Difference between revisions of "Timeline of Wi-Fi"

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| 1987 || || Security || American cryptographer {{w|Ron Rivest}} working at {{w|RSA Security}} develops the [[w:RC4|RC4 Cipher]], a security cipher (Key size: 40-2048 bits).<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>  
 
| 1987 || || Security || American cryptographer {{w|Ron Rivest}} working at {{w|RSA Security}} develops the [[w:RC4|RC4 Cipher]], a security cipher (Key size: 40-2048 bits).<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || || || The {{w|NCR Corporation}}, in hopes of adopting a {{w|wireless local area network}} (WLAN) standard for use in their wireless cash registers, turns to {{w|Victor Hayes}}, author of many of their data transfer standards, who, along with Bell Labs engineer Bruce Tuch, ask the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for assistance in utilizing these frequencies for a WLAN standard. A committee is created with the catchy title “802.11”. The standard would be published nine years later, named after the committee, and Victor Hayes would be called the "father of Wi-Fi".<ref name="The History of WiFi & Just What Exactly is Wi-Fi?"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 1988 || || Network || The {{w|NCR Corporation}}, in hopes of adopting a {{w|wireless local area network}} (WLAN) standard for use in their wireless cash registers, turns to {{w|Victor Hayes}}, author of many of their data transfer standards, who, along with Bell Labs engineer Bruce Tuch, ask the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for assistance in utilizing these frequencies for a WLAN standard. A committee is created with the catchy title “802.11”. The standard would be published nine years later, named after the committee, and Victor Hayes would be called the "father of Wi-Fi".<ref name="The History of WiFi & Just What Exactly is Wi-Fi?"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 || || || The {{w|NCR Corporation}} submits the {{w|WaveLAN}} design (a brand name for a family of wireless networking technology) to the IEEE (​Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 1989 || || Technology || The {{w|NCR Corporation}} submits the {{w|WaveLAN}} design (a brand name for a family of wireless networking technology) to the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1990 || || Network || The {{w|NCR Corporation}} introduces its wireless computing network, {{w|WaveLAN}}, to the public.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>  
 
