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Timeline of recycling

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| 1776 || Metal || || The first metal recycling is produced in the United States when patriots in {{w|New York City}} manage to melt down a statue of {{w|King George III}} and make into 42,088 bullets.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…">{{cite web|title=Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…|url=http://gachman.com/one-hundred-years-in-recycling|website=gachman.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1800 || {{w| Paper/cardboard recycling}} || || English papermaker Matthias Koops is granted the first patent for paper recycling. His patent application involves extracting ink from printed and written paper and converting the paper into pulp to make new paper. This process was later adopted by paper mills worldwide."<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/>
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| 1813 || {{w| Textile recycling}} || Technology || Benjamin Law develops the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool, through a process of combining fibres with virgin wool.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1865 || || Organization || The Salvation Army is founded in {{w|London}}, and begins collecting, sorting and recycling unwanted goods. The Household Salvage Brigades employ the unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. In the 1990s, the organization and its program would migrate to the United States.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015">{{cite web|title=Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015|url=http://www.salvationarmy.org/ihq/news/inf150415|website=salvationarmy.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1874 || Paper/cardboard || || The first municipal paper recycling in the United States starts in {{w|Baltimore}}, {{w|Maryland}}. A second one opens in New York City in the same year.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling">{{cite web |title=Introduction to Paper Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/an-introduction-to-paper-recycling-4036123 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref>
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| 1884 || {{w| Glass recycling}} || || An official recycling system for bottles with refundable deposits is established in Sweden.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
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| 1896 || || Facility launch || An early major recycling center is started by the Benedetto family in {{w|New York City}}, where they collect rags, newspaper, and trash with a pushcart.<ref>{{cite book |title=Politics and Public Policy |edition=Barbara Wejnert |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5KFOn4Z0ZGYC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=%22The+first+major+recycling+center+was+started+by+the+Benedetto+family+in+New+York+City,+where+they+collected+rags,+newspaper,+and+trash+with+a+pushcart%22&source=bl&ots=LeToeCxiNB&sig=ACfU3U3NBiKOwGMaVD7Excr7vhBraIZLWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjBo_WZ59HnAhUIG7kGHX3FA_YQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22The%20first%20major%20recycling%20center%20was%20started%20by%20the%20Benedetto%20family%20in%20New%20York%20City%2C%20where%20they%20collected%20rags%2C%20newspaper%2C%20and%20trash%20with%20a%20pushcart%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1897 || || Facility launch || A materials recovery facility is buit in {{w|New York City}}, where trash is sorted at “picking yards” and separated into various grades of paper, metals, and carpet. Burlap bags, twine, rubber and even horse hair are also sorted for recycling and reuse.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1904 || {{w|Aluminium recycling}} || Facility launch || The first large–scale aluminum recyclers are operated in the metalworks of {{w|Chicago}}.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage">{{cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage|edition=Carl A. Zimring, William L. Rathje|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VifrCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT87&lpg=PT87&dq=%221904%22+%22aluminum%22+%22recycling%22+%22Chicago%22&source=bl&ots=9KDjfjw1M3&sig=SvCwJGqg2ZJEmfXW9IRW5sfNeYE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj-7Nicht3VAhWFI5AKHYKUDbUQ6AEIPTAE#v=onepage&q=%221904%22%20%22aluminum%22%20%22recycling%22%20%22Chicago%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1907 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} | | Background || The first synthetic plastic {{w|Bakelite}}, is produced. This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.<ref name="Plastic Pollution">{{cite web |title=Plastic Pollution |url=https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution |website=ourworldindata.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref>
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| 1916–1918 || || Organization || Due to massive shortages of raw materials during {{w|World War I}}, the United States Federal government creates the {{w|Waste Reclamation Service}} with the motto “Don’t Waste Waste – Save It.”.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
| 1965–1970 || || Symbol introduction || American designer [[w:Gary Anderson (designer)|Gary Anderson]] introduces the symbol for Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, inspired in the {{w|Möbius strip}}.<ref name="Recycling">{{cite web|title=Recycling|url=http://recycling-by-jessamy-bryant.weebly.com/a-short-history-of-recycling.html|website=weebly.com|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1968 || {{w|aluminum recycling}} || || The aluminum industry begins aluminum recycling.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> ||
