 4}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/caring-about-animal-suffering/|title=Caring about Animal Suffering|date=4 June 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171206162913/http://reducing-suffering.org:80/caring-about-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-12-06|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2009 || {{dts|July}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik writes the first version of his article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|website=Foundational Research Institute|url=https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|title=The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705014223/https://foundational-research.org/the-importance-of-wild-animal-suffering/|date=July 2009|archivedate=2018-07-05|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2009 || || Publication || David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".<ref>https://www.hedweb.com/abolitionist-project/reprogramming-predators.html</ref> The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.<ref>http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2009/08/28/predatory-animals-are-bad/</ref>
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| 2009 || December 25 || Community || Brian Tomasik starts the Felicifia thread "How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?".<ref>{{cite web|website=Felicifia|url=https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?t=223|title=How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?|date=December 25, 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161106152849/https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?t=223|archivedate=2016-11-06|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2010 || {{dts|March 2}} || Community || Felicifia member spindoctor starts the thread "Lobby group for wild animal suffering?".<ref>{{cite web |title=Lobby group for wild animal suffering? |url=https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=245 |website=Felicifia |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161106153444/https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=245 |archivedate=2016-11-06 |date=March 2, 2010 |deadurl=no |language=en-gb}}</ref>
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| 2010 || {{dts|May 10}} || Community || Brian Tomasik considers forming an organization to promote concern for wild-animal suffering, and solicits advice on Felicifia.<ref>https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=270</ref>
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| 2010 || {{dts|April 19}} || Community || Brian Tomasik creates the Facebook group "Most of the world's animal suffering occurs in the wild".<ref>{{cite web |title=Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering – Members |url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/suffering.in.nature/members/ |website=Facebook |accessdate=16 July 2018 |language=en |quote="Brian Tomasik: Created group on April 19, 2010"|registration=yes}}</ref><ref name="howistarted" />
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| 2010 || {{dts|September 15}} || Project || The domain name animal-ethics.org is registered.<ref>https://whois.domaintools.com/animal-ethics.org</ref>
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| 2010 || {{dts|September 19}} || Publication || Jeff McMahan's piece "The Meat Eaters" is published in the New York Times.<ref>{{cite news|last=McMahan|first=Jeff|title=The Meat Eaters|url=https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/19/the-meat-eaters/?_r=0|newspaper=The New York Times|date=September 28, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716053103/https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/19/the-meat-eaters/?_r=0<!--https://archive.is/39aR9-->|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=McMahan|first=Jeff|title=Predators: A Response|url=https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/28/predators-a-response/?_r=0|newspaper=The New York Times|date=September 28, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716053311/https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/28/predators-a-response/?_r=0<!--https://archive.is/zOZBC-->|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no}}</ref> He argues in favor of intervention in nature, and specifically reducing predation.
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| 2010 || || Publication || Philosopher Oscar Horta's article "Debunking the idyllic view of natural processes" is published.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Horta|first=Oscar|title=Debunking the Idyllic View of Natural Processes: Population Dynamics and Suffering in the Wild|journal=Télos|year=2010|volume=17|issue=1|pages=73–88|url=https://www.stafforini.com/docs/Horta%20-%20Debunking%20the%20idyllic%20view%20of%20natural%20processes.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716083940/https://www.stafforini.com/docs/Horta%20-%20Debunking%20the%20idyllic%20view%20of%20natural%20processes.pdf|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2012 || {{dts|October 30}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Medicine vs. Deep Ecology", which responds to the argument that we should not intervene in nature because ecosystems are complex systems.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/medicine-vs-deep-ecology/|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|title= Medicine vs. Deep Ecology |date=30 October 2012|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721225125/http://reducing-suffering.org/medicine-vs-deep-ecology/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2012 || {{dts|May 24}} || Community || The Facebook group is renamed to "Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering" following a poll.<ref>{{cite web |title=Best new name for this group (and/or movement)? |url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/suffering.in.nature/permalink/430652663631204/ |archiveurl=https://archive.is/DHjcS |archivedate= 2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |website=Facebook — Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering |date=May 22, 2012}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|June 24}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/ideas-for-volunteering-to-reduce-wild-animal-suffering/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171223025009/http://reducing-suffering.org/ideas-for-volunteering-to-reduce-wild-animal-suffering/ |archivedate=2017-12-23 |deadurl=no |date=24 June 2013}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|June 24}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature |url=http://reducing-suffering.org/applied-welfare-biology-wild-animal-advocates-focus-spreading-nature/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622113142/http://reducing-suffering.org/applied-welfare-biology-wild-animal-advocates-focus-spreading-nature/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=24 June 2013}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|September 4}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/intention-based-moral-reactions-distort-intuitions-about-wild-animals/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622113135/https://reducing-suffering.org/intention-based-moral-reactions-distort-intuitions-about-wild-animals/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=September 4, 2013}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|November}}? || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|title=Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/crop-cultivation-and-wild-animals/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721224207/https://reducing-suffering.org/crop-cultivation-and-wild-animals/|archivedate=2018-07-21| website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|date=2013|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|December 3}} || Presentation || Adriano Mannino and Ruairí Donnelly give a talk on wild-animal suffering at the University of Zurich. <ref>{{cite web |last1=Mannino |first1=Adriano |last2=Donnelly |first2=Ruairí |title=Talk: Should we intervene in nature to help wild animals? |url=https://sentience-politics.org/should-we-intervene-in-nature-to-help-wild-animals/ |website=Sentience Politics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721073005/https://sentience-politics.org/should-we-intervene-in-nature-to-help-wild-animals/<!--https://archive.is/lTTQG--> |archivedate=2018-07-21 |deadurl=no |quote=The talk was held at the University of Zurich on December 6, 2013.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title="Reducing Wild Animal Suffering" by Adriano Mannino & Ruairí Donnelly |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4aa6g1y4l8I |date=3 January 2014 |website=YouTube |author=frei denken uni basel}}</ref>
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| 2013 || {{dts|December 15}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation?".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation? |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/does-the-animal-rights-movement-encourage-wilderness-preservation/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622173552/https://reducing-suffering.org/does-the-animal-rights-movement-encourage-wilderness-preservation/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=December 15, 2013}}</ref>
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| 2013 || || Project || [[wikipedia:Sentience Politics|Sentience Politics]], an "anti-speciesist political think-tank", is founded as a subdivision of the Effective Altruism Foundation.<ref>{{cite web |title=About Our Organization |url=https://sentience-politics.org/about/ |website=Sentience Politics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180617041413/https://sentience-politics.org/about/ |archivedate=2018-06-17 |deadurl=no |quote=Sentience Politics was founded as a project of the Effective Altruism Foundation (EAF) in 2013.}}</ref> One of the issues originally considered by the project is wild-animal suffering.
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| 2013 || || Project || Animal Ethics is registered as a 501(c)3 non-profit.<ref>https://www.guidestar.org/profile/46-1062870</ref>
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| 2014 || {{dts|January 19}} || Project || The first (non-placeholder) Wayback Machine snapshot of Animal Ethics is from this date.<ref>{{cite web |title=HOME {{!}} Animal Ethics |website=Wayback Machine |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140119085913/https://animal-ethics.org |language=en |date=19 January 2014|archiveurl=https://archive.fo/bog0O|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no}}</ref> Wild-animal suffering is one of their focus areas. Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta are two of its three founders.<ref>{{cite web|title=Conversation with Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta of Animal Ethics|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/charity-reviews/charity-conversations/leah-mckelvie-and-oscar-horta-of-animal-ethics-2017/|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|date=August 14, 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716055525/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/charity-reviews/charity-conversations/leah-mckelvie-and-oscar-horta-of-animal-ethics-2017/|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2014 || {{dts|July 8}} || Publication || The Wikipedia article "Wild animal suffering" is published.<ref>{{cite web|website=Wikipedia|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wild_animal_suffering&oldid=616156599|date=8 July 2014|title=Wild animal suffering|archiveurl=https://archive.is/7y09O|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no|quote=Ruairí Donnelly moved page User:Ruairí Donnelly/sandbox to Wild animal suffering: Article is ready to be published}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|February 3}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "The Importance of Insect Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=The Importance of Insect Suffering |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/the-importance-of-insect-suffering/ |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180630170049/https://reducing-suffering.org/the-importance-of-insect-suffering/ |archivedate=2018-06-30 |deadurl=no |date=February 3, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|February}} || Podcast || Brian Tomasik is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the podcast [[wikipedia:Reality Check (podcast)|The Reality Check]].<ref>http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-336-american-sniper-brian-tomasik-on-wild-animal-suffering-rent-to-own/</ref><ref>http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-337-women-in-science-brian-tomasik-on-wild-animal-suffering-part-2-blue-blood/</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|March 5}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces its first Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=Animal Ethics Essay Prize |url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/1st-essay-prize/ |website=Animal Ethics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170928161226/https://www.animal-ethics.org/1st-essay-prize/ |archivedate=2017-09-28 |deadurl=no |date=5 March 2015}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|April 12}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering" on the website Reasonable Vegan.<ref>{{cite web|first1=Brian|last1=Tomasik|website=Reasonable Vegan|title= Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering |url=http://rvgn.org/2015/04/12/why-vegans-should-care-about-wild-animal-suffering/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721225444/http://rvgn.org/2015/04/12/why-vegans-should-care-about-wild-animal-suffering/<!--http://archive.is/sJ05B-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|May 1}} || Publication || Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It". It argues that reducing wild-animal suffering is a moral imperative.