Timeline of 5G
This is a timeline of 5G, the fifth generation of cellular network technology.
- 1 Sample questions
- 2 Big picture
- 3 Visual data
- 4 Full timeline
- 5 Meta information on the timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- What are some important milestones in the development of 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Milestone".
- You will see standout events like the first adoption of 5G by a country.
- Which are some developed network standards related to 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Network standard".
- You will see a list of standards approved by 3GPP, the standards organization that develops protocols for mobile telephony.
- What are some significant events related to spectrum use for 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Spectrum use".
- You will see information on a variety of frequencies, including millimetre wave and sub-6GHz.
- What are some of the many 5G tests and trials conducted around the world?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Testing".
- What are some important fundings and other events related to 5G R&D?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research and development".
- What are some notable partnerships between countries and organizations related to the development of 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Partnership".
- Which are some notable 5G-related products (handsets, modems) launched or to be released?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Product launch".
- Which are the most notable companies involved in the development and network launch of the 5G generation?
- Sort the full timeline by "Organization".
- This will help you make sense of the most notable organizations given their number of occurrences.
- Which countries are involved in the development and adoption of 5G so far?
- See the Summary by country section in the big picture for an overview.
- For more details, sort the full timeline by "Country/location". This will help you make sense of the countries most involved in the development and adoption of 5G given their number of occurrences.
- Which are some notable 5G-related products (handsets, modems) launched or to be released?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Product".
- What are some indicative figures on 5G userbase and market penetration?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Userbase".
- You will see market penetration in pioneering countries.
Summary by year
|Key year||Development summary|
|2011||The first studies considering millimeter wave as a key component for cellular 5G networks appear around this time.|
|2012||5G research is conducted in countries like Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom.|
|2013||In Japan, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone leads 5G research. Samsung in South Korea announces development of the technology. India and Israel start a program. Chinese companies, including Huawei, start research on 5G.|
|2014||Japan establishes its 5G Mobile Forum. A 5G mobile strategy starts in South Korea. The European Commission earmarks €700 million for 5G research starting in this year.|
|2015||Some consider the road to 5G having begun in this year, with the International Telecommunication Union’s IMT-2020 framework, which sets out the general requirements and future development of the next-generation mobile technology. Huawei demonstrates the world’s first 5G testbed working on sub-6 GHz frequency band.|
|2016||Vast amounts of bandwidth in underused high-band spectrum are freed in the United States for 5G. Chinese companies begin conducting technical trials. The European Union adopts its action plan with the objective of launching 5G services in all 28 member states by the end of 2020. Nokia, NTT Docomo, and Ericsson among others, lead 5G research.|
|2017||77 operators in 49 countries complete 5G trials. The non-standalone (NSA) mode of 5G NR specifications are approved by 3GPP.|
|2018||A number of countries start launching limited 5G networks in selected locations. Qatar launches its network, but 5G mobiles are not available at the time. Elisa launches commercial 5G networks in Tampere and Tallinn. South Korea rolls out a 5G trial at the 2018 Winter Olympics. 3GPP approves standard frozen.|
|2019||The first countrywide commercial 5G network deployment occurs in South Korea.|
|2020||5G services are expected to be launched in many major cities. Global 5G wireless network infrastructure revenue is expected to reach US$4.2 billion by this year. 5G smartphone shipments are estimated to number at around 260 million units in the year.|
|2021||By this year, mobile and network communications applications, products, and services would be built mostly around 5G. Smartphone shipments using this technology are estimated to number at around 540 million units in the year.|
Summary by country
|Key country||5G development|
|South Korea||South Korea is recognized as the world's first country to roll out 5G on a large scale. Samsung, SK Telecom, KT, and LG Uplus are South Korean companies involved in the development and deployment of the technology.|
|China||China is considered to be a leading country in telecommunications, as Japan was when it pioneered 3G in the early 2000s, and the United States in 2011 when the country dominated the launch of 4G. As of December 2019, China has the largest 5G userbase in the world. 5G deployment is strongly backed by the government. China Mobile, China Unicom, and China Telecom are major 5G network players.|
|United States||The United States is considered to be a well advanced country in terms of 5G. It is the leader in spectrum efficiency, permitting the repurposing of broadcast spectrum for broadband. AT&T, Verizon, Sprint Corporation, and T-Mobile US are important players in this country. US carriers prefer using midband and millimeter wave spectrum for 5G from the outset.|
|Europe||Europe's adoption of 5G is only months behind the United States. The focus in this region is almost entirely on using midband, which brings slightly slower speeds than millimeter wave used in the US, but which works over long distances.|
|Japan||Japan is considered to be among the top 5G network developers. NTT Docomo, SoftBank, and KDDI stand among the top players developing 5G in the country.|
Summary of all cellular network generations
|Time period||Cellular network generation||Operating cellular frequencies||Speed||Development summary|
|1979–1991||1G||800 MHz–1900 MHz||Maximum 2.4 Kbps||Exclusive period of the first generation of wireless cellular technology, which features and supports voice only. It starts with the first commercially automated cellular network launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1979. In 1981, the Nordic Mobile Telephone system simultaneously launches in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.|
|1991–onwards||2G||GSM: 900MHZ, 1800MHz. CDMA: 800MHz||50 Kbps||Second generation cellular network lifetime, which features multiple users on single channel, and supports voice and data. It is first commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja.|
|1998–onwards||3G||2100 MHz||2 Mbps on stationary or non-moving devices and 384 Kbps on devices in moving vehicles||Third generation lifetime of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, starting with the first commercial 3G networks introduced in 2000.|
|2009–onwards||4G||600 MHz–2.5 GHz||Maximum 400 Mbps||500 times faster than 3G, the fourth generation lifetime of wireless mobile telecommunications technology starts with the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard commercially deployed in Oslo and Stockholm in 2009. Instead of replacing, 5G is building on 4G LTE, using updated radios and software.|
|2019||5G||Enables about 28 GHz||Maximum in the theoretical range 10 Gbps–20 Gbps||5G is first deployed in South Korea on a national basis. Many elements of 5G technology is built on 4G networks, rather than representing a complete departure of the generation. In most cases, 5G has built on 4G deployment.|
|2030||6G||?||1 Tbps?||NTT Docomo aims to launch 6G on a commercial basis by 2030. China has already two working groups overseeing research around 6G.|
The table and image below illustrate the evolution of worldwide wireless infrastructure revenue forecast in millions of dollars across different segments, for the years 2018 to 2021.
|Year||5G||2G||3G||LTE and 4G||Small Cells||Mobile Core|
The image below shows pageviews of the Wikipedia page 5G since December 2007 for desktop, and since July 2015 (see red line) for mobile-web and mobile-app.
