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Timeline of Neuralink

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Full timeline: fix some typos and grammar
This is a '''timeline of {{w|Neuralink}}''', a {{w|San Francisco}}-based {{w|neurotechnology}} company founded by {{w|Elon Musk}} and others, which aims at developing [[w:brain implant|implantable]] {{w|brain–machine interface}}s (BMIs).
==Big picture==
| 2017 || Neuralink is announced publicly.
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| 2018 || Neuralink intends to conduct tests on animals. By late year, Elon Musk for the first time publicly invites people to apply for jobs at the company. He also announces Neuralink aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence.
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| 2019 ||A presentation of Neuralink is held, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology. The company cumulates US$158 million in funding and employs a staff of 90 people.|-| 2020 || Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.
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| 1970s || || Prelude || Research on {{w|brain–computer interface}}s begins at the {{w|University of California, Los Angeles}} (UCLA) under a grant from the {{w|National Science Foundation}}, followed by a contract from {{w|DARPA}}.<ref name="Vidal1">{{cite journal|pmid=4583653|doi=10.1146/annurev.bb.02.060173.001105|year=1973|last1=Vidal|first1=JJ|title=Toward direct brain-computer communication|volume=2|pages=157–80|journal=Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering|issue=1}}</ref><ref name="Vidal2">{{cite journal|author=J. Vidal|title=Real-Time Detection of Brain Events in EEG|journal=IEEE Proceedings|year=1977|url=http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~vidal/Real_Time_Detection.pdf|volume=65|pages=633–641|doi=10.1109/PROC.1977.10542|issue=5}}</ref>
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| 1997 || || Prelude || Dr. Richard Norman at the {{w|University of Utah}} develops the Utah electrode array, a tiny piece of silicon, only a quarter of an inch on its side, with 256 electrodes that can be attached to the central nervous system to listen to neural activity.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Markman |first1=Jon |title=Elon Musk's Other Big Start-Up, Neuralink, Is Gaining Momentum |url=https://www.thestreet.com/investing/stocks/elon-musk-neuralink-gains-momentum-15072786 |website=thestreet.com |accessdate=2 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 1998 || || Prelude || The first sensor is implanted in the brain of a paralyzed patient. Since then, at least about a dozen people would receive similar implants.<ref name="Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade">{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/21/15370376/elon-musk-neuralink-brain-computer-ai-implant-neuroscience |website=theverge.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
| 2009 || || Prelude || American inventor {{w|Raymond Kurzweil}} that by 2020 we’ll have "computers that are powerful enough to simulate the human brain. However, we won’t be finished yet with reverse engineering the human brain and understanding its methods".<ref name="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer">{{cite web |title=Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer |url=https://interestingengineering.com/neuralink-how-the-human-brain-will-download-directly-from-a-computer |website=interestingengineering.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="The Coming Singularity">{{cite web |title=Ray Kurzweil: The Coming Singularity |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uIzS1uCOcE |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2011 || || Competition || {{w|Emotiv}} is founded as a US-based {{w|bioinformatics}} company which works in understanding the human brain using {{w|electroencephalography}} (EEG).<ref>{{cite web |title=Emotiv |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/emotiv |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2015 || || Competition || BrainCo is founded. The company develops brain-machine interface (BMI) technology products including sensors, hardware, software, and {{w|AI}}. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track">{{cite web |title=Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track |url=https://www.analyticsindiamag.com/top-8-neuralink-competitors-everyone-should-track/ |website=analyticsindiamag.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || June || Prelude || At Recode’s Code conference , South African entrepreneur {{w|Elon Musk}} discusses about his "{{w|neural lace}}" proposal, a {{w|brain–computer interface}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Full interview Code Conference 2016 |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsixsRI-Sz4 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="Etherington">{{cite web |last1=Etherington |first1=Darrell |title=Elon Musk-backed Neuralink to detail its progress on upgrading the brain to keep pace with AI |url=https://techcrunch.com/2019/07/12/elon-musk-backed-neuralink-to-detail-its-progress-on-upgrading-the-brain-to-keep-pace-with-ai/ |website=techcrunch.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || July 11 || Launch || {{w|NeurlainkNeuralink}} is foundedby {{w|Elon Musk}}, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo, Max Hodak, Paul Merolla, Philip Sabes, Tim Gardner, Tim Hanson, and Vanessa Tolosa.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/neuralink#section-lists-featuring-this-company |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="LAT2017-04">{{cite web|url=http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-elon-musk-neuralink-20170421-htmlstory.html|title=A quick guide to Elon Musk's new brain-implant company, Neuralink|last=Masunaga|first=Samantha|date=21 April 2017|work={{w|Los Angeles Times}}}}</ref>