<ref>{{cite book|title=Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It |first1=Magnus|last1=Vinding|date=May 1, 2015|publisher=Smashwords|url=https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/539674|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/715bd4E1l|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|May}} || || The philosophy journal ''Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism'' publishes a special double volume on the ethics of wild-animal suffering and intervention in nature, edited by Animal Ethics staff.<ref>{{cite web|title=Academic work on wild animal suffering edited by Animal Ethics activists|url=http://www.animal-ethics.org/academic-work-on-wild-animal-suffering-edited-by-animal-ethics-activists/|website=Animal Ethics|date=23 December 2015}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|September}} || Publication || Simon Knutsson publishes "How Good or Bad Is the Life of an Insect?".<ref>http://www.simonknutsson.com/how-good-or-bad-is-the-life-of-an-insect</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|October 31}} || Community || The /r/wildanimalsuffering subreddit is created.<ref>{{cite web |title=r/wildanimalsuffering |url=https://www.reddit.com/r/wildanimalsuffering/ |website=reddit |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170517203730/https://www.reddit.com/r/wildanimalsuffering/ |archivedate=2017-05-17 |deadurl=no |language=en}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|November 5}} || Project || The domain name utility.farm is registered.<ref>https://whois.domaintools.com/utility.farm</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|November 28}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Estimating Aggregate Wild-Animal Suffering from Reproductive Age and Births per Female".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/estimating-aggregate-wild-animal-suffering-from-reproductive-age-and-births-per-female/|title= Estimating Aggregate Wild-Animal Suffering from Reproductive Age and Births per Female|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721224647/http://reducing-suffering.org/estimating-aggregate-wild-animal-suffering-from-reproductive-age-and-births-per-female/|archivedate=2018-07-21|date=28 November 2015|deadurl=no|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|December 14}} || Publication || Vox publishes an article by [[wikipedia:Jacy Reese|Jacy Reese]] arguing in favor of reducing wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Reese|first1=Jacy|title=Wild animals endure illness, injury, and starvation. We should help.|url=https://www.vox.com/2015/12/14/9873012/wild-animals-suffering|publisher=Vox|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716044214/http://www.vox.com:80/2015/12/14/9873012/wild-animals-suffering|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no|date=14 December 2015}}</ref> This prompts critical responses from Motherboard and the [[wikipedia:National Audubon Society|National Audubon Society]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Gunther|first1=Kristen|title=Nature Is Violent|url=https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/qkjpwp/nature-is-violent|website=Motherboard|language=en-us|date=15 December 2015|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171230114514/https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/qkjpwp/nature-is-violent<!--https://archive.is/r5cJL-->|archivedate=2017-12-30|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Matthews|first1=Susan|title=Nature Can't Exist Without Suffering—And We Can't Change That|url=http://www.audubon.org/news/nature-cant-exist-without-suffering-and-we-cant-change|website=Audubon|language=en|date=16 December 2015|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721045711/https://www.audubon.org/news/nature-cant-exist-without-suffering-and-we-cant-change<!--https://archive.fo/08E7O-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|December 26}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "How Wild-Caught Fishing Affects Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|url=http://reducing-suffering.org/wild-caught-fishing-affects-wild-animal-suffering/|date= 26 December 2015|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721224816/http://reducing-suffering.org/wild-caught-fishing-affects-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no|title=How Wild-Caught Fishing Affects Wild-Animal Suffering}}</ref>
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| 2015 || {{dts|December}} || Project || [[Timeline of Animal Charity Evaluators|Animal Charity Evaluators]] announces that Animal Ethics is one of their standout charities.<ref>https://animalcharityevaluators.org/charity-review/animal-ethics/2015-dec/</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|February}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 15}} || Publication || Catia Faria submits her PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".<ref>{{cite book |last1=Faria |first1=Catia |title=Animal ethics goes wild: the problem of wild animal suffering and intervention in nature |date=2016-03-15 |publisher=Universitat Pompeu Fabra |url=https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--PDF: https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y--> |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180616130628/https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/385919<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180716085310/https://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/385919/tcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y, http://www.webcitation.org/713vMYllk (download)--> |archivedate=2018-06-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 20}} || Publication || Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".<ref>{{cite book|title=The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”|first1=Magnus|last1=Vinding|date=March 20, 2016|publisher=Smashwords|url=https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/624122|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/715bJLXWP|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|March 23}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue her research on invasive species.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/|website=Animal Ethics|date=23 March 2016|title=Announcement regarding the Animal Ethics Essay Prize|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721050403/https://www.animal-ethics.org/announcement-regarding-the-animal-ethics-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.fo/6bIUy-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|April 22}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable |url=https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/ |website=Philosophical Multicore |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125415/https://mdickens.me/2016/04/22/the_myth_that_reducing_wild_animal_suffering_is_intractable/<!--https://archive.is/8aZzr, http://www.webcitation.org/713vVdHG9--> |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=April 22, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|May 9}} || Publication || The article "The ethics of wild animal suffering" by Ole Martin Moen is published.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Moen|first1=Ole Martin|title=The ethics of wild animal suffering|journal=Etikk i praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics|volume=10|number=1|pages=91-104|doi=10.5324/eip.v10i1.1972|url=http://www.olemartinmoen.com/wp-content/uploads/TheEthicsofWildAnimalSuffering.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722003523/http://www.olemartinmoen.com/wp-content/uploads/TheEthicsofWildAnimalSuffering.pdf|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no|date=May 9, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|May}} || Publication || Sentience Politics publishes the policy paper "Reducing suffering among invertebrates such as insects" by Simon Knutsson.<ref>{{cite journal|url=https://ea-foundation.org/files/reducing-suffering-invertebrates.pdf|title=Reducing suffering among invertebrates such as insects|first1=Simon|last1=Knutsson|journal=Sentience Politics|volume=1|pages=1-18|date=May 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180320001509/https://ea-foundation.org/files/reducing-suffering-invertebrates.pdf<!--http://www.webcitation.org/715cdhtnn-->|archivedate=2018-03-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|June}} || Project || The [[timeline of Foundational Research Institute|Foundational Research Institute]] publishes research plans announcing that it is "greatly increasing research on wild-­animal suffering".<ref>{{cite web|title=FRI: Research Plans 2016 — Research on wild-animal suffering and ways to reduce it|url=https://foundational-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/wild-animal-suffering-research-plans-2016.pdf|website=Foundational Research Institute|date=June 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160825210337/https://foundational-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/wild-animal-suffering-research-plans-2016.pdf<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713tp6W6v (downloads PDF as attachment), https://archive.is/PnFPz (Google Cache)-->|archivedate=2016-08-25|deadurl=no}}</ref> However, this never came to pass and WAS is not a focus area of FRI as of 2018.
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| 2016 || {{dts|August 25}} || Publication || Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Dickens |first1=Michael |title=Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering |url=http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/--> |website=Effective Altruism Forum |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716061454/http://effective-altruism.com/ea/10t/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should/<!--https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125500/https://mdickens.me/2016/08/25/why_the_open_philanthropy_project_should_prioritize_wild_animal_suffering/, https://archive.is/cisBJ, https://archive.is/bywFo--> |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=August 26, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|September 1}} || Publication || Phillipp Ryf submits his Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".<ref>http://www.academia.edu/28500092/Environmental_Ethics_The_Case_of_Wild_Animals</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|September 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|first1=Luke|last1=Hecht|title=Wild Animal Suffering Survey Report|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|date=September 5, 2016|quote=This study provides some evidence that encouraging people to reduce their consumption of animal products on environmental grounds makes them less supportive of intervening in nature to alleviate wild-animal suffering. If true, this suggests that animal advocates who are concerned about wild animals should place less emphasis on the environmental harms of animal agriculture. The results should reduce concerns that cruelty-focused farmed animal advocacy messages may reduce people’s willingness to help wild animals.|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722013227/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/wild-animal-suffering-survey-report/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|September}} || Presentation || Stijn Bruers and Stefan Torges give talks about wild-animal suffering at the 2016 International Animal Rights Conference.<ref>{{cite web |author1=VeganKanal |title=Stijn Bruers - The moral blind spots in the animal rights community (IARC 2016) |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VtjKP42MkWY |website=YouTube|accessdate=16 July 2018 |date=10 September 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |author1=VeganKanal |title=Stefan Torges - Wild animal suffering: Why 99% of wild animals die as babies already (IARC 2016) |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G35tM1DP7B8 |website=YouTube |accessdate=16 July 2018|date=11 September 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|November 15}} || Presentation || Peter Singer gives a talk on wild-animal suffering at the Princeton Environmental Institute.<ref>{{cite web |author1=Princeton Environmental Institute |title=The Suffering of Wild Animals: Should we do anything about it, and if so, what? – Peter Singer |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VYYHLH990A |website=YouTube |accessdate=16 July 2018 |date=21 November 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|November 19}} || Project || Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=2nd Animal Ethics Essay Prize on Animal Suffering in the Wild |url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/ |website=Animal Ethics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716080018/https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-essay-prize/<!--https://archive.is/rWnL8--> | archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=19 November 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || {{dts|November 25}} || Publication || Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Plant|first1=Michael|title=The Unproven (And Unprovable) Case For Wild Animal Suffering – Planting Happiness|url=https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|website=www.plantinghappiness.co.uk|date=25 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171109005703/https://www.plantinghappiness.co.uk/the-unproven-and-unprovable-case-for-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2017-11-09|deadurl=no}}</ref> Brian Tomasik responds on his blog.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Tomasik|first1=Brian|title=Is There Net Suffering in Nature? A Reply to Michael Plant {{!