The image below shows pageviews of the Wikipedia pages 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G from July 2015 onward.
The image shows Google Trends data comparing all generations of wireless technology for digital cellular networks.
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Organization||Frequency range (when aplicable)||Details||Country/location|
|2008||April||Partnership||NASA, Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp||NASA partners with Geoff Brown and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to develop 5G communications technology.||United States|
|2010||Research and development||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo starts studying and experimenting with 5G.||Japan|
|2011||Spectrum use||Millimeter wave||The first studies considering millimeter wave as a key component for cellular 5G networks appeared around this time.|
|2012||August||Research and development||NYU WIRELESS||New York University founds NYU WIRELESS, a multi-disciplinary academic research center that would conduct pioneering work in 5G wireless communications.||United States|
|2012||October 8||Research and development||University of Surrey||The UK's University of Surrey secures £35million for a new 5G research center, jointly funded by the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers, including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International. It aims at offering testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum while delivering speeds faster than current 4G with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.||United Kingdom|
|2012||November 1||Program launch||The EU project "Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society" (METIS) starts its activity towards the definition of 5G. METIS achieves an early global consensus on these systems. In this sense, METIS plays an important role of building consensus among other external major stakeholders prior to global standardization activities. This is done by initiating and addressing work in relevant global fora (e.g. ITU-R), as well as in national and regional regulatory bodies.||European Union|
|2012||November||Program launch||The iJOIN EU project is launched, focusing on "small cell" technology, which is of key importance for taking advantage of limited and strategic resources, such as the radio wave spectrum. According to Günther Oettinger, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society (2014–2019), "an innovative utilization of spectrum" is one of the key factors at the heart of 5G success. Oettinger further describes it as "the essential resource for the wireless connectivity of which 5G will be the main driver".||European Union|
|2012||Research and development||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo starts working on a real-time 5G system simulator.||Japan|
|2012||Late year||Research and development||NTT Docomo||11 GHz||NTT Docomo performs 5G uplink field trials using a base station and 2 mobile terminals in an outdoor environment, and each user obtains an uplink data rate of 10 Gbps with a 400 MHz bandwidth in the 11 GHz band, using 8 transmiting and 16 receiving antennas.||Japan|
|2013||May 12||Research and development||Samsung||Samsung Electronics announces development of a "5G" system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbit/s (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the "5G" network sends data at 1.056 Gbit/s to a distance of up to 2 kilometers with the use of an 8*8 MIMO.||South Korea|
|2013||July||Partnership||India and Israel agree to work jointly on development of fifth generation (5G) telecom technologies.||India, Israel|
|2013||October 1||Recognition||Nippon Telegraph and Telephone||NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) wins Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications Award at CEATEC for its 5G R&D efforts.||Japan|
|2013||November 6||Research and development||Huawei||Huawei announces plans to invest a minimum of $600 million into R&D for next generation 5G networks capable of speeds 100 times faster than modern LTE networks.||China|
|2013||Research and development||Chinese companies begin conducting research on 5G.||China|
|2013||Organization||Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, National Development and Reform Commission||China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the National Development and Reform Commission establish the IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group, which includes nearly 60 industry experts. The group is aimed at working to promote 5G research.||China|
|2014||January||Program launch||Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning||The South Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and the public-private partnership, 5G Forum, define their 5G mobile strategy. For that purpose, the Government allocates US$1.5 billion.||South Korea|
|2014||September||Program launch||Japanese Government||Japan establishes its 5G Mobile Forum.||Japan|
|2015||March||Notable report||Next Generation Mobile Networks||The Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) alliance publishes its 5G White Paper, a set of operator requirements intended to guide the development of future technology platforms and related standards.|
|2015||July||Technology||Huawei||Sub-6 GHz||The Mobile World Congress Shanghai 2015 is held. Huawei demonstrates the world’s first 5G testbed working on sub-6 GHz frequency band.||China|
|2015||Spectrum use||Huawei||Sub-6 GHz||Huawei proposes bands blow 6 GHz as the primary working frequency of 5G.|
|2016||January||Spectrum use||Ministry of Industry and Information Technology||Sub-6GHz (3 GHz – 3.6 GHz)||China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially reserves 3-3.6 GHz for 5G. 3.3-3.4 GHz is limited to indoor use.||China|
|2016||May 24||Testing||NTT Docomo, Nokia||In a trial jointly conducted with Nokia, NTT Docomo announces having achieved the world's first wireless real-time transmission of 8K video deploying radio access technology for 5G mobile communications systems.||Japan|
|2016||June 13||Testing||NTT Docomo, Ericsson||NTT Docomo and Ericsson announce successful completion of a joint Proof of Concept (PoC) of dynamic network slicing technology for 5G core networks. NTT Docomo is responsible the network slice creation and selection functions, and Ericsson developed technologies to perform network slice lifecycle and service management.|
|2016||June||Technology||Qualcomm||Sub-6 GHz||Qualcomm announces a 5G New Radio prototype system and trial platform. The 5G NR prototype system operates in the sub-6 GHz spectrum bands and is utilized to showcase the company’s 5G designs to efficiently achieve multigigabit per second data rates and low latency.|
|2016||July||Spectrum use||Federal Communications Commission||Millimeter wave||The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) frees up vast amounts of bandwidth in underused high-band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) doubles the amount of millimeter-wave unlicensed spectrum to 14GHz and creates four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC has licensed to date.||United States|
