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Timeline of Neuralink

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Full timeline: fix some typos and grammar
This is a '''timeline of {{w|Neuralink}}''', a {{w|San Francisco}}-based {{w|neurotechnology}} company founded by {{w|Elon Musk}} and others, which aims at developing [[w:brain implant|implantable]] {{w|brain–machine interface}}s (BMIs).
==Big picture==
| 2017 || Neuralink is announced publicly.
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| 2018 || Neuralink intends to conduct tests on animals. By late year, Elon Musk for the first time publicly invites people to apply for jobs at the company. He also announces Neuralink aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence.
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| 2019 ||A presentation of Neuralink is held, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology. The company cumulates US$158 million in funding and employs a staff of 90 people.|-| 2020 || Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.
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! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
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| 2016 1970s || July 11 || Launch Prelude || Research on {{w|Neurlainkbrain–computer interface}} s begins at the {{w|University of California, Los Angeles}} (UCLA) under a grant from the {{w|National Science Foundation}}, followed by a contract from {{w|DARPA}}.<ref name="Vidal1">{{cite journal|pmid=4583653|doi=10.1146/annurev.bb.02.060173.001105|year=1973|last1=Vidal|first1=JJ|title=Toward direct brain-computer communication|volume=2|pages=157–80|journal=Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering|issue=1}}</ref><ref name="Vidal2">{{cite journal|author=J. Vidal|title=Real-Time Detection of Brain Events in EEG|journal=IEEE Proceedings|year=1977|url=http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~vidal/Real_Time_Detection.pdf|volume=65|pages=633–641|doi=10.1109/PROC.1977.10542|issue=5}}</ref>|-| 1997 || || Prelude || Dr. Richard Norman at the {{w|University of Utah}} develops the Utah electrode array, a tiny piece of silicon, only a quarter of an inch on its side, with 256 electrodes that can be attached to the central nervous system to listen to neural activity.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Markman |first1=Jon |title=Elon Musk's Other Big Start-Up, Neuralink, Is Gaining Momentum |url=https://www.thestreet.com/investing/stocks/elon-musk-neuralink-gains-momentum-15072786 |website=thestreet.com |accessdate=2 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 1998 || || Prelude || The first sensor is foundedimplanted in the brain of a paralyzed patient. Since then, at least about a dozen people would receive similar implants.<refname="Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade">{{cite web |title=Neuralink Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade |url=https://www.crunchbasetheverge.com/organization2017/4/21/15370376/elon-musk-neuralink#section-listsbrain-computer-featuringai-thisimplant-company neuroscience |website=crunchbasetheverge.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 2009 || January || Prelude || American inventor {{w|Elon MuskRaymond Kurzweil}} buys that by 2020 we’ll have "computers that are powerful enough to simulate the name Neuralink to a pair of {{w|neurotechnology}} researchers that owned human brain. However, we won’t be finished yet with reverse engineering the trademark on "NeuraLinkhuman brain and understanding its methods" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.<refname="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer">{{cite web |title=Meet Neuralink: How the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” to Elon Musk without Even Realizing It Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer |url=https://www.technologyreviewinterestingengineering.com/s/604037/meetneuralink-how-the-guyshuman-whobrain-soldwill-neuralinkdownload-todirectly-elonfrom-muska-without-even-realizing-itcomputer |website=interestingengineering.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="The Coming Singularity">{{cite web |title=Ray Kurzweil: The Coming Singularity |url=https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=1uIzS1uCOcE |website=technologyreviewyoutube.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 2011 || February || Competition || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits {{w|Emotiv}} is founded as a letter to US-based {{w|bioinformatics}} company which works in understanding the city of human brain using {{w|San Franciscoelectroencephalography}}'s planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab(EEG).<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit to build biological research lab Emotiv |url=https://www.teslaraticrunchbase.com/elon-musk-neuralink-permits-biological-testing-laborganization/ emotiv |website=teslaraticrunchbase.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref> It would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2017 2015 || March 28 || Competition || {{w|Elon Musk}} confirms the existence of {{w|Neuralink}}BrainCo is founded. The company develops brain-machine interface (BMI) technology products including sensors, hardware, software, and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But WhyAI}} in a week.