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| 2016 || || Competition || [[w:Kernel (neurotechnology company)|Kernel]] is founded. It builds advanced neural interfaces to treat disease, illuminate the mechanisms of intelligence, and extend cognition. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2017 || January || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} buys the name Neuralink to from a pair of {{w|neurotechnology}} researchers that owned the trademark on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” to Elon Musk without Even Realizing It |url=https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604037/meet-the-guys-who-sold-neuralink-to-elon-musk-without-even-realizing-it/ |website=technologyreview.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February || Research || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to the city of {{w|San Francisco}}'s planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit to build biological research lab |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-permits-biological-testing-lab/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || March 28 February || Notable comment || {{w|Elon Musk}} confirms the existence of {{w|Neuralink}}, and reveals claims that a longer story about Neuralink "people would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But Why}} need to become cyborgs to be relevant in a weekan artificial intelligence age."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter | title= Neuralink The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? | url=https://twitterwww.fairobserver.com/elonmuskregion/statusnorth_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/846580443797368832 |website=witterfairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the time, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=https://techcrunchwww.cnbc.com/2017/0804/2524/elon-musksmusk-brainneuralink-interfaceai-startuphuman-neuralinkmachine-filesterminator-27m-fundraise/ skynet.html |website=techcrunchcnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || April 20 March 28 || Company || {{w|Wait But WhyElon Musk}} editor Tim Urban posts confirms the first deep look at existence of {{w|Neuralink}}, after Musk petition from and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But Why}} in a month and a half beforeweek.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future |url=https://waitbutwhytwitter.com/2017elonmusk/04status/neuralink.html 846580443797368832 |website=waitbutwhywitter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019|ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the time, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref> Musk confirms plans for the company, revealing he will be the chief executive of a startup that aims to merge computers with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.”<ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk Lays Out Plans to Meld Brains and Computers Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise |url=https://www.wsjtechcrunch.com/articles2017/08/25/elon-muskmusks-laysbrain-outinterface-plansstartup-toneuralink-meldfiles-brains27m-and-computers-1492738741 fundraise/ |website=wsjtechcrunch.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || July 19 April 20 || Review || {{w|Elon MuskWait But Why}} talks about editor Tim Urban posts the first deep look at {{w|Neuralink}} in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in , after Musk petition from about a month and a half before.<ref>{{wcite web |title=Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future |url=https://waitbutwhy.com/2017/04/neuralink.html |Washington, DCwebsite=waitbutwhy.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> Musk confirms plans for the company, and says revealing he will be the reason he went chief executive of a startup that aims to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated merge computers with {{w|artificial intelligence}}brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk - A.I., Biology, Neuralink Lays Out Plans to Meld Brains and Computers |url=https://www.youtubewsj.com/watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI articles/elon-musk-lays-out-plans-to-meld-brains-and-computers-1492738741 |website=youtubewsj.com |accessdate=1 August 29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February June || Notable comment Research || Neuralink scientists start researching at the {{w|Elon MuskUniversity of California, Davis}} claims “that people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age.“<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobservercampus.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan 's Neuralink Startup Planned to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario Test on Animals, Report Claims |url=https://www.cnbcinverse.com/2017/04/24article/42994-elon-musk-neuralink-ai-human-machine-terminator-skynet.html testing |website=cnbcinverse.com |accessdate=29 July 23 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 2017 || March July 19 || Company || At a {{w|South by SouthwestElon Musk}} tech conference in talks about {{w|Austin, TexasNeuralink}}, in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in {{w|Elon MuskWashington, DC.}} calls , and says the reason he went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated with {{w|AIartificial intelligence}} more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligence.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: ‘Mark my words — - A.I. is far more dangerous than nukes’ , Biology, Neuralink |url=https://www.cnbcyoutube.com/2018/03/13/elon-musk-at-sxsw-a-i-is-more-dangerous-than-nuclear-weapons.html watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI |website=cnbcyoutube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 2017 || May August 25 || Company || Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the {{w|University of CaliforniaElon Musk}}. The company i expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at [[wtweets:University of California, Davis|UC Davis]]' {{w|California National Primate Research Center}}, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to the study of health and disease on primates.<ref>{{cite web |title="Neuralink Is Funding Primate Research at the University of California |url=https://gizmodo.com/neuralink-is-funding-primate-research-at-the-university-1826205424 |website=gizmodonot seeking investors.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>"<ref>{{cite web |titlename=Neuralink - UC Davis Primate Center - Services Agreement |url=https://www.scribd.com/document/379906285/Neuralink-UC-Davis-Primate-Center-Services-Agreement?campaign=SkimbitLtd&ad_group=33330X911642Xbd980c46b67dbe987520610dbcbb787d&keyword=660149026&source=hp_affiliate&medium=affiliate |website=scribd.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}<"neuralink d"/ref>
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| 2018 || November March || Notable comment || In an interview with podcaster At a {{w|South by Southwest}} tech conference in {{w|Joe RoganAustin, Texas}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} says calls {{w|NeuralinkAI}} aspires more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to symbiotically merge human brains with be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super digital intelligence that will serve as a tertiary cognition layer augmenting the human cortex and limbic systems.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk on Joe Rogan - what : ‘Mark my words — A.I. is Neuralink far more dangerous than nukes’ |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5pgAM26wuM&t=63s |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Plans to Put Chips in Human Brains by 2020 |url=https://syncedreviewcnbc.com/20192018/0703/1713/elon-musksmusk-neuralinkat-planssxsw-toa-puti-chipsis-inmore-humandangerous-brainsthan-bynuclear-2020/ weapons.html |website=syncedreviewcnbc.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || November March || Research || In an interview, {{w|Elon Musk}} hints Report communicates that {{w|Neuralink}} would first introduce {{w|microcontroller}}s has plans to further advance computer-brain interface technology, i.e., possibly unveiling an initial version of what will eventually become a “neural lacetest products on animals.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Brain implants intended for humans to livestream special project update be tested on July 16 animals |url=https://wwwendtimeheadlines.teslarati.comorg/2018/03/neuralinkbrain-implants-intended-for-projecthumans-demoto-eventbe-livestreamtested-julyon-16/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ELON MUSK LATEST INTERVIEW WITH AXIOS 25 NOVEMBER |url=https:/animals/www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQjUw16Mu_0 |website=youtubeendtimeheadlines.com org |accessdate=1 August 23 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || May || Funding || Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the {{w|University of California}}. The company is expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at [[w:University of California, Davis|UC Davis]]' {{w|California National Primate Research Center}}, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to the study of health and disease on primates.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink Is Funding Primate Research at the University of California |url=https://gizmodo.com/neuralink-is-funding-primate-research-at-the-university-1826205424 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink - UC Davis Primate Center - Services Agreement |url=https://www.scribd.com/document/379906285/Neuralink-UC-Davis-Primate-Center-Services-Agreement?campaign=SkimbitLtd&ad_group=33330X911642Xbd980c46b67dbe987520610dbcbb787d&keyword=660149026&source=hp_affiliate&medium=affiliate |website=scribd.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview with podcaster {{w|Joe Rogan}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} says {{w|Neuralink}} aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence that will serve as a tertiary cognition layer augmenting the human cortex and limbic systems.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk on Joe Rogan - what is Neuralink |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5pgAM26wuM&t=63s |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Plans to Put Chips in Human Brains by 2020 |url=https://syncedreview.com/2019/07/17/elon-musks-neuralink-plans-to-put-chips-in-human-brains-by-2020/ |website=syncedreview.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> |-| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview, {{w|Elon Musk}} hints that {{w|Neuralink}} would first introduce {{w|microcontroller}}s to further advance computer-brain interface technology, i.e., possibly unveiling an initial version of what will eventually become a “neural lace.”