|2016||Testing||AT&T||Millimeter wave||AT&T starts conducting 5G field trials with millimeter wave spectrum.||United States|
|2016||Testing||Chinese companies begin conducting technical trials on 5G.||China|
|2016||Research and development||Federal Communications Commission||The U.S. Federal Communications Commission announces a US$400 million funding dedicated to research on 5G.||United States|
|2016||Second half||Testing||China Mobile||China Mobile starts to conduct 5G trials.||China|
|2017||January||Testing||Turkcell||15GHz||Turkcell, the largest mobile phone operator in Turkey, completes a 24.7 Gb/s 5G trial with Ericsson.||Turkey|
|2017||January||Ministry of Industry and Information Technology||The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in the People's Republic of China publishes a report on “Development Planning for Information and Communication Industry (2016-2020) in which it sets the objective of becoming one of the Global leaders of 5G.||China|
|2017||February||Spectrum use||Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute||Millimeter wave||South Korean Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute achieves the world first millimeter wave prototype system demonstrated in a running subway train with a peak data rate of 1.25 Gbps.||South Korea|
|2017||March 10||Partnership||Ericsson, Mobitel||Sri Lankan National Mobile Service Provider Mobitel partners with Ericsson with the signing of the 5G Island of Innovation Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to bring 5G to Sri Lanka.||Sri Lanka|
|2017||March||Testing||Telenor, Huawei||Millimeter wave (71-76 GHz/81-86 GHz)||Norwegian telecommunications provider Telenor jointly with Huawei successfully test 5G in Norway.||Norway|
|2017||May||Spectrum use||Communications and Information Technology Commission (Saudi Arabia), Mobily, STC, Zain||700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1800 MHz||The Saudi Communications and Information Technology Commission awards 160 MHz of additional IMT spectrum in 700 MHz, 800 MHz, and 1800 MHz bands to mobile operators Mobily, STC and Zain.||Saudi Arabia|
|2017||July||Spectrum use||Chinese Government||Millimeter wave||China approves 24.75-27.5 GHz and 37-42.5 GHz trials in the millimeter wave frequencies.||China|
|2017||August||Telecom Regulatory Authority of India||The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India releases a PDF that outlines the 5G standard draft and shows a timeframe for when 5G should be deployed around the world.||India|
|2017||August||Spectrum use||Ericsson, Softbank||4.5 GHz||Softbank and Ericsson in Japan perform 5G trials using 4.5 GHz frequencies.||Japan|
|2017||September||Testing||Ericsson, Irancell||Iranian telecommunications Irancell and Ericsson perform their first 5G test in Tehran and announce that 5G would be available in Iran in 2020.||Iran|
|2017||September||Testing||Ericsson, KDDI||Sub-6GHz (4.5 GHz)||Starting in September 2017 to March 2018, Japanese telecommunications operator KDDI and Ericsson test a proof of concept in the 4.5 GHz frequency band in a many cities across Japan.||Japan|
|2017||October||Program launch||Chinese government||The Chinese government launches its third phase of 5G technology research and development tests, with aims at getting pre-commercial products ready for when the first version of 5G standard comes out.||China|
|2017||October||Technology||SoftBank Group, ZTE||Along with Chinese multinational ZTE, Japanese conglomerate SoftBank Group achieves DL speeds of 956 Mbps in Nagasaki.||Japan|
|2017||November||Infrastructure||Federal Communications Commission||24 GHz, 48.2 GHz||The U.S. Federal Communications Commission makes available an additional 1700 MHz of high band spectrum for flexible terrestrial wireless use in the 24 GHz (24.25-24.45/24.74-25.25 GHz) and 47 GHz (47.2-48.2 GHz) bands.||United States|
|2017||November||Milestone (technology)||Ericsson, Telstra||Millimeter wave||Ericsson and Australian mobile network operator Telstra complete the world’s first 5G data call using 26GHz millimeter wave spectrum.||Australia|
|2017||Late year||Network launch||América Móvil||Mexican telecommunications company América Móvil announces the release of 4.5 networks in anticipation of a 5G release.||Mexico|
|2017||December||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) approves NSA 5G NR specifications.|
|2017||December||Testing||KDDI, Samsung||KDDI and Samsung in Japan complete a successful 5G demo on a train moving at over 100km/h.||Japan|
|2018||February||Network launch||Sprint Corporation||Millimeter wave||Sprint Corporation names Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, and Washington, DC. as its initial wave of millimeter wave 5G markets.||United States|
|2018||February||Network launch||Samsung, KT Corporation||Millimeter wave (28 GHz)||5G is provided at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang. Samsung and KT Corporation provide a 4K streaming video service via a 5G network using 28 GHz spectrum.||South Korea|
|2018||March||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves standard frozen.|
|2018||March||Testing||Six 5G trials are announced in the United Kingdom with each receiving between £2-5 million in government grants.||United Kingdom|
|2018||April||Testing||Government of China||The government of China authorizes 5G trials in 16 cities.||China|
|2018||May||Spectrum use||Communications and Information Technology Commission||Sub-6GHz||The Saudi Communications and Information Technology Commission issues testing licenses to Mobily, STC Group and Zain Group. The 3.6-3.8 GHz licenses allow the mobile network operators to test 5G with 100 MHz of spectrum between June 2018 and year-end 2019.||Saudi Arabia|
|2018||May||Testing||NTT Docomo||Millimeter wave (28GHz)||NTT Docomo achieves a 5G field trial at 28GHz, involving a 5G base station and a car travelling at around 293km/h.||Japan|
|2018||June||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves SA 5G NR specifications.|
|2018||June||Milestone (network launch)||Elisa||Sub-6GHz (3,4 GHz – 3,8 GHz)||Finnish telecom operator Elisa launches the world’s first commercial 5G networks and starts selling subscriptions in Tampere and Tallinn.||Finland, Estonia|
|2018||June||Network launch||Vodafone Spain||Sub-6GHz (3.6 GHz – 3.8 GHz)||Vodafone Spain launches 5G trials in Madrid, Valencia, Seville, and Barcelona.||Spain|
|2018||June||Research and development||Smart Communications||Filipino wireless communications provider Smart Communications announces the launch of 5G TehnoLab, their 5G innovation lab.||Philippines|
|2018||June||Spectrum use||South Korean Government||Sub-6GHz (3.4 GHz – 3.7 GHz)||The South Korean Government allocates 280 MHz of 3.4-3.7 GHz spectrum at 3.3 trillion KRW.||South Korea|
|2018||July||Ericsson, Telefónica Telecom||Ericsson and Telefónica Telecom demonstrate a 5G data transfer of 27 Gbps in Bogotá.||Colombia|
|2018||July||Network launch||Ooredoo||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||Doha–based Ooredoo announces launch of its 5G commercial network in Qatar. The company states it is waiting for manufacturers to produce 5G capable devices as these are not ready at the time.||Qatar|
