Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Timeline of the National Institutes of Health

5,064 bytes added, 15:14, 15 October 2017
References
==Visual data==
[[File:NIH congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Cumulative.png|thumb|center|600px|National Institutes of Health (NIH) total congressional appropriations per year. Cumulative, in thousands of dollars. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) both stand out for their larger proportions, with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in third place.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations">{{cite web|title=NIH congressional appropriations|url=https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html|website=nih.gov|accessdate=27 March 2017}}</ref>]]
<gallery align="center" perrow="4" widths="190" heights="190" mode="nolines">
File:National Center for Research Resources congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollarsNCRR.png|National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NCI.png| National Cancer Institute (NCI) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.png|thumb|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.png|thumb|National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesNIDDK.png|thumb|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNINDS.png|thumb|National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) congressional appropriationsper year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIAID.png|thumb|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIA.png|thumb|National Institute on Aging (NIA) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIMH.png|thumb|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIAMS.png|thumb|National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NICHD.png|thumb|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>NIEHS.png|thumb|National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:(NEI).png|thumb|National Eye Institute (NEI) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIDCD.png|thumb|National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIDA (NIH).png|thumb|National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NINR.png|thumb|National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIAAA.png|thumb|National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NLM (NIH).png|thumb|National Library of Medicine (NLM) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NHGRI.png|thumb|National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIBIB.png|thumb|National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIMHD.png|thumb|National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NCCIH.png|thumb|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) congressional apropriations appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NCATS.png|thumb|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:FIC.png|thumb|Fogarty International Center (FIC) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:OD (NIH).png|thumb|NIH Office of the Director (OD) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:B&F.png|thumb|NIH Buildings and Facilities (B&F) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIH total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.png.png|thumb|National Institutes of Health total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Logarithmic.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>File:NIH total congressional appropriations per year. In millions of dollars. Non-logarithmic.png|thumb|National Institutes of Health total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Non-logarithmic.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
</gallery>
 