| 1990 || || Network || The {{w|NCR Corporation}} introduces its wireless computing network, {{w|WaveLAN}}, to the public.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || || ​Henrik Sjödin proposes the creation of publicly accessible local area networks (LANs) at the NetWorld+Interop conference in The Moscone Center in San Francisco. While Sjödin does not use the term “hotspot”, this is considered the first mention of the concept.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=How to Boost Cell Signal for a Wi-Fi Hotspot|url=https://www.wilsonpro.com/blog/how-to-boost-cell-signal-for-a-wi-fi-hotspot|website=wilsonpro.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 1993 || || Network || Henrik Sjödin proposes the creation of publicly accessible local area networks (LANs) at the NetWorld+Interop conference in The Moscone Center in San Francisco. While Sjödin does not use the term “hotspot”, this is considered the first mention of the concept.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=How to Boost Cell Signal for a Wi-Fi Hotspot|url=https://www.wilsonpro.com/blog/how-to-boost-cell-signal-for-a-wi-fi-hotspot|website=wilsonpro.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1993 || August || || Public access wireless {{w|local area network}}s (LANs) are first proposed by Henrik Sjödin at the NetWorld+Interop conference in The {{w|Moscone Center}} in {{w|San Francisco}}. Sjödin do not use the term "hotspot" but refers to publicly accessible wireless LANs.<ref>[http://wifinetnews.com/archives/2002/08/wi-fi_timeline.html Wi-Fi Timeline]. Wifi Net News. August 8, 2002.</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || || || {{w|Carnegie Mellon University}} begins installing the first campus-wide wireless network.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/> The largescale installation is completed by {{w|AT&T}}.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/> The network is called "Wireless Andrew" (named for university benefactors Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon).<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/> Started as a National Science Foundation-funded research network to support Carnegie Mellon's wireless research initiative, Wireless Andrew originally provides coverage in seven campus buildings. In 1999, it would expand to serve all 65 residential, academic and administrative buildings on the campus — covering approximately 3 million square feet as well as outside areas.<ref>{{cite web|title=Carnegie Mellon's Starring Role|url=https://www.cmu.edu/homepage/computing/2009/summer/wi-fi-origins.shtml|website=cmu.edu|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 1994 || || || {{w|Carnegie Mellon University}} begins installing the first campus-wide wireless network.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/> The largescale installation is completed by {{w|AT&T}}.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/> The network is called "Wireless Andrew" (named for university benefactors Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon).<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/> Started as a National Science Foundation-funded research network to support Carnegie Mellon's wireless research initiative, Wireless Andrew originally provides coverage in seven campus buildings. In 1999, it would expand to serve all 65 residential, academic and administrative buildings on the campus — covering approximately 3 million square feet as well as outside areas.<ref>{{cite web|title=Carnegie Mellon's Starring Role|url=https://www.cmu.edu/homepage/computing/2009/summer/wi-fi-origins.shtml|website=cmu.edu|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
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| 1996 || || Technology || Australian electrical engineer [[w:John O'Sullivan (engineer)|John O'Sullivan]], working at the Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), develops a technique for reducing multipath interference of radio signals transmitted for computer networking. This technique would eventually find its way into the 802.11a (and later) standards.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Wireless inventors given top honour|url=http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/10/14/2714042.htm?site=sc&topic=latest|website=abc.net.au|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=wifi prototype|url=http://www.nma.gov.au/collections/highlights/csiro_wlan_collection|website=nma.gov.au|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 1996 || || Technology || Australian electrical engineer [[w:John O'Sullivan (engineer)|John O'Sullivan]], working at the Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), develops a technique for reducing multipath interference of radio signals transmitted for computer networking. This technique would eventually find its way into the 802.11a (and later) standards.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Wireless inventors given top honour|url=http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/10/14/2714042.htm?site=sc&topic=latest|website=abc.net.au|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=wifi prototype|url=http://www.nma.gov.au/collections/highlights/csiro_wlan_collection|website=nma.gov.au|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || || Wi-Fi is first released for consumers.<ref name="The History of WiFi">{{cite web|title=The History of WiFi|url=https://purple.ai/blogs/history-wifi/|website=purple.ai|accessdate=4 May 2018}}</ref> The {{w|Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers}}, chaired by {{w|Victor Hayes}}, releases the first wireless local area network (WLAN) standard, the {{w|IEEE 802.11}}, only supporting a maximum network bandwidth of 2 Mbps – too slow for most applications.<ref name="Who Invented WiFi?">{{cite web|title=Who Invented WiFi?|url=https://www.thoughtco.com/who-invented-wifi-1992663|website=thoughtco.com|accessdate=4 May 2018}}</ref><ref name="Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac">{{cite web|title=Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac|url=https://www.lifewire.com/wireless-standards-802-11a-802-11b-g-n-and-802-11ac-816553|website=lifewire.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 1997 || || Release || Wi-Fi is first released for consumers.<ref name="The History of WiFi">{{cite web|title=The History of WiFi|url=https://purple.ai/blogs/history-wifi/|website=purple.ai|accessdate=4 May 2018}}</ref> The {{w|Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers}}, chaired by {{w|Victor Hayes}}, releases the first wireless local area network (WLAN) standard, the {{w|IEEE 802.11}}, only supporting a maximum network bandwidth of 2 Mbps – too slow for most applications.<ref name="Who Invented WiFi?">{{cite web|title=Who Invented WiFi?|url=https://www.thoughtco.com/who-invented-wifi-1992663|website=thoughtco.com|accessdate=4 May 2018}}</ref><ref name="Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac">{{cite web|title=Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac|url=https://www.lifewire.com/wireless-standards-802-11a-802-11b-g-n-and-802-11ac-816553|website=lifewire.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1997 || June 26 || Wi-Fi security || The {{w|Wired Equivalent Privacy}} (WEP) is introduced as a security algorithm for {{w|IEEE 802.11}} wireless networks.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline">{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi Security Timeline|url=https://www.semfionetworks.com/blog/wi-fi-security-timeline|website=semfionetworks.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 1997 || June 26 || Wi-Fi security || The {{w|Wired Equivalent Privacy}} (WEP) is introduced as a security algorithm for {{w|IEEE 802.11}} wireless networks.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline">{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi Security Timeline|url=https://www.semfionetworks.com/blog/wi-fi-security-timeline|website=semfionetworks.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref>
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| 1999 || July || Service || {{w|Apple Corporation}} introduces Wi-Fi as an option on its new {{w|iBook}} computers, under the brand name AirPort.<ref name="A brief history of Wi-Fi"/>
 
| 1999 || July || Service || {{w|Apple Corporation}} introduces Wi-Fi as an option on its new {{w|iBook}} computers, under the brand name AirPort.<ref name="A brief history of Wi-Fi"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || August || || Six companies—{{w|Intersil}}, {{w|3Com}}, {{w|Nokia}}, {{w|Aironet}}, {{w|Symbol}} and {{w|Lucent}} — jointly create the [[w:Wi-Fi Alliance|Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance]] (WECA), with the idea of certifying that products from different vendors be truly compatible with each other.<ref name="A brief history of Wi-Fi"/>
+
| 1999 || August || Organization || Six companies—{{w|Intersil}}, {{w|3Com}}, {{w|Nokia}}, {{w|Aironet}}, {{w|Symbol}} and {{w|Lucent}} — jointly create the [[w:Wi-Fi Alliance|Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance]] (WECA), with the idea of certifying that products from different vendors be truly compatible with each other.<ref name="A brief history of Wi-Fi"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || September 16 || Network standard || The {{w|802.11b}} protocol is released, expanding the original 802.11 standard, and supporting bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional {{w|Ethernet}}.<ref name="Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac"/><ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/>
+
| 1999 || September 16 || Network || The {{w|802.11b}} protocol is released, expanding the original 802.11 standard, and supporting bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional {{w|Ethernet}}.<ref name="Wireless Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n, and 802.11ac"/><ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || || Terminology || The term "{{w|Internet of things}}" is coined.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
| 1999 || || Terminology || The term "{{w|Internet of things}}" is coined.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
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| 1999 || || Router || American company {{w|Linksys}} releases the [[w:Linksys WRT54G series|WRT54G]] router, pioneering Wi-Fi technology.<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/>
 