|2018||August||Testing||Vodacom||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||Vodacom releases a 5G trial in Lesotho, showcasing a fixed wireless access (FWA) network using a temporary license in the 3.5 GHz band.||Lesotho|
|2018||September||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves Standard frozen.|
|2018||September||Program launch||FCC||The United States Federal Communications Commission announces its 5G FAST Plan in an effort to advance the country’s position among the countries that have deployed 5G networks. Part of this plan includes spectrum auctions.||United States|
|2018||September||Testing||NTT Docomo||Millimeter wave (28GHz)||NTT Docomo successfully achieves 25–27 Gbps download speeds in a 5G trial with Mitsubishi Electric.||Japan|
|2018||September||Partnership||Nokia, Turkcell||Turkish mobile phone operator Turkcell announces an agreement with Nokia to develop 5G technologies.||Turkey|
|2018||September||Spectrum use||Department of Telecommunications||Sub-6GHz (3.3-3.4 GHz)||The Indian Department of Telecommunications orders operators to vacate spectrum in the 3.3-3.4 GHz range.||India|
|2018||September||Spectrum use||FICORA, Telia Finland, Elisa Finland, DNA||Sub-6GHz (3.4 GHz – 3.8 GHz)||The Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority completes its 3.4 to 3.8 GHz spectrum auction, with all three operators securing spectrum: Telia Finland: 3410 to 3540 MHz, Elisa Finland: 3540 to 3670 MHz, DNA: 3670 to 3800 MHz.||Finland|
|2018||September||Spectrum use||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Verizon states that "millimeter-wave spectrum is the cornerstone in enabling our 5G Ultra Wideband network" and that this spectrum is like "a superhighway that's capable of moving massive amounts of traffic, at super-high speeds, on thousands of lanes lined up side by side."||United States|
|2018||October 1||Network launch||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Verizon launches new 5G millimeter wave fixed–wireless access (FWA) service, starting in certain neighbourhoods of Houston, Indianapolis, Los Angeles and Sacramento. The company is the first to have a non-standards-based deployment, that is actually a fixed broadband network.||United States|
|2018||November||Testing||Samsung, Turkcell||Turkish mobile phone operator Turkcell trials 5G fixed wireless access solutions with Samsung in Istanbul.||Turkey|
|2018||November||Infrastructure||Smart Communications||Smart Communications rolls out their first 5G cell sites in the Philippines.||Philippines|
|2018||November||Testing||Nokia, StarHub||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||Singaporean telecommunications provider StarHub announces, in partnership with Nokia, the completion of their first outdoor pilot of 5G on the 3.5 GHz frequency band in Singapore.||Singapore|
|2018||November||Partnership||Ericsson, MTN Group||Millimeter wave (28 GHz)||South African mobile telecommunications company MTN Group partners with Ericsson to deploy a fixed wireless access 5G site in Midrand, South Africa.||South Africa|
|2018||November||Infrastructure||Telenor||Norwegian Telenor launches three 5G base stations in Kongsberg.||Norway|
|2018||November 29||Testing||NTT Docomo, Toyota||Millimeter wave (28 GHz)||NTT Docomo and Toyota announce having successfully controlled the Toyota-developed T-HR31 humanoid robot in trials using 5G under a test environment with control from a remote location (a distance of approximately 10 kilometers) using 5G in an area between two points.||Japan|
|2018||December||Testing||TeliaSonera, Ericsson, KTH Royal Institute of Technology||TeliaSonera, Ericsson, and KTH Royal Institute of Technology launch 5G testbed in Stockholm.||Sweden|
|2018||December||Network launch||KT Corporation, SK Telecom, LG Uplus||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||South Korean carriers KT Corporation, SK Telecom, and LG Uplus launch limited 5G commercial services in Seoul, and six metropolitan cities in 3.5 GHz band. With 5G Mobile Hotspot as a device, initial services target B2B customers.||South Korea|
|2018||December||Network launch||AT&T||Millimeter wave||AT&T becomes the first United States carrier to launch a standards-based mobile 5G network servicing a dozen cities, albeit without any 5G-enabled devices.||United States|
|2018||December||Partnership||Ericsson, Tigo||Ericsson announces that telecommunications company Tigo has chosen the company to modernize its radio access network. The deal "includes the provision of a 5G-ready multi-standard network."||Honduras|
|2018||December||Testing||Telia Company||Telia Company opens its first 5G test network in Norway.||Norway|
|2018||December||Research and development||Nokia, Telefónica Germany||Broadband telecom provider Telefónica Germany announces that, in collaboration with Nokia, they finished building their "Early 5G Innovation Cluster" in Berlin.||Germany|
|2018||December||Spectrum use||China Telecom, China Unicom, China Mobile, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology||Low and mid-band spectrum||China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issues 5G trial spectrum permits for low and mid-band spectrum to China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile.||China|
|2019||January||Technology||Sprint Corporation, Nokia, Qualcomm||Sub-6GHz (2.5 GHz)||Sprint Corporation, Nokia and Qualcomm complete the world's first over-the-air 5G data transmission using 2.5 GHz.||United States|
|2019||January||Technology||T-Mobile, Ericsson, Intel||600 MHz||T-Mobile, Ericsson, and Intel conduct the world's first 5G data call and video call on 600 MHz on a live commercial network.||United States|
|2019||February||Milestone (technology)||Hospital Clinic Barcelona||A team of doctors at Hospital Clinic Barcelona carries out the world’s first 5G-powered telementored operation (removal of a cancerous tumor from a patient's colon), with surgeon overseeing the procedure at over three miles away.||Spain|
|2019||February||Partnership||Nokia, Saudi Telecom Company||Nokia and Saudi Telecom Company sign deal for 5G network launch and early rollout of services in Saudi Arabia.||Saudi Arabia|
|2019||February||Partnership||Nokia, Telecom Egypt||Telecom Egypt and Nokia agree to introduce a 5G network in Egypt.||Egypt|
|2019||March||Product launch||Global Mobile Suppliers Association||The Global Mobile Suppliers Association releases the industry's first database tracking worldwide 5G device.|
|2019||March||Partnership||Huawei, U Mobile, ZTE Corporation, Maxis Communications||Malaysian provider Maxis Communications, Huawei, U Mobile, and ZTE Corporation sign a memorandums of understanding to collaborate on 5G deployment in Malaysia.||Malaysia|
|2019||March||Network launch||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Verizon activates its standards-based 5G network in Minneapolis and Chicago, before mobile 5G devices are available.||United States|
|2019||March 30||Network launch||China Mobile||Shanghai starts both 5G coverage and broadband gigabit network trial runs, backed by Chinese telecom giant China Mobile.||China|