}} Essays on Reducing Suffering|url=https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|website=Essays on Reducing Suffering|date=28 November 2016|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622134433/https://reducing-suffering.org/net-suffering-nature-reply-michael-plant/|archivedate=2018-06-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|April 5}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|first1=Kieran|last1=Greig|title=Effects of farmed animal advocacy messaging on attitudes towards policies and decisions affecting wild animal suffering|date=April 5, 2017|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722014714/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/effects-of-farmed-animal-advocacy-messaging-on-attitudes-towards-policies-and-decisions-affecting-wild-animal-suffering/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|April 22}} || Project || Utility Farm publishes its first article, arguing for "An Ethic of Intervention" with regard to wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Rowe |first1=Abraham |title=An Ethic of Intervention |url=https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/4/22/an-ethic-of-intervention |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721065832/https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/4/22/an-ethic-of-intervention<!--https://archive.fo/5JOWR--> |archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|April 26}} || Project || Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.<ref>{{cite web |title=Utility Farm has launched its 2017 essay contest |url=https://www.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |website=Facebook |author1=Utility Farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716071130/https://m.facebook.com/utilityfarm/posts/185977225255869 |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |language=en |date=April 26, 2017}}</ref> The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.<ref>{{cite web |title=2017 essay contest |url=https://www.utility.farm/prize |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716070800/https://www.utility.farm/prize |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|April}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that he is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=April 2017: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/tI97LtH5AsIkgUa2IMCKi|website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=April 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|May 3}} || Community || Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion |url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/wildanimalwelfareprojectdiscussion/ |website=Facebook |accessdate=16 July 2018}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|June}} || Project || Wild-Animal Suffering Research is split off from Sentience Politics as a separate organization under the Effective Altruism Foundation. Sentience Politics shifts gears to focus exclusively on political campaigns in Switzerland, and gains independence from EAF.<ref>{{cite web|title=Update on the future of Sentience Politics|url=https://ea-foundation.org/blog/update-on-the-future-of-sentience-politics/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622150519/https://ea-foundation.org/blog/update-on-the-future-of-sentience-politics/<!--https://archive.is/EsjUs-->|archivedate=2018-06-22|deadurl=no|website=Effective Altruism Foundation|date=2 June 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Introducing the Wild-Animal Suffering Research Project|url=https://was-research.org/blog/introducing-wild-animal-suffering-research-project/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125314/https://was-research.org/blog/introducing-wild-animal-suffering-research-project/<!--https://archive.is/CSH6o-->|archivedate=2018-06-22|deadurl=no|website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research|date=20 July 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|June 1}} || Project || The domain name was-research.org is registered.<ref>https://whois.domaintools.com/was-research.org</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|June 10}} || Publication || Utility Farm publishes "Keep (Known) Space Neutral" by Abraham Rowe.<ref>https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/6/10/keep-known-space-neutral</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|June 11}} || Publication || Utility Farm publishes "When Caring For Pets And Service Animals, Keep Other Animals In Mind" by Ari Benjamin.<ref>https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/6/11/caring-for-pets-and-service-animals</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|June 29}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Vertebrates" by Persis Eskander.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Eskander |first1=Persis |title=An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Vertebrates |url=https://was-research.org/paper/analysis-lethal-methods-wild-animal-population-control-vertebrates/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622063816/https://was-research.org/paper/analysis-lethal-methods-wild-animal-population-control-vertebrates/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=29 June 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|July 5}} || Publication || Brian Tomasik publishes "Which Stimuli Are Painful to Invertebrates?".<ref>{{cite web |last1=Tomasik |first1=Brian |title=Which Stimuli Are Painful to Invertebrates? |url=https://reducing-suffering.org/which-stimuli-are-painful-to-invertebrates |website=Essays on Reducing Suffering |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716081441/https://reducing-suffering.org/which-stimuli-are-painful-to-invertebrates/ |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=July 5, 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|July 11}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Invertebrates" by Persis Eskander.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Eskander |first1=Persis |title=An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Invertebrates |url=https://was-research.org/paper/analysis-lethal-methods-wild-animal-population-control-invertebrates/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622041152/https://was-research.org/paper/analysis-lethal-methods-wild-animal-population-control-invertebrates/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=11 July 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|July 12}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Euthanizing Elderly Elephants: An Impact Analysis" by Ozy Brennan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Brennan |first1=Ozy |title=Euthanizing Elderly Elephants: An Impact Analysis |url=https://was-research.org/paper/euthanizing-elderly-elephants-impact-analysis/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705024059/https://was-research.org/paper/euthanizing-elderly-elephants-impact-analysis/ |archivedate=2018-07-05 |date=12 July 2017|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|July 13}} || Publication || Utility Farm publishes "Study: Effective Communication Strategies For Addressing Wild Animal Suffering" by Briana Schulzetenberg and Abraham Rowe, which found that WAS materials describing humans as "stewards of" or "participants in" nature were more effective than materials describing humans as "intervening" in nature.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Schulzetenberg |first1=Briana |title=Study: Effective Communication Strategies For Addressing Wild Animal Suffering |url=https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/7/13/study-effective-communication-strategies-for-addressing-wild-animal-suffering |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622041143/https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/7/13/study-effective-communication-strategies-for-addressing-wild-animal-suffering |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=July 13, 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|October 4}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "We Have No Idea If There Are Cost-Effective Interventions Into Wild-Animal Suffering" by Ozy Brennan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Brennan |first1=Ozy |title=We Have No Idea If There Are Cost-Effective Interventions Into Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://was-research.org/blog/no-idea-cost-effective-interventions-wild-animal-suffering/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125316/https://was-research.org/blog/no-idea-cost-effective-interventions-wild-animal-suffering/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=4 October 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|October 12}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Infant Mortality and the Argument from Life History" by Ozy Brennan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Brennan |first1=Ozy |title=Infant Mortality and the Argument from Life History |url=https://was-research.org/blog/infant-mortality-argument-life-history/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622125324/https://was-research.org/blog/infant-mortality-argument-life-history/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=12 October 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|October 18}} || Project || Utility Farm publishes "Reviewing 2017 and Looking to 2018" by Abraham Rowe.<ref>https://www.utility.farm/words/2017/10/18/reviewing-2017-and-looking-to-2018</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|November 10}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "“Fit and Happy”: How Do We Measure Wild-Animal Suffering?" by Ozy Brennan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Brennan |first1=Ozy |title="Fit and Happy": How Do We Measure Wild-Animal Suffering? |url=https://was-research.org/paper/fit-happy-measure-wild-animal-suffering/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716084603/https://was-research.org/paper/fit-happy-measure-wild-animal-suffering/ |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=10 November 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|November 22}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Parasite Load and Disease in Wild Animals" by Georgia Ray.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Ray |first1=Georgia |title=Parasite Load and Disease in Wild Animals |url=https://was-research.org/paper/parasite-load-disease-wild-animals/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705014231/https://was-research.org/paper/parasite-load-disease-wild-animals/ |archivedate=2018-07-05 |deadurl=no |date=22 November 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|November 25}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Creating Welfare Biology: A Research Proposal" by Ozy Brennan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Brennan |first1=Ozy |title=Creating Welfare Biology: A Research Proposal |url=https://was-research.org/blog/creating-welfare-biology-research-proposal/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622063805/https://was-research.org/blog/creating-welfare-biology-research-proposal/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=25 November 2017}}</ref>
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| 2017 || {{dts|November}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $50K from the animal welfare EA Fund to Wild-Animal Suffering Research.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=November 2017: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/3tRg1Hfwu46EQ8mskEGUOE<!--https://docs.google.com/document/d/1mD6iwtIMc_cCyJF2DWX57I8464UYMNb8xhIJoHKV0Wg/--> |website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=November 2017|archiveurl=https://archive.is/Q2xyk<!--http://www.webcitation.org/714Kj4zv7-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2017 || (fall) || Project || Rebecca Raible is awarded a £4,710 grant from the Centre for Effective Altruism to research WAS intervention ideas and write an overview of wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{Cite web|title=EA Grants Fall 2017 Recipients|url=https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1iBy--zMyIiTgybYRUQZIm11WKGQZcixaCmIaysRmGvk/edit|website=Google Docs|archiveurl=https://archive.is/qGG7S<!--http://www.webcitation.org/714NXQGwZ-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2017 || {{dts|December 27}} || Publication || Animal Ethics announces the winner of its second Essay Prize, "Life-fates: meaningful categories to estimate animal suffering in the wild" by Brazilian scientists Wladimir J. Alonso and Cynthia Schuck-Paim.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-animal-ethics-essay-prize-announcement/|website=Animal Ethics|date=27 December 2017|title=2nd Animal Ethics Essay Prize Announcement|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721062246/https://www.animal-ethics.org/2nd-animal-ethics-essay-prize-announcement/|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|January 19}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Invertebrate Sentience: Urgent But Understudied" by Georgia Ray.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Ray |first1=Georgia |title=Invertebrate Sentience: Urgent But Understudied |url=https://was-research.org/blog/invertebrate-sentience-urgent-understudied/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622133420/https://was-research.org/blog/invertebrate-sentience-urgent-understudied/ |archivedate=2018-06-22 |deadurl=no |date=19 January 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|January 24}} || Publication || Utility Farm publishes "Seven Broad Rules for Effective Discussions of Participation Ethics" by Abraham Rowe.<ref>https://www.utility.farm/words/2018/1/24/seven-broad-rules-for-effective-discussions-of-participation-ethics</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|February 12}} || Publication || The article "Wild animal suffering is intractable" by Nicolas Delon and Duncan Purves is published (online first).<ref>{{cite journal|title=Wild animal suffering is intractable|first1=Nicolas|last1=Delon|first2=Duncan|last2=Purves|journal=Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics|volume=31|number=2|pages=239–260|doi=10.1007/s10806-018-9722-y|url=https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s10806-018-9722-y?author_access_token=1swdXPwSdnovLiu7AhuWSve4RwlQNchNByi7wbcMAY7zip9eadT1-BeavUlSlmb3No6JmHPw3BxdHWJhe1o578fidt2Ra9PjnC2e_8UfRbKCnxQjqeCDcofCVx0FB0cnSun2xtiSbCanRrPx8FFYTg%3D%3D}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|February 13}} || Publication || Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the blog post "To reduce wild animal suffering we need to find out if the cause area is tractable" by Persis Eskander.