<ref>{{cite web | title= It would later be listed among the top Neuralink | url=https://twittercompetitors.com/elonmusk/status/846580443797368832 |website=witter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |<refname=Long "Top 8 Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the time, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref><refCompetitors Everyone Should Track">{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk’s brain interface startup Top 8 Neuralink files $27M fundraise Competitors Everyone Should Track |url=https://techcrunchwww.analyticsindiamag.com/2017/08/25/elontop-musks8-brainneuralink-interface-startup-neuralinkcompetitors-fileseveryone-27mshould-fundraisetrack/ |website=techcrunchanalyticsindiamag.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 2016 || April 20 June || Prelude || At Recode’s Code conference, South African entrepreneur {{w|Wait But WhyElon Musk}} editor Tim Urban posts the first deep look at discusses his "{{w|Neuralinkneural lace}}" proposal, after Musk petition from about a month and a half before{{w|brain–computer interface}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future Elon Musk Full interview Code Conference 2016 |url=https://waitbutwhywww.youtube.com/2017/04/neuralink.html watch?v=wsixsRI-Sz4 |website=waitbutwhyyoutube.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref> Musk confirms plans for the company, revealing he will be the chief executive of a startup that aims to merge computers with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.”<refname="Etherington">{{cite web |last1=Etherington |first1=Darrell |title=Elon Musk Lays Out Plans -backed Neuralink to detail its progress on upgrading the brain to Meld Brains and Computers keep pace with AI |url=https://www.wsjtechcrunch.com/articles2019/07/12/elon-musk-laysbacked-neuralink-to-detail-outits-plansprogress-on-upgrading-the-brain-to-meldkeep-brainspace-andwith-computers-1492738741 ai/ |website=wsjtechcrunch.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 2016 || February July 11 || Notable comment Launch || {{w|Neuralink}} is founded by {{w|Elon Musk}} claims “that people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo, Max Hodak, Paul Merolla, Philip Sabes, Tim Gardner, Tim Hanson, and Vanessa Tolosa.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? Neuralink |url=https://www.fairobservercrunchbase.com/regionorganization/north_america/elonneuralink#section-musklists-artificialfeaturing-intelligencethis-technology-news-headlines-96712/company |website=fairobservercrunchbase.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><refname="LAT2017-04">{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=httpshttp://www.cnbclatimes.com/2017business/04/24technology/la-fi-tn-elon-musk-neuralink-ai-human-machine20170421-terminator-skynethtmlstory.html |websitetitle=A quick guide to Elon Musk's new brain-implant company, Neuralink|last=Masunaga|first=Samantha|date=cnbc.com 21 April 2017|accessdatework=29 July 2019{{w|Los Angeles Times}}}}</ref>
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| 2018 2016 || May || Competition || Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the {{w|University of California}}. The company i expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at [[w:University of California, DavisKernel (neurotechnology company)|UC DavisKernel]]' {{w|California National Primate Research Center}}is founded. It builds advanced neural interfaces to treat disease, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to illuminate the study mechanisms of health intelligence, and disease on primatesextend cognition.<ref>{{cite web |title=It would later be listed among the top Neuralink Is Funding Primate Research at the University of California |url=https://gizmodocompetitors.com/neuralink-is-funding-primate-research-at-the-university-1826205424 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |titlename="Top 8 Neuralink - UC Davis Primate Center - Services Agreement |url=https:/Competitors Everyone Should Track"/www.scribd.com/document/379906285/Neuralink-UC-Davis-Primate-Center-Services-Agreement?campaign=SkimbitLtd&ad_group=33330X911642Xbd980c46b67dbe987520610dbcbb787d&keyword=660149026&source=hp_affiliate&medium=affiliate |website=scribd.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 2017 || November 26 January || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets mentioning buys the name Neuralink from a pair of {{w|Neuralinkneurotechnology}} for researchers that owned the first time in 20 months, inviting people to apply for jobs at the firm alongside three of his other companiestrademark on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” to Elon Musk Breaks Twitter Silence on Secretive A.I.-Brain Firm Neuralink without Even Realizing It |url=https://www.inversetechnologyreview.com/articles/51228604037/meet-elonthe-muskguys-breakswho-twittersold-silenceneuralink-onto-secretiveelon-amusk-iwithout-braineven-firmrealizing-neuralink |website=inverse.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/statusit/1067173241800650752 |website=twittertechnologyreview.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February || Research || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to the city of {{w|San Francisco}}'s planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit to build biological research lab |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-permits-biological-testing-lab/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2017 || February || Notable comment || {{w|Elon Musk}} claims that "people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/24/elon-musk-neuralink-ai-human-machine-terminator-skynet.