|2019||April 3||Milestone (network launch)||SK Telecom, KT, LG Uplus||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||South Korea becomes the first country to adopt 5G when three companies launch the world's first nationwide 5G mobile. The three main telecommunication companies (SK Telecom, KT and LG Uplus) add more than 40,000 users to their 5G network on the launch day.||South Korea|
|2019||April 3||Network launch||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Just hours later of 5G launch in South Korea, Verizon launches its 5G services in the United States.||United States|
|2019||April 17||Network launch||Ericsson, Swisscom||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||Ericsson and Swisscom launch 5G network in 54 cities and communities in Switzerland. It is the first commercial 5G in Europe.||Switzerland|
|2019||April 22||Spectrum use||T-Mobile||Millimeter wave||T-Mobile Chief technology officer Neville Ray writes that millimeter wave spectrum "will never materially scale beyond small pockets of 5G hotspots in dense urban environments,"||United States|
|2019||April||Product launch||Samsung||Samsung announces having started mass production for its 5G chips. Among the new chip offerings is the Exynos Modem 5100, which contains a 5G multi-mode chipset.||South Korea|
|2019||April||Spectrum use||>24 GHz||Japan allocates over 24 GHz spectrum for 5G.||Japan|
|2019||May 16||Product launch||Verizon||Verizon begins selling Samsung Galaxy S10 5G.||United States|
|2019||May 24||Network launch||Telstra||Sub-6GHz (3.6 GHz)||Australian network operator Telstra launches limited 5G services in the country with a device that customers can use to connect other devices.||Australia|
|2019||May 30||Network launch||EE Limited||Sub-6GHz||Mobile network operator EE Limited launches first 5G consumer mobile network in the United Kingdom in select locations in London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Belfast, Birmingham and Manchester.||United Kingdom|
|2019||May 30||Network launch||Etisalat||Emirati multinational Etisalat launches 5G commercial service in the United Arab Emirates, along with ZTE 5G smartphone.||United Arab Emirates|
|2019||Late May||Network launch||Sprint Corporation||Sub-6GHz (2.5GHz mid-band)||Sprint Corporation launches 5G service in Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, and Kansas City.||United States|
|2019||May||Technology||As of date, 30% of international patents related to 5G connectivity standards are from China.||China|
|2019||Late May||Network launch||Sprint Corporation||Sub-6GHz (2.5GHz mid-band)||Sprint Corporation launches 5G service in Chicago.||United States|
|2019||June 5||Network launch||Batelco||Batelco becomes the first to launch a commercial 5G network in Bahrain.||Bahrain|
|2019||June 5||Network launch||Vodafone||Vodafone launches 5G in Italy in five cities: Naples, Bologna, Milan, Turin, and Rome.||Italy|
|2019||June 6||Partnership||Huawei||Huawei signs a deal with Russian network provider MTS to develop a 5G network in the country over the next year.||China, Russia|
|2019||June 15||Network launch||Huawei, Vodafone||Huawei and Vodafone roll out in collaboration the first commercial 5G mobile services in Spain, making it one of the first European countries with the ultrafast mobile network in Europe.||Spain|
|2019||June 19||Network launch||STC Group||Sub-6GHz (3.5 GHz)||STC Group becomes the first operator to launch 5G commercial services in Saudi Arabia, making it available to customers in a number of cities in the Kingdom. The service uses Ericsson commercial hardware.||Saudi Arabia|
|2019||June 27||Network launch||Ericsson, RCS & RDS||Ericsson and Romanian operator RCS & RDS launch Romania’s first 5G commercial service in the busiest parts of Bucharest.||Romania|
|2019||June||Userbase||South Korea reaches over one million 5G subscribers.||South Korea|
|2019||June||Infrastructure||Qualcomm||American tech company Qualcomm starts construction of a 5G center in Taipei. 5G service is expected to be available in Taiwan by January 2020, according to Vice Premier Chen Chi-mai.||Taiwan|
|2019||June||Policy||China Telecom, China Unicom, China Mobile||China Telecom, China Unicom, China Mobile are allocated commercial 5G licenses for deployment in China.||China|
|2019||Late June||Userbase||Over 1.6 million people are subscribed to 5G in South Korea, accounting for 77 per cent of the global population of 5G users. At the time, there are 14 times as many South Koreans using 5G as there are Americans.||South Korea|
|2019||July 9||Network launch||Huawei, Monaco Telecom||Monaco Telecom launches its 5G network covering the entire city area in conjunction with the presentation of the commercial offer. The microstate becomes the first in the world to have to have full, operational 5G coverage. The network is built by Huawei.||Monaco|
|2019||July 16||Network launch||SK Telecom, Swisscom||SK Telecom and Swisscom launch 5G roaming services for Koreans visiting Switzerland.||Switzerland|
|2019||July 16||Infrastructure||Vodafone||Vodafone activates its first 25 5G base stations in Germany.||Germany|
|2019||July 18||Product launch||Verizon||Verizon announces 5G hotspot, the Inseego 5G MiFi M1000, at a cost of around US$600.|
|2019||July 26||Infrastructure||Telecom Italia, Vodafone||Telecom Italia and Vodafone agree to merge their mobile tower infrastructure and to jointly roll out 5G in Italy.||Italy|
|2019||July||Testing||Smart Axiata||Cambodian telecommunications service provider Smart Axiata showcases the Cambodia's first 5G live trial.||Cambodia|
|2019||August 5||Product launch||ZTE||ZTE releases the first 5G phone in China with the launch of the Axon 10 Pro 5G t, which comes equipped with a 6.47-inch 1080p AMOLED display, and will use one of Qualcomm’s first generation X50 5G modems to connect to China’s upcoming 5G wireless network.||China|
|2019||August 5||Network launch||Ericsson, Vodafone||Ericsson and Vodafone launch in Germany a commercial 5G network using Ericsson products and solutions, with their sights set on bringing 5G to 20 million people in the country by the end of 2021.||Germany|
|2019||August 6||Network launch||AT&T||Sub-6GHz||AT&T rolls out limited 5G in parts of New York City, but only accessible to business customers and developers. As of date, AT&T lags behind Verizon, which offers 5G services in nine cities.||United States|
|2019||August 8||Network launch||Ericsson, Tele2||Ericsson and Tele2 launch Russia's first 5G zone in central Moscow. Ericsson provides the equipment for the network, which is run by Tele2.||Russia|
|2019||August 13||Network launch||Vodafone||Sub-6GHz (3.6 GHz)||Vodafone launches 5G services in five Irish cities: Cork, Dublin, Galway, Limerick and Waterford.||Ireland|
|2019||August||Testing||Zong 4G||Pakistani mobile data network operator Zong 4G becomes the first company in Pakistan to test 5G services.||Pakistan|
|2019||August||Testing||Qualcomm||Millimeter wave||Qualcomm announces work in Russia with local operators and the Moscow government to set up a trial millimeter wave 5G network by the fall. The network would be used for fixed and mobile services for applications like augmented and virtual reality.||Russia|
|2019||Late August||Network launch||Sprint Corporation||Sub-6GHz (2.5GHz mid-band)||Sprint Corporation launches 5G service in Los Angeles, New York City, Phoenix and Washington, D.C.||United States|