| 1999 || || Router || American company {{w|Linksys}} releases the [[w:Linksys WRT54G series|WRT54G]] router, pioneering Wi-Fi technology.<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Network standard || The {{w|IEEE 802.11a-1999}} standard is approved a month after 802.11b, offering faster speeds than 802.11b (up​to 54 Mbps) and using the 5Ghz frequency. The standard falls behind in popularity b​ecause the necessary hardware is more expensive and the signal range is weaker.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2000 || || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11a-1999}} standard is approved a month after 802.11b, offering faster speeds than 802.11b (upto 54 Mbps) and using the 5Ghz frequency. The standard falls behind in popularity because the necessary hardware is more expensive and the signal range is weaker.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2000 || || || By the time, digital wireless users outnumber analogue subscribers.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
 
| 2000 || || || By the time, digital wireless users outnumber analogue subscribers.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
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| 2002 || October || [[w:security protocol|Security]] || The {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}} and IEEE release the {{w|Temporal Key Integrity Protocol}} (TKIP), an encryprion protocol using RC4 Cipher.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>  
 
| 2002 || October || [[w:security protocol|Security]] || The {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}} and IEEE release the {{w|Temporal Key Integrity Protocol}} (TKIP), an encryprion protocol using RC4 Cipher.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002–2005 || || || Over 100 million internet connected devices are sold each year in this period, marking a big shift in consumers’ reliance on Wi-Fi in their day-to-day lives.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>  
+
| 2002–2005 || || Growth || Over 100 million internet connected devices are sold each year in this period, marking a big shift in consumers’ reliance on Wi-Fi in their day-to-day lives.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2003 || || || Faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier WiFi versions combine to make the 802.11g standard.<ref name="The History of WiFi"/>  
 
| 2003 || || || Faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier WiFi versions combine to make the 802.11g standard.<ref name="The History of WiFi"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || June || Network standard || The {{w|802.11g}} protocol is released, combining the faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier versions, offering up to 54 Mbps.<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2003 || June || Network || The {{w|802.11g}} protocol is released, combining the faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier versions, offering up to 54 Mbps.<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || September || Network standard || {{w|Wi-Fi Protected Access}} (WPA; sometimes referred to as the draft IEEE 802.11i standard) is released by the {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
+
| 2003 || September || Network || {{w|Wi-Fi Protected Access}} (WPA; sometimes referred to as the draft IEEE 802.11i standard) is released by the {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2003 || || || The United States, Europe, and other delegations at the [[w:World Radiocommunication Conference|International Telecommunications Union World Radio Conference]] (WRC-03) agree to globally allocate 5.15–5.35 GHz and 5.47–5.725 GHz for a total of 455 MHz for {{w|WLAN}} devices globally.<ref>{{cite web|title=A single-chip dual-band tri-mode CMOS transceiver for IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless LAN|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1362832/?section=abstract|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
| 2003 || || || The United States, Europe, and other delegations at the [[w:World Radiocommunication Conference|International Telecommunications Union World Radio Conference]] (WRC-03) agree to globally allocate 5.15–5.35 GHz and 5.47–5.725 GHz for a total of 455 MHz for {{w|WLAN}} devices globally.<ref>{{cite web|title=A single-chip dual-band tri-mode CMOS transceiver for IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless LAN|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1362832/?section=abstract|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
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| 2004 || June || Encryption protocol || The Counter Mode with Cipher-Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is released by {{w|IEEE}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 
| 2004 || June || Encryption protocol || The Counter Mode with Cipher-Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is released by {{w|IEEE}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || June 24 || Network standard || The IEEE 802.11i (an amendment to the original IEEE {{w|802.11}} protocol) is released, specifying security mechanisms for wireless networks.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2004 || June 24 || Network || The IEEE 802.11i (an amendment to the original IEEE {{w|802.11}} protocol) is released, specifying security mechanisms for wireless networks.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2004 || September || Security protocol || The [[w:Wi-Fi Protected Access|WPA2]] (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) Certification is introduced by the {{w|Wifi Alliance}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi Security|url=https://www.zentri.com/ack/Wi_Fi_Security|website=zentri.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=IEEE 802.11i Wi-Fi Security: WEP & WPA / WPA2|url=http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/wi-fi/ieee-802-11i-security-wpa2-wep.php|website=radio-electronics.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2004 || September || Security protocol || The [[w:Wi-Fi Protected Access|WPA2]] (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) Certification is introduced by the {{w|Wifi Alliance}}.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi Security|url=https://www.zentri.com/ack/Wi_Fi_Security|website=zentri.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=IEEE 802.11i Wi-Fi Security: WEP & WPA / WPA2|url=http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/wi-fi/ieee-802-11i-security-wpa2-wep.php|website=radio-electronics.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
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| 2005 || || Terminology || The term “WiFi” is added to the Merriam-Webster English Dictionary.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
| 2005 || || Terminology || The term “WiFi” is added to the Merriam-Webster English Dictionary.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 2005 || || Network standard || The {{w|IEEE 802.11e-2005}} is released as an approved amendment to the {{w|IEEE 802.11}} standard.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2005 || || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11e-2005}} is released as an approved amendment to the {{w|IEEE 802.11}} standard.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2006 || || Organization || [[w:Fon (company)|Fon]] is established by Argentinean entrepreneur {{w|Martín Varsavsky}}. It is considered the first WiFi community, with members sharing a bit of WiFi at home and in return they get free connectivity on the go.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/>
 