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/to-reduce-wild-animal-suffering-we-need-to-find-out-if-the-cause-area-is-tractable/|title=To Reduce Wild Animal Suffering We Need to Find Out If the Cause Area Is Tractable|date=February 13, 2018|website=Animal Charity Evaluators|first1=Persis|last1=Eskander|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180722010449/https://animalcharityevaluators.org/blog/to-reduce-wild-animal-suffering-we-need-to-find-out-if-the-cause-area-is-tractable/|archivedate=2018-07-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|February 16}} || Publication || Animal Ethics publishes their 2018 strategic plan, which includes initiating "the development of welfare biology in academia with some biologists and animal welfare scientists beginning to work in this field ".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/animal-ethics-2018-strategic-plan/<!--http://www.animal-ethics.org/wp-content/uploads/Animal-Ethics_Strategic-Plan-2018.pdf-->|website=Animal Ethics|date=16 February 2018|title=Animal Ethics’s 2018 strategic plan|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180721062755/https://www.animal-ethics.org/animal-ethics-2018-strategic-plan/<!--https://archive.is/eiTfk-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|February 23}} || Publication || Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Are seafood substitutes good for wild fish?" by Georgia Ray.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Ray |first1=Georgia |title=Are seafood substitutes good for wild fish? |url=https://was-research.org/blog/seafood-substitutes-good-wild-fish/ |website=Wild-Animal Suffering Research |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716084342/https://was-research.org/blog/seafood-substitutes-good-wild-fish/ |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=23 February 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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|| 2018 || {{dts|March 23}} || Project || Utility Farm announces the launch of Nature Ethics, a wild animal suffering outreach project.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Rowe |first1=Abraham |title=Announcing Nature Ethics |url=https://www.utility.farm/words/2018/3/23/announcing-nature-ethics |website=utility farm |archiveurl=https://archive.fo/HuEBx |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=March 23, 2018}}</ref>
 +
|-
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|| 2018 || {{dts|March}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard allocates $100K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=March 2018: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/2ENqwtVsfWAw22eogwS4cG<!--https://docs.google.com/document/d/1T7erWUkv1wBHhtHk2hY8zAu-DoZR8qTCfOW85L170qA/--> |website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=March 2018|archiveurl=https://archive.is/vrIVY<!--https://www.webcitation.org/714GvQ5DT-->|archivedate=2018-07-21|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|April 14}} || Podcast || Persis Eskander of Wild-Animal Suffering Research is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the animal rights podcast Our Hen House.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Sullivan |first1=Mariann |last2=Singer |first2=Jasmin |title=Episode 431: Persis Eskander and Nora Kramer |url=http://www.ourhenhouse.org/2018/04/episode-431-persis-eskander-and-nora-kramer/ |website=Our Hen House |accessdate=16 July 2018 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716044902if_/http://www.ourhenhouse.org/podcastepisode431.mp3 |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=April 14, 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|April 30}} || Publication || Animal Ethics publishes a bibliography of wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite web |title=Publications about wild animal suffering |url=https://www.animal-ethics.org/publications-about-wild-animal-suffering/ |website=Animal Ethics |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716073431/https://www.animal-ethics.org/publications-about-wild-animal-suffering/ |archivedate=2018-07-16 |deadurl=no |date=April 30, 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|April}} || Publication || ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' publishes a volume devoted to wild-animal suffering.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Réduire la souffrance des animaux sauvages |trans-title=Reducing wild-animal suffering |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |volume=40 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/numero/40/<!--https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/CA40Total.pdf--> |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180426234609/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/numero/40/<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713t7sYh4 (downloads PDF as attachment), https://archive.fo/I9tev, https://archive.fo/MwEoK (Google Cache of PDF)-->|archivedate=2018-04-26|deadurl=no|language=fr-FR|date=April 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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|| 2018 || {{dts|May}} || Publication || ''Les Cahiers antispécistes'' publishes a book entitled "Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature" (Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature) by Estiva Reus. The book critiques the wild-animal suffering movement.<ref>{{cite journal |title= Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature |trans-title=Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature |journal=Les Cahiers antispécistes |volume=41 |url=https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/numero/cahiers-antispecistes-n41-eliminer-les-animaux-pour-leur-bien/<!--https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/CA41Total.pdf--> |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180716051444/https://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/numero/cahiers-antispecistes-n41-eliminer-les-animaux-pour-leur-bien/<!--https://archive.fo/9KvM7, http://www.webcitation.org/713rTggRP (downloads PDF as attachment), https://archive.fo/93eRt (somewhat screwed up as it's a Google Cache of a PDF)-->|archivedate=2018-07-16|deadurl=no|language=fr-FR|date=May 2018|first1=Estiva|last1=Reus}}</ref>
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|-
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| 2018 || {{dts|June 10}} || Presentation || EA Global 2018 takes place in San Francisco. Persis Eskander of WASR gives a talk about "Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |title=Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://sf.eaglobal.org/agenda/session/249916 |website=EA Global San Francisco 2018 |archiveurl=https://archive.is/I7vSM |archivedate=2018-07-12 |date=June 9, 2018}}</ref> Ozy Brennan (WASR), Persis Eskander (WASR), Kieran Greig (ACE), and Abraham Rowe (Utility Farm) participate in a panel on "Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering".<ref>{{cite web |title=Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering |url=https://sf.eaglobal.org/agenda/session/249944 |website=EA Global San Francisco 2018 |archiveurl= https://archive.is/yfXkV |archivedate=2018-06-10 |date=June 10, 2018}}</ref> There is also a meetup for people interested in the topic.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meetup: Wild Animal Suffering |url= https://sf.eaglobal.org/agenda/session/250302 |website=EA Global San Francisco 2018 |archiveurl= https://archive.is/YuJSZ |archivedate=2018-06-10 |date=June 10, 2018}}</ref>
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|-
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|| 2018 || {{dts|June}} || Funding || Lewis Bollard allocates $70K to Animal Ethics, $40K to Utility Farm, and $30K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds. He notes that all three organizations have converged around the strategy of building an academic field of wild-animal suffering, but have different approaches.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Bollard|first1=Lewis|title=June 2018: Animal Welfare Fund Update|url=https://docs.google.com/document/d/1nTS2AEOLkuQEmEQ5ePa7opt9eoN_utvWvXPbFGJL90s|website=Effective Altruism Funds|publisher=Centre for Effective Altruism|language=en|date=June 2018|archiveurl=https://archive.is/6YMLA<!--http://www.webcitation.org/713qg9zKB-->|archivedate=2018-07-20|quote=Potential interventions to aid wild animals remain limited, and may be unwise, so I think it makes sense to build an academic field that can better research this problem and potential approaches to addressing it. The three primary groups in this space have all converged around the academic field-building strategy, though they have different approaches. Given the magnitude of the problem, my uncertainty over which approach is likely to be most effective, and my sense that all three groups are well-run, I’m proposing funding all three.|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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| 2018 || {{dts|December 30}} || Funding || The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $20,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Utility Farm. Also, they grant $75,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda within animal welfare includes assessment of work on wild animal welfare.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/2uyvubn8KUCoqOQS6A4ayW|title = Payout Report: Animal Welfare Fund. December 2018 - Animal Welfare Fund Grants|quote = Researching tractable interventions to improve wild animal welfare. Within the animal advocacy movement, there seems to be an increasing interest in helping wild animals, but research on effective interventions is severely lacking. Utility Farm is a research organization that takes a practical approach, prioritizing the research of potentially tractable interventions. For example, they published a report on humane insecticides and they are currently research interventions to reduce the suffering of birds and small mammals caused by feral and free-ranging cats. We believe that research on wild animal welfare is both important and relatively neglected, so we are happy to support it where we can.|date = December 30, 2018|accessdate = March 29, 2019|publisher = Effective Altruism Funds}}</ref>
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| 2019 || {{dts|January 25}} || Project || Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Utility Farm merge to form the Wild Animal Initiative.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.wildanimalinitiative.org/blog/announcing-wai|title = Announcing WIld Animal Initiative|date = January 25, 2019|accessdate = March 29, 2019|notes = Cross-posted to https://was-research.org/blog/announcing-wild-animal-initiative/ on the Wild-Animal Suffering Research blog and to https://forum.effectivealtruism.org/posts/jzikTHMSpckYg9ZPp/announcing-wild-animal-initiative on the Effective Altruism Forum. See also the associated discussion on Reddit at https://www.reddit.com/r/EffectiveAltruism/comments/ajr27e/announcing_wild_animal_initiative_wildanimal/}}</ref>
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| 2019 || {{dts|March 6}} || Funding || The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $50,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Wild Animal Initiative. Also, they grant $80,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda includes research into wild animal welfare.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://app.effectivealtruism.org/funds/animal-welfare/payouts/7ysr1iPZTjf4fBAPfP3xuB|title = Payout Report: Animal Welfare Fund. March 2019 - Animal Welfare Fund Grants|date = March 6, 2019|accessdate = March 29, 2019|publisher = Effective Altruism Funds|quote = Research on tractable interventions to help wild animals. Two recipients of previous grants from the Animal Welfare Fund — Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Utility Farm — have recently merged to form a new group: Wild Animal Initiative. Under the direction of Abraham Rowe, Wild Animal Initiative will focus on research prioritization, academic outreach, and research on potential near-term interventions. Over the next year, they plan to expand their research and communications staff. They are also looking into funding early-career academics to do research that is aligned with their goals. We think that wild animal suffering is a relatively large-scale and neglected problem, so we are happy to support one of the few organizations currently working in that space.}}</ref>
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|}
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==Meta information on the timeline==
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===How the timeline was built===
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The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:Louis]].
 +
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===What the timeline is still missing===
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* Tomasik articles that I didn't bother to add so far
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* New Nature Ethics articles
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* New WASR articles
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* ACE Research Funding
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* Horta articles
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* Other academic philosophy articles, perhaps, depending on relevance
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* There should be stuff between Mill and Singer?
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* Buddhists?
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===Timeline update strategy===
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==See also==
 