<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink to livestream special project update on July 16 |url=https://www.teslarati.com/neuralink-project-demo-event-livestream-july-16/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ELON MUSK LATEST INTERVIEW WITH AXIOS 25 NOVEMBER |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQjUw16Mu_0 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>|-| 2018 || November 26 || Employment || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets mentioning {{w|Neuralink}} for the first time in 20 months, inviting people to apply for jobs at the firm alongside three of his other companies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Breaks Twitter Silence on Secretive A.I.-Brain Firm Neuralink |url=https://www.inverse.com/article/51228-elon-musk-breaks-twitter-silence-on-secretive-a-i-brain-firm-neuralink |website=inverse.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1067173241800650752 |website=twitter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || May || Funding || {{w|Bloomberg}} reports on Neuralink having raised US$39 million of its planned US$51 million funding target.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's Neuralink startup raises $39 MILLION as it seeks to develop tech that will connect the human brain with computers |url=https://bak.megam.info/sciencetech/article-7025075/Elon-Musks-Neuralink-startup-raises-39-MILLION-seeks-develop-brain-computer-tech.html |website=bak.megam.info |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 16 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} and {{w|Neuralink}} president Max Hodak host a presentation of the company in {{w|San Francisco}}, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Presentation: Live Recap of What Happened |url=https://heavy.com/tech/2019/07/elon-musk-neuralink-presentation-recap/ |website=heavy.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 18 || Growth Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets about Neuralink: "Addressing {{w|epilepsy}} is likely one of the more near-term applications".<ref name="neuralink d">{{cite web |title=elonmusk neuralink twitter |url=https://twitter.com/search?f=tweets&q=from%3Aelonmusk+neuralink&src=typd&vertical=default |website=twitter.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || July || Funding || {{w|Neuralink}} cumulates US$158 million in funding (of which $100 million comes from Musk) and employs a staff of 90 employees.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/technology/neuralink-elon-musk.html|title=Elon Musk’s Company Takes Baby Steps to Wiring Brains to the Internet|last=Markoff|first=John|date=2019-07-16|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-07-17|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>|-| 2019 || August 28 || Notable comment || Elon Musk says during interview that computers are getting smarter, so much so that they could quickly surpass human intelligence "in every single way".<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says computers will eventually surpass us in every single way |url=https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-jack-ma/ |website=digitaltrends.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: Computers will surpass us ‘in every single way’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/28/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-in-every-single-way.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || September 5 || Competition || American Internet entrepreneur {{w|Jag Singh}} publishes a project based on work at the {{w|MIT Media Lab}} to construct a {{w|brain–computer interface}} that allows users to telepathically query {{w|Google Search}}, anticipating Neuralink's BCI.<ref>{{cite web |title=Merging with AI: How to Make a Brain-Computer Interface to Communicate with Google using Keras and OpenBCI |url=https://www.reddit.com/r/Neuralink/comments/czxkio/merging_with_ai_how_to_make_a_braincomputer/ |website=reddit.com |accessdate=6 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Merging with AI: How to Make a Brain-Computer Interface to Communicate with Google using Keras and OpenBCI |url=https://medium.com/swlh/merging-with-ai-how-to-make-a-brain-computer-interface-to-communicate-with-google-using-keras-and-f9414c540a92 |website=medium.com |accessdate=6 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2020 || || {{w|Clinical trial}} || According to July 19 {{w|Elon Musk}}'s report, {{w|Neuralink}} human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says Neuralink plans 2020 human test of brain-computer interface |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-neuralink-works-monkeys-human-test-brain-computer-interface-in-2020/ |website=cnet.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink targets human trials for brain-machine interface in 2020 |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-human-trials-to-begin-in-2020/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Plans to Start Putting Chips in Human Brains Next Year |url=https://www.highsnobiety.com/p/elon-musk-neuralink-2020/ |website=highsnobiety.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2029 || || Prediction || According to 2009 {{w|Raymond Kurzweil}} prediction, by this "scientists will have reverse-engineered, modeled and simulated all the regions of the brain. That will provide humans with the software and algorithmic methods to simulate all of the human brain's capabilities including the emotional intelligence."<ref name="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer"/><ref name="The Coming Singularity"/>
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==External links==
 
[https://www.neuralink.com/ Official site]
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
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