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> |-| 2017 || March 28 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} confirms the existence of {{w|Neuralink}}, and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But Why}} in a week.<ref>{{cite web | title= Neuralink | url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/846580443797368832 |website=witter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the time, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise |url=https://techcrunch.com/2017/08/25/elon-musks-brain-interface-startup-neuralink-files-27m-fundraise/ |website=techcrunch.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2017 || April 20 || Review || {{w|Wait But Why}} editor Tim Urban posts the first deep look at {{w|Neuralink}}, after Musk petition from about a month and a half before.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future |url=https://waitbutwhy.com/2017/04/neuralink.html |website=waitbutwhy.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> Musk confirms plans for the company, revealing he will be the chief executive of a startup that aims to merge computers with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.”<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Lays Out Plans to Meld Brains and Computers |url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/elon-musk-lays-out-plans-to-meld-brains-and-computers-1492738741 |website=wsj.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2017 || June || Research || Neuralink scientists start researching at the {{w|University of California, Davis}} campus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's Neuralink Startup Planned to Test on Animals, Report Claims |url=https://www.inverse.com/article/42994-elon-musk-neuralink-testing |website=inverse.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2017 || July 19 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} talks about {{w|Neuralink}} in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, and says the reason he went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated with {{w|artificial intelligence}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk - A.I., Biology, Neuralink |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> |-| 2017 || August 25 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets: "Neuralink is not seeking investors."<ref name="neuralink d"/>|-| 2018 || March || Notable comment || At a {{w|South by Southwest}} tech conference in {{w|Austin, Texas}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} calls {{w|AI}} more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligence.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: ‘Mark my words — A.I. is far more dangerous than nukes’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/13/elon-musk-at-sxsw-a-i-is-more-dangerous-than-nuclear-weapons.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>|-| 2018 || March || Research || Report communicates that Neuralink has plans to test products on animals.<ref>{{cite web |title=Brain implants intended for humans to be tested on animals |url=https://endtimeheadlines.org/2018/03/brain-implants-intended-for-humans-to-be-tested-on-animals/ |website=endtimeheadlines.org |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref> |-| 2018 || May || Funding || Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the {{w|University of California}}. The company is expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at [[w:University of California, Davis|UC Davis]]' {{w|California National Primate Research Center}}, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to the study of health and disease on primates.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink Is Funding Primate Research at the University of California |url=https://gizmodo.com/neuralink-is-funding-primate-research-at-the-university-1826205424 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink - UC Davis Primate Center - Services Agreement |url=https://www.scribd.com/document/379906285/Neuralink-UC-Davis-Primate-Center-Services-Agreement?campaign=SkimbitLtd&ad_group=33330X911642Xbd980c46b67dbe987520610dbcbb787d&keyword=660149026&source=hp_affiliate&medium=affiliate |website=scribd.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview with podcaster {{w|Joe Rogan}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} says {{w|Neuralink}} aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence that will serve as a tertiary cognition layer augmenting the human cortex and limbic systems.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk on Joe Rogan - what is Neuralink |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5pgAM26wuM&t=63s |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Plans to Put Chips in Human Brains by 2020 |url=https://syncedreview.com/2019/07/17/elon-musks-neuralink-plans-to-put-chips-in-human-brains-by-2020/ |website=syncedreview.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> |-| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview, {{w|Elon Musk}} hints that {{w|Neuralink}} would first introduce {{w|microcontroller}}s to further advance computer-brain interface technology, i.e., possibly unveiling an initial version of what will eventually become a “neural lace.”<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink to livestream special project update on July 16 |url=https://www.teslarati.com/neuralink-project-demo-event-livestream-july-16/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ELON MUSK LATEST INTERVIEW WITH AXIOS 25 NOVEMBER |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQjUw16Mu_0 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>|-| 2018 || November 26 || Employment || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets mentioning {{w|Neuralink}} for the first time in 20 months, inviting people to apply for jobs at the firm alongside three of his other companies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Breaks Twitter Silence on Secretive A.I.