==See also==

Revision as of 19:36, 12 August 2019

This is a timeline of the movement to reduce wild-animal suffering (sometimes also called the "WAS" or "RWAS" movement).

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
1800s–1970 Wild-animal suffering is occasionally mentioned by philosophers as an example of the amorality of nature. In general, there is little discussion of whether humans should intervene to improve the situation.
1970–2000 After the emergence of the contemporary animal rights/welfare movement, wild-animal suffering is discussed by animal rights philosophers and their critics. The critics consider intervention in nature a reductio ad absurdum of animal rights, while some animal rights authors take it to be a serious moral issue.
2000–present Online communities dedicated to utilitarian ethics and effective altruism discuss wild-animal suffering as a serious issue. Activists begin forming organizations dedicated to WAS research and outreach. The academic moral philosophy community also continues debating the issue.

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1851 Publication Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.[1]
1856 July 13 Publication In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.[2]
1860 May 22 Publication In a letter to Asa Gray, Charles Darwin cites wild-animal suffering—in particular, the suffering inflicted by parasitic wasps to caterpillar hosts—as an example of the theological problem of evil.[3]
1874 Publication John Stuart Mill's essay "On Nature" is published posthumously. The essay discusses the amorality and cruelty of nature and argues that humans should struggle against it.[4]
1973 June 14 Publication Peter Singer responds to a question about predation, arguing against interference in practice because the long-term consequences of intervention cannot be predicted. However, he accepts that intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering would be morally justified if one could be reasonably confident that the long-term effects would be positive.[5]
1979 Publication Stephen R. L. Clark's article "The Rights of Wild Things" is published. It argues that humans should defend wild animals against unusually large dangers, but should not try to regulate all of nature.[6]
1980 Publication Environmental philosopher J. Baird Callicott's article "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" is published. It discusses conflicts between animal liberation and environmental ethics.[7]
1984 (summer) Publication Environmental philosopher Mark Sagoff's article "Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce" is published.[8] The article argues that animal liberation and environmental ethics are incompatible. It claims that animal liberationists may be committed to supporting large-scale intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering, and argues that this should be taken as a reductio if one supports environmental ethics.
1987 Publication Animal rights philosopher Steve Sapontzis's article "Predation" is published in Ethics and Animals.[9]
1991 Publication Deep ecologist Arne Naess publishes an article arguing that humans should intervene in some cases of wild-animal suffering.[10]
1993 June Publication David Olivier publishes the article "Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste" (Why I am not an environmentalist) in the French animal rights journal Les Cahiers antispécistes.[11]
1995 Publication Economist Yew-Kwang Ng's paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in Biology and Philosophy.[12] Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. conservation biology), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
1995 Publication David Pearce publishes his transhumanist manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative, which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.[13] It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
1996 December Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.[14] It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").[15]
1998 October 20 Presentation David Olivier of Les Cahiers antispécistes discusses wild-animal suffering at a debate at the Maison de l’Écologie in Lyon.[16]
2003 (summer) Publication Tyler Cowen's paper "Policing Nature" is published in Environmental Ethics.[17] Cowen gives arguments from utilitarian, rights-based, and holistic moral perspectives in support of policing nature. He criticizes the argument that humans should refrain from interfering in nature because it is hard to predict the results of intervention. Cowen discusses predator population reduction as a possible intervention.
2005 May Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.[18]
2005 July Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's Animal Rights & Human Morality, which introduces him to the possibility of insect sentience.[18] He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
2005 October 17 Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking him whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.[18]
2005 June Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.[18] He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
2006 June Publication Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to his website at utilitarian-essays.com.[19]
2006 (summer) Publication Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".[20]
2006 December Community Seth Baum starts a utilitarian community blog Felicifia.com.[21] He had previously had a personal blog under the same name. Wild-animal suffering would become a popular topic of discussion on the site and its successor forum Felicifia.org.[22]
2006 April 29 Publication Matthew Clarke and Yew-Kwang Ng publish an article analyzing a kangaroo cull from the perspective of welfare biology.[23]
2006 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".[24]
2008 (early) Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of his articles. Horta and Tomasik agree that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta begins to discuss it with his Spanish / Latin American friends.[18]
2009 April Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".[25]
2009 June 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".[26]
2009 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes the first version of his article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".[27]
2009 Publication David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".[28] The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.[29]
2009 December 25 Community Brian Tomasik starts the Felicifia thread "How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?".[30]
2010 March 2 Community Felicifia member spindoctor starts the thread "Lobby group for wild animal suffering?".[31]
2010 May 10 Community Brian Tomasik considers forming an organization to promote concern for wild-animal suffering, and solicits advice on Felicifia.[32]
2010 April 19 Community Brian Tomasik creates the Facebook group "Most of the world's animal suffering occurs in the wild".[33][18]
2010 September 15 Project The domain name animal-ethics.org is registered.[34]
2010 September 19 Publication Jeff McMahan's piece "The Meat Eaters" is published in the New York Times.[35][36] He argues in favor of intervention in nature, and specifically reducing predation.
2010 Publication Philosopher Oscar Horta's article "Debunking the idyllic view of natural processes" is published.[37]
2012 August Project Animal Charity Evaluator is founded, initially, during the first year, under the name Effective Animal Activism (EAA). It is founded by Eitan Fischer as part of the 80,000 Hours organization. Right from the beginning, Animal Charity Evaluator recognizes RWAS as a high-priority cause area.[38][39][40][41]
2012 October 30 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Medicine vs. Deep Ecology", which responds to the argument that we should not intervene in nature because ecosystems are complex systems.[42]
2012 May 24 Community The Facebook group is renamed to "Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering" following a poll.[43]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering".[44]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature".[45]
2013 September 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals".[46]
2013 November? Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals".[47]
2013 December 3 Presentation Adriano Mannino and Ruairí Donnelly give a talk on wild-animal suffering at the University of Zurich.[48][49]
2013 December 15 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation?".[50]
2013 Project Sentience Politics, an "anti-speciesist political think-tank", is founded as a subdivision of the Effective Altruism Foundation.[51] One of the issues originally considered by the project is wild-animal suffering.
2013 Project Animal Ethics is registered as a 501(c)3 non-profit.[52]
2014 January 19 Project The first (non-placeholder) Wayback Machine snapshot of Animal Ethics is from this date.[53] Wild-animal suffering is one of their focus areas. Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta are two of its three founders.[54]
2014 July 8 Publication The Wikipedia article "Wild animal suffering" is published.[55]
2015 February 3 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "The Importance of Insect Suffering".[56]
2015 February Podcast Brian Tomasik is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the podcast The Reality Check.[57][58]
2015 March 5 Project Animal Ethics announces its first Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[59]
2015 April 12 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering" on the website Reasonable Vegan.[60]
2015 May 1 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It". It argues that reducing wild-animal suffering is a moral imperative.[61]
2015 May The philosophy journal Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism publishes a special double volume on the ethics of wild-animal suffering and intervention in nature, edited by Animal Ethics staff.[62]
2015 September Publication Simon Knutsson publishes "How Good or Bad Is the Life of an Insect?".[63]
2015 October 31 Community The /r/wildanimalsuffering subreddit is created.[64]
2015 November 5 Project The domain name utility.farm is registered.[65]
2015 November 28 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Estimating Aggregate Wild-Animal Suffering from Reproductive Age and Births per Female".[66]
2015 December 14 Publication Vox publishes an article by Jacy Reese arguing in favor of reducing wild-animal suffering.[67][68] This prompts critical responses from Motherboard and the National Audubon Society.[69][70]
2015 December 26 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Wild-Caught Fishing Affects Wild-Animal Suffering".[71]
2015 December Project Animal Charity Evaluators announces that Animal Ethics is one of their standout charities.[72] They would maintain that status until November 2017.[73]
2016 February Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
2016 March 15 Publication Catia Faria submits her PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".[74]
2016 March 20 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".[75]
2016 March 23 Project Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue her research on invasive species.[76]
2016 April 22 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".[77]
2016 May 9 Publication The article "The ethics of wild animal suffering" by Ole Martin Moen is published.[78]
2016 May Publication Sentience Politics publishes the policy paper "Reducing suffering among invertebrates such as insects" by Simon Knutsson.[79]
2016 June Project The Foundational Research Institute publishes research plans announcing that it is "greatly increasing research on wild-­animal suffering".[80] However, this never came to pass and WAS is not a focus area of FRI as of July 2019.
2016 August 25 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".[81]
2016 September 1 Publication Phillipp Ryf submits his Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".[82]
2016 September 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.[83]
2016 September Presentation Stijn Bruers and Stefan Torges give talks about wild-animal suffering at the 2016 International Animal Rights Conference.[84][85]
2016 November 15 Presentation Peter Singer gives a talk on wild-animal suffering at the Princeton Environmental Institute.[86]