|2019||September 1||Network launch||Huawei||Huawei deploys 5G In Russia.||Russia|
|2019||September 2||Partnership||Iliad SA, Nokia||French telecommunications provider Iliad SA announces partnership with Nokia as for 5G network deployments in France and Italy.||France, Italy|
|2019||September 3||Product launch||Samsung||Samsung announces the launch of its first SoC that integrates 5G connectivity. The device, called Exynos 980, combines a 5G modem and mobile application processor into one chip, thus increasing power efficiency and occupying less space within smartphones compared to older generation SoCs.|
|2019||September 5||Network launch||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Verizon launches 5G in National Football League stadiums across the United States, with 13 expected to be live by the start of the 2019-20 football season. Attendees would still need to have a 5G compatible phone to access the 5G networks, which can download data 10 to 100 times faster than the average 4G LTE connection.||United States|
|2019||September 6||Product launch||Qualcomm||Both Millimeter wave and Sub-6GHz||American company Qualcomm announces expansion of its 5G modems across its Snapdragon 8 series, 7 series and 6 series processors.||United States|
|2019||September 9||Public reception||Several hundred people demonstrate in The Hague against the arrival of 5G mobile phone networks in the Netherlands, and call for the government to reduce the level of permitted radiation from the new generation mobile phones, improve privacy regulations and assess the effect on the climate.||Netherlands|
|2019||September 9||Partnership||Samsung, SK Telecom||Samsung announces partnership with SK Telecom to develop and commercialize the world's first 8K-5G TV. The device is expected to offer ultra-high resolution screen that is also capable of extremely fast connection speeds, enabling users to download VR and other data-heavy content.||South Korea|
|2019||September 10||Partnership||NTT Docomo, Omron, Nokia||NTT Docomo announces agreement with Omron and Nokia Networks to collaborate in trials of 5G mobile communication technology inside factories, "with the aim of significantly enhancing future manufacturing productivity". ||Japan|
|2019||September 16||Acquisition||Qualcomm||Qualcomm announces full acquisition of RF360 (a joint venture between TDK and Qualcomm) in order to boost content in 5G smartphones.|
|2019||September 18||Network launch||Rain||Sub-6GHz (3.6 GHz)||South African data-only operator Rain launches a commercial 5G wireless home broadband service in parts of Johannesburg and Tshwane, the first 5G network in the country.||South Africa|
|2019||September 19||Product launch||Huawei||Huawei launches a new 5G flagship smartphone lineup without pre-installed Google-licensed apps.||China|
|2019||September||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo launches pre-commercial 5G services.||Japan|
|2019||September||Network launch||Deutsche Telekom||Deutsche Telekom rolls out 5G in Germany in Berlin, Darmstadt, Munich, Bonn, and Cologne.||Germany|
|2019||October||Testing||Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes||26 GHz||French regulator Arcep announces first eleven projects for 5G trials in 26 GHz band.||France|
|2019||October 8||Partnership||Ericsson, Telia||Ericsson is selected by service provider Telia as its sole 5G radio access network (RAN) vendor for Telia's next-generation nationwide network in Norway. 5G rollouts are expected to start in 2020 and extend through 2023.||Norway|
|2019||October 11||Network launch||BT Mobile||Sub-6GHz||BT Mobile launches 5G services in the United Kingdom, in 20 cities.||United Kingdom|
|2019||October||Network launch||Eir||Irish broadband telecommunications company Eir launches 5G in Ireland with help from Ericsson’s 5G core. The network is expected to cover up to 110 towns and cities around the country in a number of weeks.||Ireland|
|2019||October||Testing||VEON||Sub-6GHz (3.7 GHz)||VEON launches a 5G trial on a live network in Kazakhstan.||Kazakhstan|
|2019||November 1||Network launch||China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom||Sub-6GHz (3.4 GHz – 3.6 GHz)||China state carriers China Mobile (CHL), China Telecom (CHA) and China Unicom (CHU) formally announce the rollout of 5G service, laying out their price plans and data speeds. All three offer 5G plans that start at 128 yuan (US$18) for 30 GB of data per month.||China|
|2019||November 11||Partnership||Zain Group, Ericsson||Kuwaiti mobile telecommunications company Zain Group announces having selected Ericsson to build its 5G network in Bahrain, with the first commercial 5G services expected to go live before the end of 2019.||Bahrain|
|2019||November 14||Partnership||Ericsson, MTN South Africa||MTN South Africa selects Ericsson as a 5G network modernization vendor. Ericsson would supply 5G products and solutions from its Radio Access Network (RAN), transport and Core portfolios, with commercial rollout expected to start in 2020.||South Africa|
|2019||November 15||Technology||Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Openet||Samsung Electronics, Hewlett Packard Enterprise and software vendor Openet announce the successful integration of a cloud-native 5G standalone (SA) Core with multivendor interoperability. The test features the integration of Samsung’s control, user plane network function, and orchestrator with HPE’s shared data environment and network functions, and Openet’s cloud-native network functions software. A 5G SA core would allow operators to offer many of the new services considered paramount to 5G, including network slicing, mobile edge computing, analytics driven by artificial intelligence, and ultra-low latency networks.||South Korea|
|2019||November 19||Network launch||Verizon||28 GHz||Verizon ads 5G network to Boston, Houston and Sioux Falls, bringing the total number of cities with the carrier’s next-generation network to 18.||United States|
|2019||November 20||Network launch||EE Limited||Sub-6GHz||EE Limited announces having switched on 5G technology in 14 new cities and towns across the United Kingdom, adding the service to Castlereagh, Guildford, Hamilton, Harlow, Hoddesdon, Kimberley, Lisburn, Maidstone, Sydenham, Watford and Wolverhampton, as well as Liverpool, Glasgow and Huddersfield.||United Kingdom|
|2019||November 21||Infrastructure||As of date, China has 113,000 5G base stations.||China|
|2019||November 22||Infrastructure||International Telecommunications Union||Millimeter wave||Delegates at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2019 (WRC-19), a quadrennial gathering of regulators and governments organized by the United Nations-affiliated International Telecommunications Union, identify several millimeter wave bands that could be used for 5G networks. These include 24.25-27.5 GHz, 37-43.5 GHz, 45.5-47 GHz, 47.2-48.2 and 66-71 GHz.||Egypt|
|2019||November||Spectrum use||Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes||Sub-6GHz (3.4 GHz – 3.8 GHz)||French regulator Arcep (Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes) publishes and submits to the government the conditions for awarding licences to use frequencies in the 3.4 GHz to 3.8 GHz band in France. Arcep states: “The 3.4-3.8 GHz band is the core band for 5G whose deployment promises to make French businesses more competitive and drive innovation, in addition to satisfying users’ expectation of having access to increasingly powerful mobile services.”||France|