| 2006 || || Organization || [[w:Fon (company)|Fon]] is established by Argentinean entrepreneur {{w|Martín Varsavsky}}. It is considered the first WiFi community, with members sharing a bit of WiFi at home and in return they get free connectivity on the go.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || Late || Network standard || The {{w|Wi-Fi Protected Setup}} (WPS; originally, Wi-Fi Simple Config) is introduced to the market by the {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}}, as a wireless network security standard that tries to make connections between a router and wireless devices faster and easier.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Simple questions: What is WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup) and how does it work?|url=https://www.digitalcitizen.life/simple-questions-what-wps-wi-fi-protected-setup|website=digitalcitizen.life|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 2006 || Late || Network || The {{w|Wi-Fi Protected Setup}} (WPS; originally, Wi-Fi Simple Config) is introduced to the market by the {{w|Wi-Fi Alliance}}, as a wireless network security standard that tries to make connections between a router and wireless devices faster and easier.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Simple questions: What is WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup) and how does it work?|url=https://www.digitalcitizen.life/simple-questions-what-wps-wi-fi-protected-setup|website=digitalcitizen.life|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || March 8 || Network || The IEEE 802.11-2007 Standard is approved.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || March 8 || Network standard || The IEEE 802.11-2007 Standard is approved.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
+
| 2007 || June || Technology || {{w|T-Mobile US}} rolls out a service, T-Mobile HotSpot@Home, that allows a single handset to switch seamlessly from cellular to Wi-Fi access in the home and at the 8,900 T-Mobile Hotspot locations in the United States.<ref>{{cite book |title=Plunkett's Telecommunications Industry Almanac 2009 |edition=Jack W. Plunkett |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6PUiN5cE7-QC&pg=PT49&lpg=PT49&dq=%22mobile+hotspot%22+%22in+1990..2010%22&source=bl&ots=V03D_VFM35&sig=ACfU3U3QW8mAEihjO-TvCm_bonlTRfs50w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipkKHmleDjAhWFA9QKHcdrCQAQ6AEwAXoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22mobile%20hotspot%22%20%22in%201990..2010%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2007 || September 5 || Product || {{w|Apple Inc.}} releases the {{w|iPod touch}}, which connects to the internet only through Wi-Wi.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
| 2007 || September 5 || Product || {{w|Apple Inc.}} releases the {{w|iPod touch}}, which connects to the internet only through Wi-Wi.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
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| 2007 || || Router || Routers using the 802.11n standard are released, transmitting about 450 megabits per second (Mbps).<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/>
 
| 2007 || || Router || Routers using the 802.11n standard are released, transmitting about 450 megabits per second (Mbps).<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || July || Network standard || The {{w|IEEE 802.11r-2008}} or fast BSS transition (FT) (also called fast roaming) is published as an amendment to the {{w|IEEE 802.11}} standard to permit continuous connectivity aboard wireless devices in motion, with fast and secure handoffs from one base station to another managed in a seamless manner.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=802.11r-2008 - IEEE Standard for Information technology-- Local and metropolitan area networks-- Specific requirements-- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2: Fast Basic Service Set (BSS) Transition|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4573292/|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 2008 || July || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11r-2008}} or fast BSS transition (FT) (also called fast roaming) is published as an amendment to the {{w|IEEE 802.11}} standard to permit continuous connectivity aboard wireless devices in motion, with fast and secure handoffs from one base station to another managed in a seamless manner.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=802.11r-2008 - IEEE Standard for Information technology-- Local and metropolitan area networks-- Specific requirements-- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2: Fast Basic Service Set (BSS) Transition|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4573292/|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || Network standard || The final version of the 802.11n is released, which is even faster and more reliable than its predecessor. "This increase in efficiency is attributed to ‘Multiple input multiple output’ data (MIMOs), which uses multiple antennas to enhance communication of both the transmitter and receiver. This allowed for significant increases in data without the need for higher bandwidth or transmit power".<ref name="The History of WiFi"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2009 || || Network || The final version of the 802.11n is released, which is even faster and more reliable than its predecessor. "This increase in efficiency is attributed to ‘Multiple input multiple output’ data (MIMOs), which uses multiple antennas to enhance communication of both the transmitter and receiver. This allowed for significant increases in data without the need for higher bandwidth or transmit power".<ref name="The History of WiFi"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 || || Expansion || WiFi device sales surpass 600 million globally.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/>
 