-Brain Firm Neuralink |url=https://www.inverse.com/article/51228-elon-musk-breaks-twitter-silence-on-secretive-a-i-brain-firm-neuralink |website=inverse.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1067173241800650752 |website=twitter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || May || Funding || {{w|Bloomberg}} reports on Neuralink having raised US$39 million of its planned US$51 million funding target.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's Neuralink startup raises $39 MILLION as it seeks to develop tech that will connect the human brain with computers |url=https://bak.megam.info/sciencetech/article-7025075/Elon-Musks-Neuralink-startup-raises-39-MILLION-seeks-develop-brain-computer-tech.html |website=bak.megam.info |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> |-| 2019 || July 16 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} and {{w|Neuralink}} president Max Hodak host a presentation of the company in {{w|San Francisco}}, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Presentation: Live Recap of What Happened |url=https://heavy.com/tech/2019/07/elon-musk-neuralink-presentation-recap/ |website=heavy.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> |-| 2019 || July 18 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets about Neuralink: "Addressing {{w|epilepsy}} is likely one of the more near-term applications".<ref name="neuralink d">{{cite web |title=elonmusk neuralink twitter |url=https://twitter.com/search?f=tweets&q=from%3Aelonmusk+neuralink&src=typd&vertical=default |website=twitter.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || July || Growth Funding || {{w|Neuralink}} cumulates US$158 million in funding (of which $100 million comes from Musk) and employs a staff of 90 employees.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/technology/neuralink-elon-musk.html|title=Elon Musk’s Company Takes Baby Steps to Wiring Brains to the Internet|last=Markoff|first=John|date=2019-07-16|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-07-17|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>|-| 2019 || August 28 || Notable comment || Elon Musk says during interview that computers are getting smarter, so much so that they could quickly surpass human intelligence "in every single way".<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says computers will eventually surpass us in every single way |url=https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-jack-ma/ |website=digitaltrends.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: Computers will surpass us ‘in every single way’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/28/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-in-every-single-way.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || September 5 || Competition || American Internet entrepreneur {{w|Jag Singh}} publishes a project based on work at the {{w|MIT Media Lab}} to construct a {{w|brain–computer interface}} that allows users to telepathically query {{w|Google Search}}, anticipating Neuralink's BCI.<ref>{{cite web |title=Merging with AI: How to Make a Brain-Computer Interface to Communicate with Google using Keras and OpenBCI |url=https://www.reddit.com/r/Neuralink/comments/czxkio/merging_with_ai_how_to_make_a_braincomputer/ |website=reddit.com |accessdate=6 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Merging with AI: How to Make a Brain-Computer Interface to Communicate with Google using Keras and OpenBCI |url=https://medium.com/swlh/merging-with-ai-how-to-make-a-brain-computer-interface-to-communicate-with-google-using-keras-and-f9414c540a92 |website=medium.com |accessdate=6 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2020 || || {{w|Clinical trial}} || According to July 19 {{w|Elon Musk}}'s report, {{w|Neuralink}} human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says Neuralink plans 2020 human test of brain-computer interface |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-neuralink-works-monkeys-human-test-brain-computer-interface-in-2020/ |website=cnet.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink targets human trials for brain-machine interface in 2020 |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-human-trials-to-begin-in-2020/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Plans to Start Putting Chips in Human Brains Next Year |url=https://www.highsnobiety.com/p/elon-musk-neuralink-2020/ |website=highsnobiety.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>|-| 2029 || || Prediction || According to 2009 {{w|Raymond Kurzweil}} prediction, by this "scientists will have reverse-engineered, modeled and simulated all the regions of the brain. That will provide humans with the software and algorithmic methods to simulate all of the human brain's capabilities including the emotional intelligence."<ref name="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer"/><ref name="The Coming Singularity"/>
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==See also==
 
* [[Timeline of OpenAI]]
* [[Timeline of SpaceX]]
* [[Timeline of PayPal]]
==External links==
 
[https://www.neuralink.com/ Official site]
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
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