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Timeline of food and nutrition in China

262 bytes removed, 17:55, 28 November 2019
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| 1949–1957 || || || "Cereal consumption increased from 1949 through 1957. It dropped to its lowest level in 1962, following a period of economic experimentation that did not meet its agricultural target and actually led to major declines in food production and nutritional status, and then slowly recovered and reached its highest level in 1982. "<ref name="China in the period"/>
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| 1952 || || || "Cereal National per capita cereal consumption, already high, increased from is reported at 541.2 grams per day (70.0% coarse grains) in 1952 to 645.9 grams per day (15.9% coarse grains) in 1992."<ref name="China in the period">{{cite journal |last1=Du |first1=Shufa |last2=Wang |first2=Huijun |last3=Zhang |first3=Bing |last4=Zhai |first4=Fengying |last5=Popkin |first5=Barry M. |title=China in the period of transition from scarcity and extensive undernutrition to emerging nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, 1949–1992 |doi=10.1111/obr.12122 |pmid=24341754 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3869002/ |accessdate=11 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 1952 || Food || Infrastructure || "In 1952, 88.2% of the Chinese population farmedfarm. Without advanced technology and fertilizers, farming required requires tremendous amounts of time and labor. The major transportation mode was is walking. There was is no electricity, and there were are no televisions, no private cars, few public buses, and few bicycles."<ref name="China in the period"/>
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| 1953 || Food || Policy || "In the early period of New China3 the level of grain production was very low, and resolving the problem of increases in demand and shortages in supply became the great challenge for the government. To solve the problem of supplying grain, especially to poor people, a state monopoly for purchasing and marketing grain was is implemented nationally by the end of 1953the year, replacing free trade of grain and oil. The peasants' surplus grain was is purchased by the government at a fixed price and then sold to urban residents and grain-deficient rural households at a low price."<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
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| 1955 || || || "In 1955, the State Council formulated special policies on grain processing and instituted a rationing system (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1988b). According to a quota determined by age, occupation and intensity of labour by the urban individual, coupons for grain are provided each month to all urban households. This approach has been significant in meeting the essential need for grain. Moderate refining of grain has been highly encouraged in grain processing. The well-known "81 flour" (81 kg flour produced from 100 kg wheat) and "92 rice" (92 kg rice produced from 100 kg unpolished rice) are examples of maximized utilization of grain to meet the nutritional requirements of the population."<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
| 1980–1996 || Food || Consumption || Poultry per capita at-home consumption triples from 0.76 to 2.44 kilos in the period, while its share in total meat consumption doubles, from 7.2 percent to 14.2 percent. Egg output grows from 2.6 million tons to 19.5 million, while per capita at-home consumption increases from 2.04 kilos to 5.03 kilos. Beef's share of total meat consumption rises from 2.5 percent to 5 percent.<ref name="China Situation"/>
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| 1980–2014 1980 || Nutrition || || "Malnutrition, previously is reported at a persistent problem under the leadership of {{w|Mao Zedong}}, has declined from 30% of the population in 1980 to less than 12% in 2014."<ref>{{cite web|urlname=https://www.economist.com"reer"/china/2014/06/13/the-hungry-and-forgotten|title=The hungry and forgotten|publisher=[[The Economist]]|date=13 June 2014|accessdate=3 March 2019}}</ref>
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| 1981 || || || " In 1981, the State Council announced that "prioritizing grain production and actively promoting a diversified agro-economy" would be the principle for adjusting the structure of agriculture. The importance of coordinated development of forestry, animal husbandry and aquatic production in association with agriculture was emphasized. Land that had been inappropriately developed for crops was returned to other uses. The area planted in crops decreased from almost 115 million hectares in 1981 to about 113.5 million hectares in 1990; the rate of decrease was 1.3 percent. "<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
| 1981–1990 || || || The area planted in crops decreases from almost 115 million hectares to about 113.5 million hectares in the period, a 1.3 percent rate of decrease.<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
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| 1982 || Nutrition || || "Overweight emerged only after 1982"problems among the population start emerging.<ref name="China in the period"/>
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| 1982 || || || "Cereal consumption increased from 1949 through 1957. It dropped to its lowest level in 1962, following a period of economic experimentation that did not meet its agricultural target and actually led to major declines in food production and nutritional status, and then slowly recovered and reached its highest level in 1982. "<ref name="China in the period"/>
| 1982 || || || China has about 500 milk processing plants with a daily capacity of 4,000 tons and an annual output of 997,000 tons.<ref name="China Situation"/>
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| 1982–1992 || || || "Between 1982 and 1992During the period, there was is a reduction in the intake of all major food groups except for meat, fish, milk and milk products, eggs and oils and fats. As a consequence, there has been is an increase in the share of protein and fat in total energy intake from 10.8% to 11.8% for protein and from 18.4% to 22.0% for fat."<ref name="fao.org"/>
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| 1982–2017 || Food || Production || "Total grain output increased 74% from 354 million tons in 1982 to 618 million tons in 2017, surpassing the growth of its population by about 34%"<ref name="Shoemaker">{{cite web |last1=Cui |first1=Kai |last2=Shoemaker |first2=Sharon P. |title=A look at food security in China |url=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41538-018-0012-x |website=nature.com |accessdate=1 November 2019}}</ref>
| 1990 || || || "In 1990 the total amounts of meat, eggs, milk and fish produced were 28.57, 7.94, 4.75 and 12.37 million tonnes, respectively. These outputs represent increases of 48,3 percent, 48.6 percent, 64,2 percent and 75,5 percent, respectively, over 1985 production (State Statistics Bureau, 1991). The increases allowed a substantial improvement in the dietary patterns of urban and rural people. The annual per caput supply of meat, eggs and aquatic products was 13 kg higher in 1990 than in 1984"<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
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| 1990 || || || "n 1990 the The grain output was is reported at 446.2 million tonnestons, or 393.1 kg per caput (State Statistics Bureau, 1991)capita."<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
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| 1990 || || || "In 1990, the State Council set up a national specific grain reserve to improve the system gradually at the national, provincial, municipal and autonomous-region levels. All the farmers' surplus grain (that remaining after the contracted purchase) that is not absorbed by the market is purchased. A protective minimum price is established for the benefit of the peasants (People's Daily, 1991). A leading group is responsible for the overall planning and managing of national specific grain reserve matters, and the Bureau of the Grain Reserve was initiated for national grain management. This system allows the state to purchase grain through the specific reserve as well as contracting and solves the peasants' problem of selling surplus grain after a bumper harvest (People's Dally, 1991). Because of this specific grain reserve, the supply of staples was basically guaranteed for areas of China that were flooded in 1991."<ref name="and nutritional status"/>
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| 2014 || Food || Production || Over 300 chinese farming enterprises have investments across 46 different countries.<ref name="Tubilewicz"/>
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| 2014 || || || Malnutrition is reported at less than 12% of the population.<ref name="reer">{{cite web|url=https://www.economist.com/china/2014/06/13/the-hungry-and-forgotten|title=The hungry and forgotten|publisher=[[The Economist]]|date=13 June 2014|accessdate=3 March 2019}}</ref>
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| 2015 || Food || Production || Based on the annual grain output, food consumption per capita reaches 450 kg in the year.<ref name="Shoemaker"/>
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