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| 1970 (April 22) || || || {{w|Earth Day}} is founded in the United States by Senator {{w|Gaylord Nelson}} and globally by entrepreneur [[w:John McConnell (peace activist)|John McConnell]].<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
| 1970 || || Program launch || "Ban The Can" is conceived and executed by Ruth "Pat" Webb as the first post-{{w|World War II}} mass recycling program in the {{w|United States}} in {{w|Honolulu, Hawaii}}. Webb organizes military and civilian volunteers to collect over 9 tons (8,200&nbsp;kg) of metal cans from the roadways and highways of [[Oahu]]. The metal cans were later recycled into steel reinforcement bars to be used in local construction projects."<ref>1970 Navy Times Article</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1971 || Metal/glass recycling || Policy || The {{w|Oregon Bottle Bill}} is passed as a {{w|container-deposit legislation}} in {{w|Oregon}}, requiring cans, bottles, and other containers sold in Oregon to be returnable with a minimum refund value.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.oregon.gov/OLCC/bottle_bill.shtml/#Retailer_s_Responsibilities___Resources| title=Oregon's Bottle Bill| publisher= Oregon Liquor Control Commission| accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1972 || || Facility || The first recycling mill is built in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling">{{cite web|title=The History of Plastics Recycling|url=https://www.plasticsmakeitpossible.com/about-plastics/history-of-plastics/the-history-of-recycling-plastic/|website=plasticsmakeitpossible.com|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
| 1973 || Plastic || || An early recycling center for plastic materials is created in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1974 || {{w|Kerbside recycling}} || Program || {{w|University City, Missouri}} starts offering {{w|curbside recycling}} to its residents.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1974 || {{w|Kerbside recycling}} || Program || The first multi–material [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside recycling]] program is launched in {{w|Canada}}.<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia"/> || {{w|Canada}}
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| 1977 || || Organization || Zero Waste Systems Inc. (ZWS) is founded in Oakland, California, bringing with its name the term {{w|zero waste}}. || {{w|United States}}
| 1987 || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || || {{w|United States}}-based private, non-profit {{w|trade association}} {{w|Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=ISRI Time Capsule: ISRI Is Born |url=https://www.isri.org/news-publications/news-details/2017/01/04/isri-time-capsule-isri-is-born |website=isri.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1988 || {{w|Kerbside recycling}} || Statistics || The number of [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside]] recycling programs in the United States increases to about 1,050.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1989 || || || The {{w|Center for the Development of Recycling}} is founded at {{w|San Jose State University}}, {{w|California}}. It works on urban water conservation and recycling projects.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Development of Recycling |url=https://www.recyclestuff.org/html/about.html |website=recyclestuff.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
| 1991 || || Organization || The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL) is established, in order to create jobs and benefit the environment through recycling.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015"/> ||
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| 1991 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || || The first electronic waste recycling system is implemented in {{w|Switzerland}}, beginning with collection of old refrigerators but gradually expanding to cover all devices.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.swicorecycling.ch/en/about-us/|title=About us – Swico Recycling|website=www.swicorecycling.ch|accessdate=2015-07-29}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
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| 1991–2017 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || || The stockpile of scrap tires shrinks from over a billion to just 60 million in this period. According to the tire industry, tire recycling is a major success story.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Importance of Tire Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/the-importance-of-tire-recycling-2878127 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
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| 1992 || {{w|Kerbside recycling}} || Policy || The number of curbside programs in the United States reaches four thousand, up from just six hundred in 1989. With the rise of curbside recycling, industries abandon many of their buy–back programs and begin to rely largely on municipal services that require them to pay no extra fees.<ref name="Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism">{{cite book|last1=Elmore|first1=Bartow J.|title=Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=NhJ0AwAAQBAJ&pg=PT240&lpg=PT240&dq=%22curbside+programs%22+%22united+states%22+%22in+1992%22&source=bl&ots=hnq2x__nZa&sig=yu3NI579A2QXfpO2hPcAj3Pk-Ws&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie0Kv8jNzVAhWKkZAKHZsKB74Q6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=%22curbside%20programs%22%20%22united%20states%22%20%22in%201992%22&f=false|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1993 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || || {{w|Brussels}}-based non-profit European trade association {{w|Petcore}} is founded to promote the collection, sorting and {{w|recycling}} of post-consumer [[w:Polyethylene terephthalate|PET]] bottles.<ref>{{cite web |title=Petcore Europe |url=https://www.petcore-europe.org/images/news/pdf/Petcore-Europe_General-presentation_2019.pdf |website=petcore-europe.org |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