| 2009 || || Expansion || WiFi device sales surpass 600 million globally.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || May || Router || {{w|Novatel Wireless}} introduces the first {{w|MiFi}} device in the United States, as a wireless router that acts as mobile {{w|Wi-Fi hotspot}}.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/07/technology/personaltech/07pogue.html?_r=1 |title=Wi-Fi to Go, No Cafe Needed |author=David Pogue |date=May 6, 2009 |publisher=New York Times |accessdate=31 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="Information Systems for Business: An Experiential Approach"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 || May 21 || Service || {{w|Virgin America}} becomes the first U.S. domestic airline to offer Wi-Fi across its fleet.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
| 2009 || May 21 || Service || {{w|Virgin America}} becomes the first U.S. domestic airline to offer Wi-Fi across its fleet.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || September 11 || || The IEEE 802.11w-2009 Draft is introduced, featuring protected management frames.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
+
| 2009 || September 11 || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11w-2009}} Draft is introduced, featuring protected management frames.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || || Expansion || The 1 billionth Wi­-Fi chipset is sold.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || || || Australia’s {{w|Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization}} (CSIRO) wins a $200 million settlement from major companies including {{w|Nintendo}}, {{w|Hewlett Packard}} and {{w|Microsoft}}, in a lawsuit based on its 1996 patent.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || February || Network || The IEEE 802.1X-2010 Standard is introduced, featuring Port Based Security Framework (3rd Standard).<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || Expansion || ​The 1 billionth Wi­-Fi chipset is sold.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
+
| 2010 || || Expansion || The number of [[w:Hotspot (Wi-Fi)|Wi­Fi hotspots]] around the world reaches 1 million.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || ​Australia’s {{w|Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization}} (CSIRO) wins a $200 million settlement from major companies including {{w|Nintendo}}, {{w|Hewlett Packard}} and {{w|Microsoft}}, in a lawsuit based on its 1996 patent.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2010 || || Router || {{w|Virgin Mobile}} releases its {{w|MiFi}} router with unlimited plan (the other plans charging after 5Gb of traffic), with no contract and low monthly costs.<ref name="Information Systems for Business: An Experiential Approach">{{cite book |last1=Bélanger |first1=France |last2=Van Slyke |first2=Craig |title=Information Systems for Business: An Experiential Approach |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=xctbzjVX5q8C&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=Personal+Hotspot+%22in+1990..2010%22&source=bl&ots=XPWpTKrLvs&sig=ACfU3U0N6ofPxk_DWeLz_kOw-NMxonG7KQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwijvuzLmuDjAhXnIbkGHawdAUUQ6AEwAHoECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=Personal%20Hotspot%20%22in%201990..2010%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || February || Network standard || The IEEE 802.1X-2010 Standard is introduced, featuring Port Based Security Framework (3rd Standard).<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/>
+
| 2010 || || Policy || United States President {{w|Barack Obama}}, in response to the {{w|Federal Communications Commission}}’s proposed [[w:National Broadband Plan (United States)|National Broadband Plan]], signs a memorandum committing to freeing up 500 MHz of spectrum for the wireless industry.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=OBAMA BACKS MORE SPECTRUM FOR WIRELESS|url=https://www.wired.com/2010/06/obama-spectrum-wireless/|website=wired.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Obama Administration supports 500 MHz of spectrum for wireless industry|url=https://www.mobilemarketer.com/ex/mobilemarketer/cms/news/legal-privacy/6670.html|website=mobilemarketer.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || || Expansion || ​The number of [[w:Hotspot (Wi-Fi)|Wi­Fi hotspots]] around the world reaches 1 million.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref name="A brief history of WiFi intechnologywifi.com"/>
+
| 2010 || June 7 || Technology || Apple announces {{w|FaceTime}} in conjunction with {{w|iPhone 4}}. A {{w|videotelephony product}}, FaceTime uses the device's front-facing camera to show the caller to the receiver, and vice versa. FaceTime works anywhere there is {{w|Wi-Fi}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Apple Presents iPhone 4 |url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FaceTime |website=apple.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || || || ​United States P​resident {{w|Barack Obama}}, in response to the {{w|Federal Communications Commission}}’s proposed [[w:National Broadband Plan (United States)|National Broadband Plan]], signs a memorandum committing to freeing up 500 MHz of spectrum for the wireless industry.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/><ref>{{cite web|title=OBAMA BACKS MORE SPECTRUM FOR WIRELESS|url=https://www.wired.com/2010/06/obama-spectrum-wireless/|website=wired.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Obama Administration supports 500 MHz of spectrum for wireless industry|url=https://www.mobilemarketer.com/ex/mobilemarketer/cms/news/legal-privacy/6670.html|website=mobilemarketer.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 2010 || December || Router || Creative users of the {{w|MiFi}} start to appear, with {{w|DoCoMo}} in {{w|Japan}} offering free WiFi in 820 taxis of the Tokyo Musen Cooperative taxi company using MiFi routers.<ref name="Information Systems for Business: An Experiential Approach"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2011 || || Expansion || The number of Wi-Fi hotspots worldwide is estimated at 1.3 million.<ref name="L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio">{{cite web |title=L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio |url=https://www.inria.fr/centre/grenoble/actualites/l-arrivee-du-wifi-technologie-de-telecommunication-radio |website=inria.fr |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2011 || || Expansion || The number of Wi-Fi hotspots worldwide is estimated at 1.3 million.<ref name="L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio">{{cite web |title=L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio |url=https://www.inria.fr/centre/grenoble/actualites/l-arrivee-du-wifi-technologie-de-telecommunication-radio |website=inria.fr |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
Line 137: Line 149:
 
