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Timeline of the National Institutes of Health

679 bytes added, 15:14, 15 October 2017
References
==Visual data==
 
[[File:NIH congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Cumulative.png|thumb|center|600px|National Institutes of Health (NIH) total congressional appropriations per year. Cumulative, in thousands of dollars. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) both stand out for their larger proportions, with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in third place.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations">{{cite web|title=NIH congressional appropriations|url=https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html|website=nih.gov|accessdate=27 March 2017}}</ref>]]
<gallery align="center" perrow="4" widths="190" heights="190" mode="nolines">
File:NIH total congressional appropriations per year. In millions of dollars. Non-logarithmic.png|thumb|National Institutes of Health total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Non-logarithmic.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
</gallery>
 
==Full timeline==
{| class="sortable wikitable"
| 1964 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System|Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System]] (MEDLARS) becomes operational at the [[wikipedia:National Library of Medicine|National Library of Medicine]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1964 (April) || Foundation || The Division of Computer Research and Technology (DCRT) is established (actual [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]]).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/><ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
|-
| 1966 || Policy || The National Institute of Health budget surpasses one billion dolars.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> ||
| 1975 (July) || Administration || Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. succeeds Robert Stone as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until June 1981.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 1976 (June) || || The National Heart and Lung Institute is renamed the [[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute]] (NHLBI).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1981 (June) || || The National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney diseases(NIADDK).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1982 (April) || Administration || James B. Wyngaarden, M.D. becomes the 12th director of the National Institute of Health, appointed by President Ronald Reagan. In office until July 1989.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
| 1990 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Foundation for the National Institutes of Health|Foundation for the National Institutes of Health]] (FNIH) is established by the United States Congress as a not-for-profit charitable organization, with aims at facilitating research at the NIH and worldwide.<ref>{{cite web|title=FNIH|url=https://fnih.org/about|website=fnih.org|accessdate=3 April 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
| 1991 || Scientific development || Scientists at NHI NIH treate the first cancer patients with human gene therapy.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1991 (April) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Bernadine Healy|Bernadine Healy]], M.D. becomes the 13th director of the NIH. Shortly after her appointment, Healy would launch the NIH Women's Health Initiative, a $500 million effort to study the causes, prevention, and cures of diseases that affect women. In office until June 1993.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bernadine Healy, M.D.|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/bernadine-healy-md|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
| 1992 || || [[wikipedia:The National Institute on Drug Abuse |The National Institute on Drug Abuse]] (NIDA), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) become part of the National Institutes of Health.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
|-
| 1993 (November) || Administration || Harold E. Varmus, M.D. succeeds Bernadine Healy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until December 1999.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
|-
| 2015 || Program launch || United States President Barack Obama launches his Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) at NIH, with aims at extending precision medicine to all diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/>
|-
| 2015 || Policy || The United States [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]] issues a statement indicating that it will not fund any research that uses genome editing tools such as CRISPR in [[wikipedia:human embryos|human embryos]].<ref name="CRISPR whatisbiotechnology.org">{{cite web|title=CRISPR|url=http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/science/crispr|website=whatisbiotechnology.org|accessdate=7 June 2017}}</ref> ||
|-
|}
== References ==
{{Reflist|30em}}

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