2016 November 19 Project Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[87]
2016 November 25 Publication Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.[88] Brian Tomasik responds on his blog.[89]
2017 April 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.[90]
2017 April 22 Project Utility Farm publishes its first article, arguing for "An Ethic of Intervention" with regard to wild-animal suffering.[91]
2017 April 26 Project Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.[92] The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.[93]
2017 April Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that he is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.[94]
2017 May 3 Community Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.[95]
2017 June Project Wild-Animal Suffering Research is split off from Sentience Politics as a separate organization under the Effective Altruism Foundation. Sentience Politics shifts gears to focus exclusively on political campaigns in Switzerland, and gains independence from EAF.[96][97]
2017 June 1 Project The domain name was-research.org is registered.[98]
2017 June 2 Project Sentience Institute is founded.[99]"
2017 June 2 Publication Sentience Institute publishes "Summary of Evidence for Foundational Questions in Effective Animal Advocacy" which contains a lot of information on RWAS outreach.[100]
2017 June 10 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Keep (Known) Space Neutral" by Abraham Rowe.[101]
2017 June 11 Publication Utility Farm publishes "When Caring For Pets And Service Animals, Keep Other Animals In Mind" by Ari Benjamin.[102]
2017 June 29 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Vertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[103]
2017 July 5 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Which Stimuli Are Painful to Invertebrates?".[104]
2017 July 11 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Invertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[105]
2017 July 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Euthanizing Elderly Elephants: An Impact Analysis" by Ozy Brennan.[106]
2017 July 13 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Study: Effective Communication Strategies For Addressing Wild Animal Suffering" by Briana Schulzetenberg and Abraham Rowe, which found that WAS materials describing humans as "stewards of" or "participants in" nature were more effective than materials describing humans as "intervening" in nature.[107]
2017 October 4 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "We Have No Idea If There Are Cost-Effective Interventions Into Wild-Animal Suffering" by Ozy Brennan.[108]
2017 October 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Infant Mortality and the Argument from Life History" by Ozy Brennan.[109]
2017 October 18 Project Utility Farm publishes "Reviewing 2017 and Looking to 2018" by Abraham Rowe.[110]
2017 November 10 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "“Fit and Happy”: How Do We Measure Wild-Animal Suffering?" by Ozy Brennan.[111]
2017 November 22 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Parasite Load and Disease in Wild Animals" by Georgia Ray.[112]
2017 November 25 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Creating Welfare Biology: A Research Proposal" by Ozy Brennan.[113]
2017 November Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $50K from the animal welfare EA Fund to Wild-Animal Suffering Research.[114]
2017 (fall) Project Rebecca Raible is awarded a £4,710 grant from the Centre for Effective Altruism to research WAS intervention ideas and write an overview of wild-animal suffering.[115]
2017 December 27 Publication Animal Ethics announces the winner of its second Essay Prize, "Life-fates: meaningful categories to estimate animal suffering in the wild" by Brazilian scientists Wladimir J. Alonso and Cynthia Schuck-Paim.[116]
2017 September Project effectivethesis.com is launched. They create a section recommending theses on RWAS which is provided from suggestions by Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Efektivni Altruismus.[117]
2017 Funding "[ACE's Animal Advocacy Research Fund awards] funding to Persis Eskander (Wild-Animal Suffering Research) for this project. This research will examine the agricultural practices that harm vertebrate wild animals."[118]
2018 January 19 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Invertebrate Sentience: Urgent But Understudied" by Georgia Ray.[119]
2018 January 24 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Seven Broad Rules for Effective Discussions of Participation Ethics" by Abraham Rowe.[120]
2018 February 12 Publication The article "Wild animal suffering is intractable" by Nicolas Delon and Duncan Purves is published (online first).[121]
2018 February 13 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the blog post "To reduce wild animal suffering we need to find out if the cause area is tractable" by Persis Eskander.[122]
2018 February 16 Publication Animal Ethics publishes their 2018 strategic plan, which includes initiating "the development of welfare biology in academia with some biologists and animal welfare scientists beginning to work in this field ".[123]
2018 February 23 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Are seafood substitutes good for wild fish?" by Georgia Ray.[124]
2018 March 23 Project Utility Farm announces the launch of Nature Ethics, a wild animal suffering outreach project.[125]
2018 March Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $100K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds.[126]
2018 April 14 Podcast Persis Eskander of Wild-Animal Suffering Research is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the animal rights podcast Our Hen House.[127]
2018 April 30 Publication Animal Ethics publishes a bibliography of wild-animal suffering.[128]
2018 April Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a volume devoted to wild-animal suffering.[129]
2018 May Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a book entitled "Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature" (Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature) by Estiva Reus. The book critiques the wild-animal suffering movement.[130]
2018 June 10 Presentation EA Global 2018 takes place in San Francisco. Persis Eskander of WASR gives a talk about "Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering".[131][132] Ozy Brennan (WASR), Persis Eskander (WASR), Kieran Greig (ACE), and Abraham Rowe (Utility Farm) participate in a panel on "Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering".[133][134] There is also a meetup for people interested in the topic.[135]
2018 June Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $70K to Animal Ethics, $40K to Utility Farm, and $30K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds. He notes that all three organizations have converged around the strategy of building an academic field of wild-animal suffering, but have different approaches.[136]
2018 September 4 Publication Persis Eskander from Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Introduction to Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity".[137]
2018 September 9 Publication Ozy Brennan from Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Intervention Report: Feeding Wildlife As A Means of Promoting Welfare".[138]
2018 October 18 Publication Animal Ethics publishes "Research projects in welfare biology".[139]
2018 October 28 Publication Denis Drescher publishes "Wild Animal Suffering Research Ideas 2019".[140]
2018 December 19 Publication Animal Ethics publishes "Welfare biology research: Vaccination of animals in the wild".[141]
2018 December 20 Publication Ozy Brennan from Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Intervention Report: Wildlife Contraception".[142]
2018 December 22 Publication Rethink Priorities publishes "Detecting Morally Significant Pain in Nonhumans: Some Philosophical Difficulties".[143]
2018 (winter) Publication Oscar Horta publishes "Concern for Wild Animal Suffering and Environmental Ethics: What Are the Limits of the Disagreement?".[144]
2018 December 30 Funding The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $20,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Utility Farm. Also, they grant $75,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda within animal welfare includes assessment of work on wild animal welfare.[145]
2019 January 25 Project Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Utility Farm merge to form the Wild Animal Initiative.[146]
2019 February 5 Publication Johan Lindsjö, Katarina Cvek, Elin M. F. Spangenberg, Johan N. G. Olsson, and Margareta Stéen publish "The Dividing Line Between Wildlife Research and Management—Implications for Animal Welfare".[147]
2019 February 27 Publication Animal Ethics publishes "Welfare biology research: Sexual competition".[148]
2019 April 12 Funding Animal Ethics grants an undisclosed amount to Elisabeth Dimitras to study wild animals admitted to sanctuaries and rescue centers (wild animal rehabilitation centers) in Greece. The project aims to analyze data from rehabilitation centers to figure out "reasons for admission, mortality rates, cause of death by age and sex, how this varies over time, and the outcomes of the animals after treatment".[149]
2019 April 15 Publication Robert Wiblin interviews Persis Eskander on the 80,000 Hours podcast about "Animals in the wild often suffer a great deal. What, if anything, should we do about that?".[150]
2019 April 21 Funding ACE's Effective Animal Advocacy Fund grants US$44,000 to Animal Ethics.[151][152]
2019 March 6 Funding The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $50,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Wild Animal Initiative. Also, they grant $80,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda includes research into wild animal welfare.[153]
2019 June 7 Publication Rethink Priorities publishes "Life history classification", "Insect herbivores, life history and wild animal welfare".[154]
2019 June 9 Publication Rethink Priorities publishes a series of articles on invertebrate sentience.[155]
2019 June 14 Publication Rethink Priorities publishes "What Do Unconscious Processes in Humans Tell Us About Sentience?".[156]
2019 July 1 Publication Animal Ethics publishes a new article about how fireworks harm nonhuman animals of all sizes.[157]
2019 April Project Wild Animal Initiative launches Wildness, a podcast on wild animal ethics.[158]
2019 January Project Wild Animal Initiative launches The Compassionate Cat Grant aiming "to gather information on cat predation education at the rescue organization level and draw conclusions regarding the effect of advocacy efforts on the welfare of wild animals".[159]
2019 Funding ACE's Animal Advocacy Research Fund awards funding "to Oscar Horta and Maria Salazar (Animal Ethics) for this study. The purpose of this research project is to explore how to establish an expert field of research on wild animal welfare."[160]
2019 Funding "[ACE's Animal Advocacy Research Fund awards] funding to Oscar Horta (Animal Ethics) for this project. The purpose of this project is to gain insight into the lines of research on wild animal suffering most likely to be accepted by and appealing to biologists and animal welfare scientists and students."[161]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Louis.

In July 2019, User:Mati Roy reviewed the whole timeline and added notable events since mid-2018. It took zir about 6 hours. Formatting of sources was outsourced [more info to come]. The work was live-streamed here: [1], [2], [3]. [Funding information to come.]

What the timeline is still missing

  • Tomasik articles that I, User:Louis, didn't bother to add so far
  • New Nature Ethics articles
  • New WASR articles
  • ACE Research Funding
  • Horta articles
  • Other academic philosophy articles, perhaps, depending on relevance
  • There should be stuff between Mill and Singer?
  • Buddhists?
  • Relevant pieces of WAS art (?)
  • Popularity of RWAS (?) (ie. Google Trends, WAS FB group members, etc.)
  • Table of total money went to charity working on RWAS (see Google Sheet Total Money and Grants -- edit access public).

Timeline update strategy

Feedback can be written in the Discussion page, and the relevant user(s) can be tagged.