| 2012 || || Terminology || The {{w|beamforming}} concept is introduced. It consists in focusing signals and concentrating data transmission so that more data reaches the target device.<ref name="The History of WiFi"/><ref>{{cite web|title=History of WIFI transformation|url=https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-wifi-transformation|website=sutori.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2012 || || Terminology || The {{w|beamforming}} concept is introduced. It consists in focusing signals and concentrating data transmission so that more data reaches the target device.<ref name="The History of WiFi"/><ref>{{cite web|title=History of WIFI transformation|url=https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-wifi-transformation|website=sutori.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || March 1 || Network standard || The {{w|IEEE 802.11-2012}} Standard is published, with the purpose of providing wireless connectivity for fixed, portable, and moving stations within a local area. This standard also offers regulatory bodies a means of standardizing access to one or more frequency bands for the purpose of local area communication.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=802.11-2012 - IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6178212/|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>  
+
| 2012 || March 1 || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11-2012}} Standard is published, with the purpose of providing wireless connectivity for fixed, portable, and moving stations within a local area. This standard also offers regulatory bodies a means of standardizing access to one or more frequency bands for the purpose of local area communication.<ref name="Wi-Fi Security Timeline"/><ref>{{cite web|title=802.11-2012 - IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications|url=https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6178212/|website=ieeexplore.ieee.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2012 || March || Public Wi-Fi || The government of the {{w|United Kingdom}} selects 14 cities eligible for funding under the Superconnected Cities scheme, aimed at offering free public Wi-Fi. The citiers include Birmingham, Liverpool, Newcastle, Bradford, Bristol, Glasgow, Leeds, Nottingham, Manchester, Sheffield and the four UK capitals – London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. All now offer free public wi-fi in their city centers.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Rise And Rise of Public Wi-fi in Britain |url=http://www.realtowns.co.uk/rise-rise-public-wifi-britain/ |website=realtowns.co.uk |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2012 || March || Public Wi-Fi || The government of the {{w|United Kingdom}} selects 14 cities eligible for funding under the Superconnected Cities scheme, aimed at offering free public Wi-Fi. The citiers include Birmingham, Liverpool, Newcastle, Bradford, Bristol, Glasgow, Leeds, Nottingham, Manchester, Sheffield and the four UK capitals – London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. All now offer free public wi-fi in their city centers.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Rise And Rise of Public Wi-fi in Britain |url=http://www.realtowns.co.uk/rise-rise-public-wifi-britain/ |website=realtowns.co.uk |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
Line 143: Line 155:
 
| 2012 || June || Public Wi-Fi|| Free Wi-Fi is launched at a number of subway stations in {{w|Paris}}.<ref name="L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio"/>
 
| 2012 || June || Public Wi-Fi|| Free Wi-Fi is launched at a number of subway stations in {{w|Paris}}.<ref name="L’arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || Legal || ​Australia’s {{w|Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization}} (CSIRO) receives a further $229 million settlement in its patent cases, with estimated total settlements of over $1 billion expected in the following years.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2012 || || Legal || Australia’s {{w|Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization}} (CSIRO) receives a further $229 million settlement in its patent cases, with estimated total settlements of over $1 billion expected in the following years.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || Growth || Research reports there is a total of 4.9 million global Wi-Fi hotspots.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.abiresearch.com/press/growing-demand-for-mobility-will-boost-global-wi-f |title= Demand for Mobility will Boost Global Wi-Fi Hotspots to Reach 6.3 Million in 2013|website= ABI Research}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2013 || March || Organization || The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) is incorporated  by the Wi-Fi Alliance as a {{w|trade association}}. WiGig would develop and promote the adoption of multi-{{w|gigabit per second}} speed wireless communications technology operating over the unlicensed [[w:extremely high frequency|60 GHz frequency band]].<ref name="merge">{{cite press release
 
| 2013 || March || Organization || The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) is incorporated  by the Wi-Fi Alliance as a {{w|trade association}}. WiGig would develop and promote the adoption of multi-{{w|gigabit per second}} speed wireless communications technology operating over the unlicensed [[w:extremely high frequency|60 GHz frequency band]].<ref name="merge">{{cite press release
Line 156: Line 170:
 