|2019||November||Policy||German Government||Sub-6GHz (3.7 GHz – 3.8 GHz)||Germany offers to private companies corporate licenses to fractions of 3.7-3.8GHz wireless spectrum for 5G services.||Germany|
|2019||December 3||Network launch||T-Mobile||Millimeter wave||T-Mobile launches 600MHz 5G in the United States, becoming the first American carrier to offer 5G access across the country. The network is expected to cover more than 200 million people and more than 1 million square miles. The company is expected to add mid-band spectrum for broad coverage and performance as well as millimeter wave spectrum for hotspot-like coverage in dense urban areas.||United States|
|2019||December 10||Milestone (technology)||Ericsson||Sub-6GHz (2.3 GHz)||Australian telecommunications company Optus claims to have made the world’s first 5G data call using lower frequency 2.3 GHz spectrum in a trial completed in Sydney using kit from Ericsson. The lower frequency is expected ultimately to offer even greater speeds as well as providing greater coverage depth enabling even more customers to benefit from 5G services.||Australia|
|2019||December 11||Partnership||Nokia||Nokia announces development of a strategic partnership ecosystem to bring local 5G/private wireless LTE to industrial and government customers in Japan. These five Nokia partners span multiple segments, including NS Solutions for factory IoT, Marubeni for global IoT, Internet Initiative Japan for Full MVNO, Equinix for multi-cloud and global data centers, and Hitachi Kokusai Electric.||Japan|
|2019||December 11||Research and development||SK Telecom, Samsung Heavy Industries||South Korean SK Telecom and Samsung Heavy Industries announce joint development of a 5G-based autonomous platform for testing of the technology. The test ship, built by SHI, is equiped with remote control capabilities, 5G-based Lidar, a cloud-based IoT platform and real-time video monitoring from SK Telecom.||South Korea|
|2019||December 11||Network launch||Deutsche Telekom||Sub-6GHz||Deutsche Telekom launches commercial 5G services in Hamburg.||Germany|
|2019||December||Userbase||Chinese 5G smartphone users are reported to outperform South Korean users, following 5G commercial launch in November in China.||China|
|2020||January 16||Infrastructure||Galaxy Space||227-kilogram Yinhe–1 (Galaxy-1) technology verification satellite for Beijing-based communications satellite producer Galaxy Space launches. It is the first private 5G low-orbit broadband satellite China successfully puts in orbit.||China|
|2020||January 17||Testing||ZTE Corporation, MTN Uganda||Sub-6GHz (60 MHz)||ZTE Corporation and MTN Uganda successfully roll out 5G technology trial in Uganda, which becomes the first country in East Africa to adopt 5G technology.||Uganda|
|2020||January 29||European Commission||The European Commission issues its guidance on 5G and the role that "high-risk" vendors should play in networks. The non-binding EC recommendations call on member states to strengthen security requirements, assess the risk of suppliers, restrict suppliers considered to be high-risk, reveal exclusions for key assets considered as critical (such as the core network), set up a legal or regulatory framework to control the use of outsourced suppliers, and ensure governments get audit telecoms operators to provide detailed data on sourcing of 5G equipment.||European Union|
|2020||January||Research and development||Ericsson||Ericsson announces a new R&D site in France with up to 300 employees. The site would focus initially on 5G software development and security.||France|
|2020||February 12||Policy||Swiss Government||Switzerland places an indefinite moratorium on the rollout of 5G over health concerns.||Switzerland|
|2020||February 17||Education||Nokia||Nokia launches a 5G certification program with the purpose to train and certify business and technology professionals at communications service providers and enterprises.|
|2020||February 18||Technology||Qualcomm||Millimeter wave||Qualcomm announces new 5G modem and millimeter wave antenna module, as well as a Radio frequency filtering technology with several applications.|
|2020||February 23||Testing||Ericsson||Millimeter wave||Ericsson achieves the fastest maximum speed record of 4.3 Gbps on the millimeter wave spectrum, breaking the previous record if Huawei.|
|2020||February 26||Network launch||du||Millimeter wave||UAE-based telecommunications provider du announces successful deployment of the MENA's first millimeter wave site at the du arena in Yas Island, Abu Dhabi, which is expected to provide the region’s highest ultra-high mobile broadband 5G services, increase coverage, and accelerate the pace of widespread 5G usage in the country.||United Arab Emirates|
|2020||February 27||Network launch||Google Fi||Millimeter wave||Google Fi announces millimeter wave officially listed as being available in “pockets of select cities” by the carrier, with Google having yet to detail a specific 5G arrangement. Google Fi already uses T-Mobile’s 5G network on supported phones.||United States|
|2020||March 4||Infrastructure||Ericsson||Millimeter wave||Ericsson announces production of the first 5G base station, millimeter wave Street Macro units, at its new factory in the United States.||United States|
|2020||March 5||Network launch||AT&T||Millimeter wave||AT&T expands its 5G network and launches millimeter wave connections for its customers.|
|2020||March 12||Infrastructure||Verizon||Millimeter wave||Verizon announces acquisition of a metric ton of millimeter wave 5G spectrum from the FCC in Auction 103, spending over US$1.6 billion to purchase 4,960 licenses from the FCC to bolster their 5G network. The purchase implies 50% more spectrum than AT&T, which was the next-highest bidder at US$1.186 billion for 3,267 licenses.|
|2020||June||Network launch||Viettel||Vietnamese telecommunication company Viettel plans to launch commercial 5G mobile services by this time.||Vietnam|
|2020||July||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo plans to have 5G base stations in all 47 Japanese prefectures by this time.||Japan|
|2021||Spring||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo plans to reach a total of 10,000 5G base stations by this time.||Japan|
|2023||Network launch||China Tower||State-owned telecommunication provider China Tower expects to reach 5G national coverage by this year.||China|
|2024||Userbase||5G subscriptions are expected to reach 1.5 billion by this time, with US$301 billion in revenue, driven predominantly by high demand for faster speeds, according to September 2019 research from GlobalData. The Asia Pacific region is expected to be the biggest market.|
|2024||A new study finds that total operator-billed revenue from 5G IoT connections would reach US$8 billion by this year.|
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- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Where, When, and How mmWave is Used in 5G and Beyond". arxiv.org.