Groups where it was shared

See also

External links

References

  1. Schopenhauer, Arthur (1851). On the Sufferings of the World. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let him compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other. 
  2. Murray, Michael (April 30, 2011). Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199596324. 
  3. "Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860]". Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. With respect to the theological view of the question; this is always painful to me.— I am bewildered.— I had no intention to write atheistically. But I own that I cannot see, as plainly as others do, & as I [should] wish to do, evidence of design & beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent & omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidæ with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice. 
  4. JS Mill. On Nature.
  5. Singer, Peter (June 14, 1973). "Food for Thought". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 2018-05-09. 
  6. Clark, Stephen R. L. (1979). "The Rights of Wild Things" (PDF). Inquiry. Routledge. 22 (1-4): 171–188. doi:10.1080/00201747908601871. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-22. It has been argued that if non‐human animals had rights we should be obliged to defend them against predators. I contend that this either does not follow, follows in the abstract but not in practice, or is not absurd. We should defend non‐humans against large or unusual dangers, when we can, but should not claim so much authority as to regulate all the relationships of wild things. 
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  25. Tomasik, Brian (April 2009). "Do Bugs Feel Pain?". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. 
  26. Tomasik, Brian (4 June 2009). "Caring about Animal Suffering". Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. 
  27. Tomasik, Brian (July 2009). "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering". Foundational Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. 
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  136. Bollard, Lewis (June 2018). "June 2018: Animal Welfare Fund Update". Effective Altruism Funds. Centre for Effective Altruism. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. Potential interventions to aid wild animals remain limited, and may be unwise, so I think it makes sense to build an academic field that can better research this problem and potential approaches to addressing it. The three primary groups in this space have all converged around the academic field-building strategy, though they have different approaches. Given the magnitude of the problem, my uncertainty over which approach is likely to be most effective, and my sense that all three groups are well-run, I’m proposing funding all three. 
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  145. "Payout Report: Animal Welfare Fund. December 2018 - Animal Welfare Fund Grants". Effective Altruism Funds. December 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2019. Researching tractable interventions to improve wild animal welfare. Within the animal advocacy movement, there seems to be an increasing interest in helping wild animals, but research on effective interventions is severely lacking. Utility Farm is a research organization that takes a practical approach, prioritizing the research of potentially tractable interventions. For example, they published a report on humane insecticides and they are currently research interventions to reduce the suffering of birds and small mammals caused by feral and free-ranging cats. We believe that research on wild animal welfare is both important and relatively neglected, so we are happy to support it where we can. 
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  161. "Surveying attitudes toward interventions reducing wild animal suffering among scientists and students". Animal Advocacy Research Fund. 2019-02-07. Retrieved 2019-07-22. 

OLD -----

This is a timeline of the movement to reduce wild-animal suffering (sometimes also called the "WAS" or "RWAS" movement).

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
1800s–1970 Wild-animal suffering is occasionally mentioned by philosophers as an example of the amorality of nature. In general, there is little discussion of whether humans should intervene to improve the situation.
1970–2000 After the emergence of the contemporary animal rights/welfare movement, wild-animal suffering is discussed by animal rights philosophers and their critics. The critics consider intervention in nature a reductio ad absurdum of animal rights, while some animal rights authors take it to be a serious moral issue.
2000–present Online communities dedicated to utilitarian ethics and effective altruism discuss wild-animal suffering as a serious issue. Activists begin forming organizations dedicated to WAS research and outreach. The academic moral philosophy community also continues debating the issue.