}}</ref>  
 
}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || December || Network standard || {{w|IEEE 802.11ac}} (Wireless AC) is released as the new Wi-Fi standard, operating on the 5Ghz band, and offering potential speeds of 1733 Mbps.<ref name="The History of WiFi & Just What Exactly is Wi-Fi?"/><ref>{{cite web|title=OFFICIAL IEEE 802.11 WORKING GROUP PROJECT TIMELINES - 2018-03-16|url=http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Reports/802.11_Timelines.htm|website=grouper.ieee.org|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref> The 802.11ac standard is the first to break the gigabit per second barrier.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2013 || || Technology || [[w:Apple Inc.|Apple]] introduces {{w|FaceTime}} Audio. A version of {{w|FaceTime}} simply featuring audio-only, so only the user's voice is transmitted in the call.<ref name="FaceTime: What It Is & How to Use It">{{cite web |title=FaceTime: What It Is & How to Use It |url=https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-facetime-2000237 |website=lifewire.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || Network standard || The 802.11 standard is updated to 802.11ac, which provides better wireless speed and coverage to help support changing Wi-Fi needs.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
+
| 2013 || July || Product || {{w|Starbucks}} partners with {{w|Google}} and, in conjunction with {{w|Level 3 Communications}}, announces {{w|Google Wi-Fi}} service in Starbucks locations in the United States, with up to 10 times faster connection than the service already powered by {{w|AT&T}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=At Starbucks, AT&T is out and Google is in for Wi-Fi |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/at-starbucks-at-t-is-out-and-google-is-in-for-wi-fi/ |website=cnet.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || Product || Taiwanese multinational {{w|​D-­Link}} releases the first portable 802.11ac router.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
+
| 2013 || December || Network || {{w|IEEE 802.11ac}} (Wireless AC) is released as the new Wi-Fi standard, operating on the 5Ghz band, and offering potential speeds of 1733 Mbps.<ref name="The History of WiFi & Just What Exactly is Wi-Fi?"/><ref>{{cite web|title=OFFICIAL IEEE 802.11 WORKING GROUP PROJECT TIMELINES - 2018-03-16|url=http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Reports/802.11_Timelines.htm|website=grouper.ieee.org|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref> The 802.11ac standard is the first to break the gigabit per second barrier.<ref name="15 years of WiFi"/><ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || || Network || The 802.11 standard is updated to 802.11ac, which provides better wireless speed and coverage to help support changing Wi-Fi needs.<ref name="A brief history of WiFi: Then and now"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || || Product || Taiwanese multinational {{w|D-­Link}} releases the first portable 802.11ac router.<ref name="THE HISTORY OF WI-FI getvoip"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || June || Technology || Apple announces WiFi calling for {{w|iPhone}} users with {{w|iOS 8}}. The new feature allows users to make and receive calls as well as send messages through a WiFi connection rather than using their voice or data plan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Kahn |first1=Jordan |title=T-Mobile confirms WiFi calling arriving for iPhone users with iOS 8 |url=https://9to5mac.com/2014/06/02/t-mobile-confirms-wifi-calling-arriving-for-iphone-users-with-ios-8/ |website=9to5mac.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2015 || || Technology || The {{w|Multi-user MIMO}} (MU-MIMO) standard technology is released. Available in 802.11ac Wi-Fi, it can broadcast a signal from a number of sources to multiple systems simultaneously.<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/><ref>{{cite web|title=What is MU-MIMO?|url=https://www.tomsguide.com/us/mu-mimo-faq,review-2873.html|website=tomsguide.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2015 || || Technology || The {{w|Multi-user MIMO}} (MU-MIMO) standard technology is released. Available in 802.11ac Wi-Fi, it can broadcast a signal from a number of sources to multiple systems simultaneously.<ref name="What is a Wi-Fi Router?"/><ref>{{cite web|title=What is MU-MIMO?|url=https://www.tomsguide.com/us/mu-mimo-faq,review-2873.html|website=tomsguide.com|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
Line 168: Line 188:
 