==Full timeline==
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !! Location
|-
| 1730 || Antecedent || A federal role in public health begins when [[wikipedia:pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]] starts collection of money to support medical treatment of sailors in hospitals.<ref name="A federal role begins">{{cite web|url=https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/nih_origins/federal.html|title=A federal role begins|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]]
|-
| 1797 || Antecedent || In July, the first medical journal is published in the United States. ''The Medical Repository'' is the precursor of 249 private medical journals that would be printed in principal American cities between 1800 and 1850, informing the public on progress in the health field and giving physicians a chance to tell of their own and of European researches and observations.<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||
| 1798 || Antecedent || United States president [[wikipedia:John Adams|John Adams]] signs the first Federal public health law, "An act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen."<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||
|-
| 1887 || Foundation || A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/><ref>{{cite web|title=History|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/history|website=nih.gov|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> [[wikipedia:Joseph J. Kinyoun|Joseph J. Kinyoun]], M.D. becomes its director.<ref name="NIH Directors">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/nih-directors|title=NIH Directors|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Staten Island|Staten Island]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/>
|-
| 1891 || Reform || The laboratory is renamed [[wikipedia:Hygienic Laboratory|Hygienic Laboratory]] and moves to Washington, D.C.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis">{{cite book|title=History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis|edition=Daniel M. Albert|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3LqLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&lpg=PA130&dq=%22hygienic+laboratory%22+%22in+1888..1905%22+%22joseph+kinyoun%22&source=bl&ots=QR9PZ22fsa&sig=JGhZ0beGpDN5pui7o7RS7-CNb74&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSk6XxveXSAhUCjJAKHW2RAEoQ6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=%22hygienic%20laboratory%22%20%22in%201888..1905%22%20%22joseph%20kinyoun%22&f=false|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]]
|-
| 1899 (May) || Administration || Milton Joseph Rosenau, M.D. succeeds Joseph J. Kinyoun as director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until September 1909.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
| 1931 || Scientific development || Research begins at the NIH, discovering fluoride effective enough to prevent tooth decay. From then on, successful scientific investigations at NIH would lead to the discovery and eradication of a number of diseases, including undulant fever, pellagra and psittacosis. Researchers would often contract the diseases they study.<ref name="The National Institute of Health 1930"/> ||
|-
| 1937 || Foundation || The National Institute of Health moves to [[wikipedia:Bethesda|Bethesda]], [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]]. Also, the National Cancer Institute is founded (by 1944 it would become part of the National Institute of Health.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis"/><ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> || [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]] ([[wikipedia:Bethesda|Bethesda]])
|-
| 1937 (February) || Incorporation || The Rocky Mountain Laboratory becomes part of the National Institute of Health, and is administratively made part of the Division of Infectious Diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
| 1956 || Foundation || The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 1961 (December) || Foundation || The NIH European Office is established in [[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
|-
| 1962 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] (NICHD) and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] (NIGMS) are established as institutes of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 1962 (July) || Foundation || The NIH Latin American Office is established in [[wikipedia:|Rio de Janeiro]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:Brazil|Brazil]]
|-
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The NIH Pacific Office is established in [[wikipedia:Tokyo|Tokyo]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:Japan|Japan]]
|-
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] are established.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
| 1964 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System|Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System]] (MEDLARS) becomes operational at the [[wikipedia:National Library of Medicine|National Library of Medicine]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1964 (April) || Foundation || The Division of Computer Research and Technology (DCRT) is established (actual [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]]).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/><ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 1966 || Policy || The National Institute of Health budget surpasses one billion dolars.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> ||
| 1968 (September) || Administration || Robert Q. Marston, M.D. succeeds James Shannon as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1973.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 1968 (October) || || Dr. [[wikipedia:Marshall Warren Nirenberg|Marshall Warren Nirenberg]], chief of NIH's Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, is awarded a [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]], for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref><ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||[[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]
|-
| 1968 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Fogarty International Center|Fogarty International Center]] (FIC) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Starting with a budget of $500,000 the first year, today the center's research, training and capacity-building enterprise extends to over 100 countries and involves some 5,000 scientists in the U.S. and abroad.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fic.nih.gov/About/Pages/History.aspx|title= History of the Fogarty International Center|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||
| 1972 (May) || || The National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1972 || || Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen, researcher at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD), is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1972/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]
|-
| 1973 (May) || Administration || Robert S. Stone, M.D. succeeds Robert Marston as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1975.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
| 1975 (July) || Administration || Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. succeeds Robert Stone as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until June 1981.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 1976 (June) || || The National Heart and Lung Institute is renamed the [[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute]] (NHLBI).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1981 (June) || || The National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney diseases(NIADDK).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1982 (April) || Administration || James B. Wyngaarden, M.D. becomes the 12th director of the National Institute of Health, appointed by President Ronald Reagan. In office until July 1989.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 1990 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Human Genome Project|Human Genome Project]] officially launches.<ref name="National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-human-genome-research-institute-nhgri|title=National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> The National Center for Human Genome Research is established in January.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1990 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Foundation for the National Institutes of Health|Foundation for the National Institutes of Health]] (FNIH) is established by the United States Congress as a not-for-profit charitable organization, with aims at facilitating research at the NIH and worldwide.<ref>{{cite web|title=FNIH|url=https://fnih.org/about|website=fnih.org|accessdate=3 April 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
| 1991 || Scientific development || Scientists at NIH treate the first cancer patients with human gene therapy.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1991 (April) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Bernadine Healy|Bernadine Healy]], M.D. becomes the 13th director of the NIH. Shortly after her appointment, Healy would launch the NIH Women's Health Initiative, a $500 million effort to study the causes, prevention, and cures of diseases that affect women. In office until June 1993.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bernadine Healy, M.D.|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/bernadine-healy-md|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
| 1992 || || [[wikipedia:The National Institute on Drug Abuse|The National Institute on Drug Abuse]] (NIDA), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) become part of the National Institutes of Health.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1993 (November) || Administration || Harold E. Varmus, M.D. succeeds Bernadine Healy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until December 1999.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 1997 || || The Division of Research Grants (DRG ) is renamed the [[wikipedia:Center for Scientific Review|Center for Scientific Review]] and the Division of Computer Research and Technology becomes the [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1999 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health]] (NCCIH) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Its funding ranges from $50 million in 1999 to $128.8 million in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://nccih.nih.gov/about/budget/appropriations.htm#note1|title=NCCIH Funding: Appropriations History|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||
| 2005 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives|Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives]] (DPCPSI) is founded as a new office within the Office of the NIH Director with the purpose of transforming the way NIH finds and funds cutting-edge research, improving the ability to identify public health challenges, and increasing trans-NIH dialogue, decision-making and priority-setting.<ref name="Elias A. Zerhouni"/> ||
|-
| 2008 || Policy || The [[wikipedia:NIH Public Access policy |NIH Public Access policy]] is enacted. It would require all NIH-funded researchers to deposit electronic copies of their peer-reviewed manuscripts into the National Library of Medicine’s online archive, [[wikipedia:PubMed Central|PubMed Central]] (PMC). Full texts of the articles would be made publicly available and searchable online in PMC no later than 12 months after publication in a journal.<ref>{{cite web|title=The US National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy|url=https://sparcopen.org/our-work/nih-public-access-policy/|website=sparcopen.org|publisher=The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
| 2009 (August) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Francis Collins|Francis Collins]], M.D., Ph.D. is appointed the 16th Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) by President [[wikipedia:Barack Obama|Barack Obama]]. Collins had previously led the international Human Genome Project, which culminated in April 2003 with the completion of a finished sequence of the human DNA instruction book.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/nih-director/biographical-sketch-francis-s-collins-md-phd|title=Biographical Sketch of Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> Still in office.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 2010 || || [[wikipedia:National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke|NINDS]] partners with the University of Virginia to establish a neurosurgical residency program set to last seven years. The program is intended to serve as a model for training neurosurgeon clinician-investigators who are capable of performing translational research.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 2011 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences]] (NCATS) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 2015 || Program launch || United States President Barack Obama launches his Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) at NIH, with aims at extending precision medicine to all diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/>
|-
| 2015 || Policy || The United States [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]] issues a statement indicating that it will not fund any research that uses genome editing tools such as CRISPR in [[wikipedia:human embryos|human embryos]].<ref name="CRISPR whatisbiotechnology.org">{{cite web|title=CRISPR|url=http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/science/crispr|website=whatisbiotechnology.org|accessdate=7 June 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
|}
== References ==
{{Reflist|30em}}

Navigation menu