- ↑ "Mobile World Congress to show why Europe is the world's 5G laggard". politico.eu. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- ↑ "How 5G will transform business" (PDF). mcrinc.com. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- ↑ "Will 2020 be the year of 5G technology? Euronews explains". euronews.com. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 "The 5G era in the US". gsmaintelligence.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 "The Top Countries Most Likely to Launch 5G First". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 "5G network infrastructure to reach $4.2bn in revenues by 2020". capacitymedia.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Chinese 5G Smartphone Users Outperform Korean Users Following 5G Commercial Launch in November". en.ctimes.com.tw. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "China is racing ahead in 5G. Here's what that means". technologyreview.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- ↑ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 "USA, Japan, South Korea and China are the leading countries in terms of 5G readiness. A number of Gulf countries claim to have launched 5G mid-2018.". 5gobservatory.eu. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
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- ↑ Charny, Ben (2001-10-01). "World's first 3G phone network goes live". ZDNet. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
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- ↑ "The world's first academic research center combining Wireless, Computing, and Medical Applications". Nyu Wireless. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "NYU Wireless' Rappaport envisions a 5G, millimeter-wave future - FierceWirelessTech". Fiercewireless.com. 2014-01-13. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ Alleven, Monica (2015-01-14). "NYU Wireless says U.S. falling behind in 5G, presses FCC to act now on mmWave spectrum". Fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ Kelly, Spencer (13 October 2012). "BBC Click Programme - Kenya". BBC News Channel. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
Some of the world biggest telecoms firms have joined forces with the UK government to fund a new 5G research center. The facility, to be based at the University of Surrey, will offer testing facilities to operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum, while delivering faster speeds than current 4G technology that's been launched in around 100 countries, including several British cities. They say the new tech could be ready within a decade.
- ↑ "The University Of Surrey Secures £35M For New 5G Research Centre". University of Surrey. 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "5G research centre gets major funding grant". BBC News. BBC News Online. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ Philipson, Alice (9 October 2012). "Britain aims to join mobile broadband leaders with £35m '5G' research centre". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "METIS projet presentation" (PDF). November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
- ↑ "Speech at Mobile World Congress: The Road to 5G". March 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-11-10. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Morgado, António; Saidul Huq, Kazi Mohammed; Mumtaz, Shahid; Rodriguez, Jonathan. "A survey of 5G technologies: regulatory, standardization and industrial perspectives". doi:10.1016/j.dcan.2017.09.010. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- ↑ "삼성전자, 5세대 이동통신 핵심기술 세계 최초 개발". 12 May 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "General METIS presentations available for public". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "India and Israel have agreed to work jointly on development of 5G". The Times Of India. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "DoCoMo Wins CEATEC Award for 5G". 3 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ Embley, Jochan (6 November 2013). "Huawei plans $600m investment in 10Gbps 5G network". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "5G White Paper". ngmn.org. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 47.2 "5G in the sub-6 GHz spectrum bands". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- ↑ "DOCOMO and Nokia Achieves World's First Real Time 8K Video Transmission Using 5G Radio Access Technology". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- ↑ "DOCOMO and Ericsson Perform Successful Proof of Concept of Dynamic 5G Network Slicing". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- ↑ "FCC Spectrum Frontier Proposal | NYU WIRELESS". NYU WIRELESS. 2016-07-15. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- ↑ "Turkcell and Ericsson hit 25 Gbps in 5G test". telecoms.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- ↑ "Mobitel & Ministry of Telecommunication and Digital Infrastructure partners with Ericsson for the first 5G Island of Innovation in South Asia". mobitel.lk. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "Telenor and Huawei successfully test 5G technology in Norway". tvi.com.pk/. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- ↑ "The first steps towards 5G in Norway". telenor.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "Ericsson and Telstra conduct world's first 5G data call on 26GHz". ericsson.com. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- ↑ "Race To 5G: What We know About 5G From Countries That Have Already Started Adopting It". startupeuropenews.eu. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "Elisa first in world to launch commercial 5G". epressi.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "Elisa launches world's first commercial 5G". goodnewsfinland.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "Elisa first in world to launch commercial 5G". elisaautomate.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "Elisa 'First' to Launch Commercial 5G Network with 5G-ready Subscription Plan". thefastmode.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "The European telco secured 90 megahertz of 5G spectrum in the recent tender". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6 62.7 62.8 62.9 "5G commercial network world coverage map". worldtimezone.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- ↑ "Ooredoo Qatar 5G". stevieawards.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 64.4 "The Top Countries with 5G Deployments and Trials". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "Finland". halberdbastion.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- ↑ 66.0 66.1 66.2 "Millimeter-wave 5G isn't for widespread coverage, Verizon admits". arstechnica.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- ↑ "Verizon's new 5G fixed–wireless access proposition aims to attract cable cord-cutters". analysysmason.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- ↑ "MTN, Ericsson and Netstar record 5G first for South Africa". ericsson.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- ↑ "MTN, Ericsson and Netstar record 5G first for South Africa". ericsson.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "5G First Steps" (PDF). telenor.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "DOCOMO and Toyota Conduct Successful Remote Control of T-HR3 Humanoid Robot Using 5G". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- ↑ "5G Launches in Korea" (PDF). images.samsung.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- ↑ "5G HITS NORWAY: THE WORLD'S FIRST 5G CINEMA". teliacompany.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "New cellular sites will enable developing and testing new 5G services". telefonica.de. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "Doctor performs first 5G surgery". japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- ↑ "Doctor uses 5G to direct surgery live from a stage at Mobile World Congress". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- ↑ "Nokia and Saudi Telecom Co. (STC) sign deal for 5G network launch and early rollout of services". nokia.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "Telecom Egypt and Nokia sign Memorandum of Understanding to introduce 5G network and test use cases". nokia.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- ↑ "GSA launches first global database of commercial 5G devices". totaltele.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- ↑ "Verizon 5G rollout: Everything you need to know". digitaltrends.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- ↑ "Shanghai world's first district with 5G coverage, broadband gigabit network". business-standard.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- ↑ "Shanghai's 5G network starts test runs". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- ↑ "Ericsson 5G is live in South Korea". ericsson.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
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