| 1996 || || Technology || Norwegian companies {{w|Elopak}} and {{w|SINTEF}} team up to sell the first infra-red sorting machine.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1996 || || Criticism || "Controversy over the benefits of recycling bubbled up in 1996 when columnist Columnist John Tierney posited writes in a {{w|New York Times Magazine }} article that “recycling is garbage.” “Mandatory recycling programs […] offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups—politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations—while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America.”"<ref name="The Pros and Cons of Recycling">{{cite web |title=The Pros and Cons of Recycling |url=https://www.thoughtco.com/benefits-of-recycling-outweigh-the-costs-1204141 |website=thoughtco.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=4 Reasons Recycling Is Worth Its Associated Costs |url=https://www.hazardouswasteexperts.com/4-reasons-recycling-is-worth-its-associated-costs/ |website=hazardouswasteexperts.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1996 || || Organization || {{w|RREUSE}} ||
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| 1997 || || || "This holiday was {{w|America Recycles Day}} is created on November 15 by the National Recycling Coalition in 1997. Every year since then, the President of the United States usually issues a [[w:Presidential proclamation (United States)|Presidential Proclamation ]] recognizing this day and encourage his fellow Americans to commit to the act of recycling." "November 15"<ref name="America Recycles Dayd">{{cite web |title=America Recycles Day |url=http://www.holidayscalendar.com/event/america-recycles-day/ |website=holidayscalendar.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1998 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in {{w|Taiwan}} for electrical and electronic equipment, requiring producers to take back and recycle products such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air–conditioners and computers, regardless of where they are sold.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures"/> || {{w|Taiwan}}
| 2003 || || Policy || The {{w|California Electronic Waste Recycling Act}} is signed, establishing a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.<ref name="electronic">Electronic Hazardous Waste. (2010). Retrieved from Department of Toxic Substances Control website: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/ewaste/</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 2003 || {{w|Curbside Kerbside recycling}} || Organization || American independent {{w|501(c)3}} {{w|Curbside Value Partnership}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The Recycling Partnership |url=http://www.cancentral.com/recycling-sustainability/programs-initiatives/the-recycling-partnership |website=cancentral.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Curbside Value Partnership changes name |url=https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/curbside-value-partnership-name-change/ |website=recyclingtoday.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 2003 || || || {{w|The Freecycle Network}} (<code>https://www.freecycle.org/</code>[https://www.freecycle.org/]) launches as a website in {{w|Tucson}}, {{w|Arizona}}. It coordinates a worldwide network of "gifting" groups to divert reusable goods from landfills. The network would grow into nearly 5,000 community-based Freecycle groups in over 85 countries around the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Freecycle Network: Good for the Planet (and Your Wallet) |url=https://www.aarp.org/money/budgeting-saving/info-11-2009/freecycle_network.html |website=aarp.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Decade of Sharing: The Freecycle Network Turns 10 |url=https://earth911.com/business-policy/business/the-freecycle-network-10-years/ |website=earth911.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Freecycle |url=https://anjr.com/njwastewise/2012/Freecycle%20booklet.pdf |website=anjr.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 2003 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Organization || The {{w|e-Stewards}}initiative launches as an electronics waste recycling standard created by the {{w|Basel Action Network}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=What are R2 and e-Stewards Certifications? |url=https://greencitizen.com/what-are-r2-and-e-steward-certifications/ |website=greencitizen.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 2006 || || || {{w|World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association}}<ref>{{cite web |title=World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association |url=https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/world-reuse,-repair-and-recycling-association/isbn/978-613-3-66974-1 |website=morebooks.de |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions about Fair Trade Recycling |url=http://ingenthron.net/mission/faq.html |website=ingenthron.net/ |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> ||
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