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1851 Publication Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.[1]
1856 July 13 Publication In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.[2]
1860 May 22 Publication In a letter to Asa Gray, Charles Darwin cites wild-animal suffering—in particular, the suffering inflicted by parasitic wasps to caterpillar hosts—as an example of the theological problem of evil.[3]
1874 Publication John Stuart Mill's essay "On Nature" is published posthumously. The essay discusses the amorality and cruelty of nature and argues that humans should struggle against it.[4]
1973 June 14 Publication Peter Singer responds to a question about predation, arguing against interference in practice because the long-term consequences of intervention cannot be predicted. However, he accepts that intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering would be morally justified if one could be reasonably confident that the long-term effects would be positive.[5]
1979 Publication Stephen R. L. Clark's article "The Rights of Wild Things" is published. It argues that humans should defend wild animals against unusually large dangers, but should not try to regulate all of nature.[6]
1980 Publication Environmental philosopher J. Baird Callicott's article "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" is published. It discusses conflicts between animal liberation and environmental ethics.[7]
1984 (summer) Publication Environmental philosopher Mark Sagoff's article "Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce" is published.[8] The article argues that animal liberation and environmental ethics are incompatible. It claims that animal liberationists may be committed to supporting large-scale intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering, and argues that this should be taken as a reductio if one supports environmental ethics.
1987 Publication Animal rights philosopher Steve Sapontzis's article "Predation" is published in Ethics and Animals.[9]
1991 Publication Deep ecologist Arne Naess publishes an article arguing that humans should intervene in some cases of wild-animal suffering.[10]
1993 June Publication David Olivier publishes the article "Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste" (Why I am not an environmentalist) in the French animal rights journal Les Cahiers antispécistes.[11]
1995 Publication Economist Yew-Kwang Ng's paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in Biology and Philosophy.[12] Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. conservation biology), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
1995 Publication David Pearce publishes his transhumanist manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative, which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.[13] It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
1996 December Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.[14] It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").[15]
1998 October 20 Presentation David Olivier of Les Cahiers antispécistes discusses wild-animal suffering at a debate at the Maison de l’Écologie in Lyon.[16]
2003 (summer) Publication Tyler Cowen's paper "Policing Nature" is published in Environmental Ethics.[17] Cowen gives arguments from utilitarian, rights-based, and holistic moral perspectives in support of policing nature. He criticizes the argument that humans should refrain from interfering in nature because it is hard to predict the results of intervention. Cowen discusses predator population reduction as a possible intervention.
2005 May Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.[18]
2005 July Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's Animal Rights & Human Morality, which introduces him to the possibility of insect sentience.[18] He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
2005 October 17 Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking him whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.[18]
2005 June Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.[18] He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
2006 June Publication Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to his website at utilitarian-essays.com.
2006 (summer) Publication Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".[19]
2006 December Community Seth Baum starts a utilitarian community blog Felicifia.com.[20] He had previously had a personal blog under the same name. Wild-animal suffering would become a popular topic of discussion on the site and its successor forum Felicifia.org.[21]
2006 April 29 Publication Matthew Clarke and Yew-Kwang Ng publish an article analyzing a kangaroo cull from the perspective of welfare biology.[22]
2006 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".[23]
2008 (early) Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of his articles. Horta and Tomasik agreed that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta began to discuss it with his Spanish / Latin American friends.[18]
2009 April Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".[24]
2009 June 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".[25]
2009 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes the first version of his article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".[26]
2009 Publication David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".[27] The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.[28]
2009 December 25 Community Brian Tomasik starts the Felicifia thread "How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?".[29]
2010 March 2 Community Felicifia member spindoctor starts the thread "Lobby group for wild animal suffering?".[30]
2010 May 10 Community Brian Tomasik considers forming an organization to promote concern for wild-animal suffering, and solicits advice on Felicifia.[31]
2010 April 19 Community Brian Tomasik creates the Facebook group "Most of the world's animal suffering occurs in the wild".[32][18]
2010 September 15 Project The domain name animal-ethics.org is registered.[33]
2010 September 19 Publication Jeff McMahan's piece "The Meat Eaters" is published in the New York Times.[34][35] He argues in favor of intervention in nature, and specifically reducing predation.
2010 Publication Philosopher Oscar Horta's article "Debunking the idyllic view of natural processes" is published.[36]
2012 October 30 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Medicine vs. Deep Ecology", which responds to the argument that we should not intervene in nature because ecosystems are complex systems.[37]
2012 May 24 Community The Facebook group is renamed to "Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering" following a poll.[38]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering".[39]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature".[40]
2013 September 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals".[41]
2013 November? Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals".[42]
2013 December 3 Presentation Adriano Mannino and Ruairí Donnelly give a talk on wild-animal suffering at the University of Zurich. [43][44]
2013 December 15 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation?".[45]
2013 Project Sentience Politics, an "anti-speciesist political think-tank", is founded as a subdivision of the Effective Altruism Foundation.[46] One of the issues originally considered by the project is wild-animal suffering.
2013 Project Animal Ethics is registered as a 501(c)3 non-profit.[47]
2014 January 19 Project The first (non-placeholder) Wayback Machine snapshot of Animal Ethics is from this date.[48] Wild-animal suffering is one of their focus areas. Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta are two of its three founders.[49]
2014 July 8 Publication The Wikipedia article "Wild animal suffering" is published.[50]
2015 February 3 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "The Importance of Insect Suffering".[51]
2015 February Podcast Brian Tomasik is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the podcast The Reality Check.[52][53]
2015 March 5 Project Animal Ethics announces its first Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[54]
2015 April 12 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering" on the website Reasonable Vegan.[55]
2015 May 1 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It". It argues that reducing wild-animal suffering is a moral imperative.[56]
2015 May The philosophy journal Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism publishes a special double volume on the ethics of wild-animal suffering and intervention in nature, edited by Animal Ethics staff.[57]
2015 September Publication Simon Knutsson publishes "How Good or Bad Is the Life of an Insect?".[58]
2015 October 31 Community The /r/wildanimalsuffering subreddit is created.[59]
2015 November 5 Project The domain name utility.farm is registered.[60]
2015 November 28 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Estimating Aggregate Wild-Animal Suffering from Reproductive Age and Births per Female".[61]
2015 December 14 Publication Vox publishes an article by Jacy Reese arguing in favor of reducing wild-animal suffering.[62] This prompts critical responses from Motherboard and the National Audubon Society.[63][64]
2015 December 26 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Wild-Caught Fishing Affects Wild-Animal Suffering".[65]
2015 December Project Animal Charity Evaluators announces that Animal Ethics is one of their standout charities.[66]
2016 February Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
2016 March 15 Publication Catia Faria submits her PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".[67]
2016 March 20 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".[68]
2016 March 23 Project Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue her research on invasive species.[69]
2016 April 22 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".[70]
2016 May 9 Publication The article "The ethics of wild animal suffering" by Ole Martin Moen is published.[71]
2016 May Publication Sentience Politics publishes the policy paper "Reducing suffering among invertebrates such as insects" by Simon Knutsson.[72]
2016 June Project The Foundational Research Institute publishes research plans announcing that it is "greatly increasing research on wild-­animal suffering".[73] However, this never came to pass and WAS is not a focus area of FRI as of 2018.
2016 August 25 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".[74]
2016 September 1 Publication Phillipp Ryf submits his Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".[75]
2016 September 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.[76]
2016 September Presentation Stijn Bruers and Stefan Torges give talks about wild-animal suffering at the 2016 International Animal Rights Conference.[77][78]
2016 November 15 Presentation Peter Singer gives a talk on wild-animal suffering at the Princeton Environmental Institute.[79]
2016 November 19 Project Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[80]
2016 November 25 Publication Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.[81] Brian Tomasik responds on his blog.[82]
2017 April 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.[83]
2017 April 22 Project Utility Farm publishes its first article, arguing for "An Ethic of Intervention" with regard to wild-animal suffering.[84]
2017 April 26 Project Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.[85] The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.[86]
2017 April Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that he is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.[87]
2017 May 3 Community Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.[88]
2017 June Project Wild-Animal Suffering Research is split off from Sentience Politics as a separate organization under the Effective Altruism Foundation. Sentience Politics shifts gears to focus exclusively on political campaigns in Switzerland, and gains independence from EAF.[89][90]
2017 June 1 Project The domain name was-research.org is registered.[91]
2017 June 10 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Keep (Known) Space Neutral" by Abraham Rowe.[92]
2017 June 11 Publication Utility Farm publishes "When Caring For Pets And Service Animals, Keep Other Animals In Mind" by Ari Benjamin.[93]
2017 June 29 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Vertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[94]
2017 July 5 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Which Stimuli Are Painful to Invertebrates?".[95]
2017 July 11 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Invertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[96]
2017 July 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Euthanizing Elderly Elephants: An Impact Analysis" by Ozy Brennan.[97]
2017 July 13 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Study: Effective Communication Strategies For Addressing Wild Animal Suffering" by Briana Schulzetenberg and Abraham Rowe, which found that WAS materials describing humans as "stewards of" or "participants in" nature were more effective than materials describing humans as "intervening" in nature.[98]
2017 October 4 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "We Have No Idea If There Are Cost-Effective Interventions Into Wild-Animal Suffering" by Ozy Brennan.[99]
2017 October 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Infant Mortality and the Argument from Life History" by Ozy Brennan.[100]
2017 October 18 Project Utility Farm publishes "Reviewing 2017 and Looking to 2018" by Abraham Rowe.[101]
2017 November 10 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "“Fit and Happy”: How Do We Measure Wild-Animal Suffering?" by Ozy Brennan.[102]
2017 November 22 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Parasite Load and Disease in Wild Animals" by Georgia Ray.[103]
2017 November 25 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Creating Welfare Biology: A Research Proposal" by Ozy Brennan.[104]
2017 November Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $50K from the animal welfare EA Fund to Wild-Animal Suffering Research.[105]
2017 (fall) Project Rebecca Raible is awarded a £4,710 grant from the Centre for Effective Altruism to research WAS intervention ideas and write an overview of wild-animal suffering.[106]
2017 December 27 Publication Animal Ethics announces the winner of its second Essay Prize, "Life-fates: meaningful categories to estimate animal suffering in the wild" by Brazilian scientists Wladimir J. Alonso and Cynthia Schuck-Paim.[107]
2018 January 19 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Invertebrate Sentience: Urgent But Understudied" by Georgia Ray.[108]
2018 January 24 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Seven Broad Rules for Effective Discussions of Participation Ethics" by Abraham Rowe.[109]
2018 February 12 Publication The article "Wild animal suffering is intractable" by Nicolas Delon and Duncan Purves is published (online first).[110]
2018 February 13 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the blog post "To reduce wild animal suffering we need to find out if the cause area is tractable" by Persis Eskander.[111]
2018 February 16 Publication Animal Ethics publishes their 2018 strategic plan, which includes initiating "the development of welfare biology in academia with some biologists and animal welfare scientists beginning to work in this field ".[112]
2018 February 23 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Are seafood substitutes good for wild fish?" by Georgia Ray.[113]
2018 March 23 Project Utility Farm announces the launch of Nature Ethics, a wild animal suffering outreach project.[114]
2018 March Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $100K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds.[115]
2018 April 14 Podcast Persis Eskander of Wild-Animal Suffering Research is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the animal rights podcast Our Hen House.[116]
2018 April 30 Publication Animal Ethics publishes a bibliography of wild-animal suffering.[117]
2018 April Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a volume devoted to wild-animal suffering.[118]
2018 May Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a book entitled "Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature" (Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature) by Estiva Reus. The book critiques the wild-animal suffering movement.[119]
2018 June 10 Presentation EA Global 2018 takes place in San Francisco. Persis Eskander of WASR gives a talk about "Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering".[120] Ozy Brennan (WASR), Persis Eskander (WASR), Kieran Greig (ACE), and Abraham Rowe (Utility Farm) participate in a panel on "Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering".[121] There is also a meetup for people interested in the topic.[122]
2018 June Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $70K to Animal Ethics, $40K to Utility Farm, and $30K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds. He notes that all three organizations have converged around the strategy of building an academic field of wild-animal suffering, but have different approaches.[123]
2018 December 30 Funding The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $20,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Utility Farm. Also, they grant $75,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda within animal welfare includes assessment of work on wild animal welfare.[124]
2019 January 25 Project Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Utility Farm merge to form the Wild Animal Initiative.[125]
2019 March 6 Funding The EA Animal Welfare Fund management team (Lewis Bollard, Natalie Cargill, Toni Adleberg, and Jamie Spurgeon) grants $50,000 from the EA Animal Welfare Fund to Wild Animal Initiative. Also, they grant $80,000 to Rethink Priorities, whose research agenda includes research into wild animal welfare.[126]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Louis.

What the timeline is still missing

  • Tomasik articles that I didn't bother to add so far
  • New Nature Ethics articles
  • New WASR articles
  • ACE Research Funding
  • Horta articles
  • Other academic philosophy articles, perhaps, depending on relevance
  • There should be stuff between Mill and Singer?
  • Buddhists?

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

  1. Schopenhauer, Arthur (1851). On the Sufferings of the World. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let him compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other. 
  2. Murray, Michael (April 30, 2011). Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199596324. 
  3. "Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860]". Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. With respect to the theological view of the question; this is always painful to me.— I am bewildered.— I had no intention to write atheistically. But I own that I cannot see, as plainly as others do, & as I [should] wish to do, evidence of design & beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent & omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidæ with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice. 
  4. JS Mill. On Nature.
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  117. "Publications about wild animal suffering". Animal Ethics. April 30, 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  118. "Réduire la souffrance des animaux sauvages" [Reducing wild-animal suffering]. Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 40. April 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-04-26. 
  119. Reus, Estiva (May 2018). "Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature" [Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature]. Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 41. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  120. "Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering". EA Global San Francisco 2018. June 9, 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-07-12. 
  121. "Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering". EA Global San Francisco 2018. June 10, 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-06-10. 
  122. "Meetup: Wild Animal Suffering". EA Global San Francisco 2018. June 10, 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-06-10. 
  123. Bollard, Lewis (June 2018). "June 2018: Animal Welfare Fund Update". Effective Altruism Funds. Centre for Effective Altruism. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. Potential interventions to aid wild animals remain limited, and may be unwise, so I think it makes sense to build an academic field that can better research this problem and potential approaches to addressing it. The three primary groups in this space have all converged around the academic field-building strategy, though they have different approaches. Given the magnitude of the problem, my uncertainty over which approach is likely to be most effective, and my sense that all three groups are well-run, I’m proposing funding all three. 
  124. "Payout Report: Animal Welfare Fund. December 2018 - Animal Welfare Fund Grants". Effective Altruism Funds. December 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2019. Researching tractable interventions to improve wild animal welfare. Within the animal advocacy movement, there seems to be an increasing interest in helping wild animals, but research on effective interventions is severely lacking. Utility Farm is a research organization that takes a practical approach, prioritizing the research of potentially tractable interventions. For example, they published a report on humane insecticides and they are currently research interventions to reduce the suffering of birds and small mammals caused by feral and free-ranging cats. We believe that research on wild animal welfare is both important and relatively neglected, so we are happy to support it where we can. 
  125. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  126. "Payout Report: Animal Welfare Fund. March 2019 - Animal Welfare Fund Grants". Effective Altruism Funds. March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019. Research on tractable interventions to help wild animals. Two recipients of previous grants from the Animal Welfare Fund — Wild-Animal Suffering Research and Utility Farm — have recently merged to form a new group: Wild Animal Initiative. Under the direction of Abraham Rowe, Wild Animal Initiative will focus on research prioritization, academic outreach, and research on potential near-term interventions. Over the next year, they plan to expand their research and communications staff. They are also looking into funding early-career academics to do research that is aligned with their goals. We think that wild animal suffering is a relatively large-scale and neglected problem, so we are happy to support one of the few organizations currently working in that space.