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Timeline of Neuralink

1,070 bytes added, 18:54, 5 October 2019
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Full timeline: fix some typos and grammar
This is a '''timeline of {{w|Neuralink}}''', a {{w|San Francisco}}-based {{w|neurotechnology}} company founded by {{w|Elon Musk}} and others, which aims at developing [[w:brain implant|implantable]] {{w|brain–machine interface}}s (BMIs).
==Big picture==
| 2017 || Neuralink is announced publicly.
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| 2018 || Neuralink intends to conduct tests on animals. By late year, Elon Musk for the first time publicly invites people to apply for jobs at the company. He also announces Neuralinkaspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence.
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| 2019 || A presentation of Neuralink is held, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology. The company cumulates US$158 million in funding and employs a staff of 90 people.
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| 2020 || Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.
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! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
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| 1970s || || Background Prelude || Research on {{w|brain–computer interface}}s begins at the {{w|University of California, Los Angeles}} (UCLA) under a grant from the {{w|National Science Foundation}}, followed by a contract from {{w|DARPA}}.<ref name="Vidal1">{{cite journal|pmid=4583653|doi=10.1146/annurev.bb.02.060173.001105|year=1973|last1=Vidal|first1=JJ|title=Toward direct brain-computer communication|volume=2|pages=157–80|journal=Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering|issue=1}}</ref><ref name="Vidal2">{{cite journal|author=J. Vidal|title=Real-Time Detection of Brain Events in EEG|journal=IEEE Proceedings|year=1977|url=http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~vidal/Real_Time_Detection.pdf|volume=65|pages=633–641|doi=10.1109/PROC.1977.10542|issue=5}}</ref>
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| 1997 || || Background Prelude || Dr. Richard Norman at the {{w|University of Utah}} develops the Utah electrode array, a tiny piece of silicon, only a quarter of an inch on its side, with 256 electrodes that can be attached to the central nervous system to listen to neural activity.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Markman |first1=Jon |title=Elon Musk's Other Big Start-Up, Neuralink, Is Gaining Momentum |url=https://www.thestreet.com/investing/stocks/elon-musk-neuralink-gains-momentum-15072786 |website=thestreet.com |accessdate=2 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 1998 || || Background Prelude || The first sensor is implanted in the brain of a paralyzed patient. Since then, at least about a dozen people would receive similar implants.<ref name="Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade">{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/21/15370376/elon-musk-neuralink-brain-computer-ai-implant-neuroscience |website=theverge.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2009 || || Background Prelude || American inventor {{w|Raymond Kurzweil}} that by 2020 we’ll have "computers that are powerful enough to simulate the human brain. However, we won’t be finished yet with reverse engineering the human brain and understanding its methods".<ref name="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer">{{cite web |title=Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer |url=https://interestingengineering.com/neuralink-how-the-human-brain-will-download-directly-from-a-computer |website=interestingengineering.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="The Coming Singularity">{{cite web |title=Ray Kurzweil: The Coming Singularity |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uIzS1uCOcE |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2011 || || Competition || {{w|Emotiv}} is founded as a US-based {{w|bioinformatics}} company which works in understanding the human brain using {{w|electroencephalography}} (EEG).<ref>{{cite web |title=Emotiv |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/emotiv |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2015 || || Competition || BrainCo is founded. The company develops brain-machine interface (BMI) technology products including sensors, hardware, software, and {{w|AI}}. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track">{{cite web |title=Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track |url=https://www.analyticsindiamag.com/top-8-neuralink-competitors-everyone-should-track/ |website=analyticsindiamag.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || June || Prelude || At Recode’s Code conference , South African entrepreneur {{w|Elon Musk}} discusses about his "{{w|neural lace}}" proposal, a {{w|brain–computer interface}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Full interview Code Conference 2016 |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsixsRI-Sz4 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="Etherington">{{cite web |last1=Etherington |first1=Darrell |title=Elon Musk-backed Neuralink to detail its progress on upgrading the brain to keep pace with AI |url=https://techcrunch.com/2019/07/12/elon-musk-backed-neuralink-to-detail-its-progress-on-upgrading-the-brain-to-keep-pace-with-ai/ |website=techcrunch.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || July 11 || Launch || {{w|Neuralink}} is founded by {{w|Elon Musk}}, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo, Max Hodak, Paul Merolla, Philip Sabes, Tim Gardner, Tim Hanson, and Vanessa Tolosa.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/neuralink#section-lists-featuring-this-company |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="LAT2017-04">{{cite web|url=http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-elon-musk-neuralink-20170421-htmlstory.html|title=A quick guide to Elon Musk's new brain-implant company, Neuralink|last=Masunaga|first=Samantha|date=21 April 2017|work={{w|Los Angeles Times}}}}</ref>
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| 2016 || || Competition || [[w:Kernel (neurotechnology company)|Kernel]] is founded. It builds advanced neural interfaces to treat disease, illuminate the mechanisms of intelligence, and extend cognition. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2017 || January || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} buys the name Neuralink to from a pair of {{w|neurotechnology}} researchers that owned the trademark on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” to Elon Musk without Even Realizing It |url=https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604037/meet-the-guys-who-sold-neuralink-to-elon-musk-without-even-realizing-it/ |website=technologyreview.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February || Research || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to the city of {{w|San Francisco}}'s planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit to build biological research lab |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-permits-biological-testing-lab/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February || Notable comment || {{w|Elon Musk}} claims that "people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/24/elon-musk-neuralink-ai-human-machine-terminator-skynet.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || March 28 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} confirms the existence of {{w|Neuralink}}, and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But Why}} in a week.<ref>{{cite web | title= Neuralink | url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/846580443797368832 |website=witter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the time, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise |url=https://techcrunch.com/2017/08/25/elon-musks-brain-interface-startup-neuralink-files-27m-fundraise/ |website=techcrunch.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
| 2017 || July 19 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} talks about {{w|Neuralink}} in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, and says the reason he went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated with {{w|artificial intelligence}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk - A.I., Biology, Neuralink |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February August 25 || Notable comment Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} claims “that people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age.“<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionarytweets: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver"Neuralink is not seeking investors.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}"</ref><ref>{{cite web |titlename=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/24/elon-musk-"neuralink-ai-human-machine-terminator-skynet.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}<d"/ref>
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| 2018 || March || Notable comment || At a {{w|South by Southwest}} tech conference in {{w|Austin, Texas}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} calls {{w|AI}} more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligence.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: ‘Mark my words — A.I. is far more dangerous than nukes’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/13/elon-musk-at-sxsw-a-i-is-more-dangerous-than-nuclear-weapons.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 16 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} and {{w|Neuralink}} president Max Hodak host a presentation of the company in {{w|San Francisco}}, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Presentation: Live Recap of What Happened |url=https://heavy.com/tech/2019/07/elon-musk-neuralink-presentation-recap/ |website=heavy.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 18 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets about Neuralink: "Addressing {{w|epilepsy}} is likely one of the more near-term applications".<ref name="neuralink d">{{cite web |title=elonmusk neuralink twitter |url=https://twitter.com/search?f=tweets&q=from%3Aelonmusk+neuralink&src=typd&vertical=default |website=twitter.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July || Funding || {{w|Neuralink}} cumulates US$158 million in funding (of which $100 million comes from Musk) and employs a staff of 90 employees.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/technology/neuralink-elon-musk.html|title=Elon Musk’s Company Takes Baby Steps to Wiring Brains to the Internet|last=Markoff|first=John|date=2019-07-16|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-07-17|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==External links==
 
[https://www.neuralink.com/ Official site]
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
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