| 2015 || || Public Wi-Fi || {{w|Lithuania}} ranks first for best public Wi-Fi, followed by {{w|Estonia}} and {{w|Singapur}}.<ref name="Top 20 countries for best public WiFi in 2015">{{cite web |title=Top 20 countries for best public WiFi in 2015 |url=http://blog.rottenwifi.com/top-20-countries-best-public-wifi-2015/ |website=rottenwifi.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Lithuania dominates public Wi-Fi in 2015 |url=https://www.tanaza.com/blog/lithuania-dominates-public-wi-fi-in-2015/ |website=tanaza.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2015 || || Public Wi-Fi || {{w|Lithuania}} ranks first for best public Wi-Fi, followed by {{w|Estonia}} and {{w|Singapur}}.<ref name="Top 20 countries for best public WiFi in 2015">{{cite web |title=Top 20 countries for best public WiFi in 2015 |url=http://blog.rottenwifi.com/top-20-countries-best-public-wifi-2015/ |website=rottenwifi.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Lithuania dominates public Wi-Fi in 2015 |url=https://www.tanaza.com/blog/lithuania-dominates-public-wi-fi-in-2015/ |website=tanaza.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || May || Network standard || The {{w|IEEE 802.11ah}} wireless networking protocol (Wi-Fi HaLow) is published,<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained">{{cite web|title=802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained|url=https://www.networkworld.com/article/3238664/wi-fi/80211-wi-fi-standards-and-speeds-explained.html|website=networkworld.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref> with the purpose of enabling a variety of new power-efficient use cases in the {{w|Smart Home}}, connected car, and digital healthcare, as well as industrial, retail, agriculture, and {{w|Smart City}} environments. Wi-Fi HaLow extends Wi-Fi into the 900 MHz band.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi HaLow|url=https://www.wi-fi.org/discover-wi-fi/wi-fi-halow|website=wi-fi.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 2015 || April || Technology || WhatsApp Call is introduced for {{w|Android}} and {{w|iOS}} as a new voice calling service, enabling users to make phone calls over the {{w|Internet}}.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Patkar |first1=Mihir |title=WhatsApp Voice Call: Everything You Need to Know |url=https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/whatsapp-voice-call-everything-you-need-to-know/ |website=makeuseof.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || October || Technology || {{w|AT&T}} first introduces Wi-Fi calling, a feature that allows customers to place calls over {{w|Wi-Fi}} in instances where a cellular connection is poor.<ref>{{cite web |title=AT&T Expands Wi-Fi Calling to Cover International Calls to U.S. When Traveling |url=AT&T first introduced Wi-Fi calling in October of 2015, allowing customers to place calls over Wi-Fi in instances where a cellular connection is poor. At launch, AT&T's Wi-Fi calling feature could only be used within the U.S., Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, but as of this week, Wi-Fi calls can also be made from other countries. |website=macrumors.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2019 || || || {{w|Cisco Systems}} predicts 53 percent of monthly IP traffic will come from Wi-Fi connections worldwide, up from 42 percent in 2014.<ref>{{cite web|title=Cisco: Wi-Fi, cellular data to make up 67% of all IP traffic in 2019|url=https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/cisco-wi-fi-cellular-data-to-make-up-67-all-ip-traffic-2019|website=fiercewireless.com|accessdate=25 May 2018}}</ref>
+
| 2016 || October 4 || Product || {{w|Google}} announces {{w|Google Wifi}}, a [[w:Mesh networking|mesh]]-capable wireless [[w:Router (computing)|router]] composed of three identical units, a quantity thought for large homes, though only one is needed for small households. The system has a built-in Network Assist feature set that uses logic to optimize the connection, allowing {{w|Wi-Fi}} devices to automatically connect to the closest unit and on the best channel at a given time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Wifi router promises wall-to-wall wireless for less |url=https://www.cnet.com/reviews/google-wifi-preview/ |website=cnet.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 || July || Network standard || The {{w|802.11ba}} standard is expected to be approved around this time.<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/>
+
| 2017 || May || Network || The {{w|IEEE 802.11ah}} wireless networking protocol (Wi-Fi HaLow) is published,<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained">{{cite web|title=802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained|url=https://www.networkworld.com/article/3238664/wi-fi/80211-wi-fi-standards-and-speeds-explained.html|website=networkworld.com|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref> with the purpose of enabling a variety of new power-efficient use cases in the {{w|Smart Home}}, connected car, and digital healthcare, as well as industrial, retail, agriculture, and {{w|Smart City}} environments. Wi-Fi HaLow extends Wi-Fi into the 900 MHz band.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wi-Fi HaLow|url=https://www.wi-fi.org/discover-wi-fi/wi-fi-halow|website=wi-fi.org|accessdate=19 May 2018}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || || Growth || {{w|Cisco Systems}} predicts 53 percent of monthly IP traffic will come from Wi-Fi connections worldwide, up from 42 percent in 2014.<ref>{{cite web|title=Cisco: Wi-Fi, cellular data to make up 67% of all IP traffic in 2019|url=https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/cisco-wi-fi-cellular-data-to-make-up-67-all-ip-traffic-2019|website=fiercewireless.com|accessdate=25 May 2018}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 || July || Network || The {{w|802.11ba}} standard is expected to be approved around this time.<ref name="802.11: Wi-Fi standards and speeds explained"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2020 || || Public Wi-Fi || Public Wi-Fi hotspots are estimated to grow to 432 million globally by that time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Public Wi-Fi hotspots to grow to 432M globally by 2020, suggesting possible threat to carriers |url=https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/public-wi-fi-hotspots-to-grow-to-432m-globally-by-2020-suggesting-possible-threat-to |website=fiercewireless.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
 
| 2020 || || Public Wi-Fi || Public Wi-Fi hotspots are estimated to grow to 432 million globally by that time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Public Wi-Fi hotspots to grow to 432M globally by 2020, suggesting possible threat to carriers |url=https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/public-wi-fi-hotspots-to-grow-to-432m-globally-by-2020-suggesting-possible-threat-to |website=fiercewireless.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref>
Line 193: Line 219:
  
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
[http://www.hotspotrevenue.com/wifi/a-brief-history-of-public-useguest-wifi/]
 
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of mobile telephony]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 17:28, 31 July 2019

This is a timeline of Wi-Fi, attempting to describe important events in the development of the technology.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
<1997 Pre-Wi-Fi era
1997 Wi-Fi is introduced when a committee called IEEE 802.11 is set up.[1][2]
1999 1st generation: The 802.11a standard is released.[3][4] The release of routers sparks the beginning of the wide use of Wi-Fi in homes.
1999 2nd generation: The 802.11b standard is released, facilitating the first widespread implementation of WLAN technology.[5][6] 802.11b features wireless speeds of 11 Mbps.[7]
2003 3rd generation: Faster speeds and distance coverage of earlier versions combine to make the 802.11g standard. Routers get better, with higher power and further coverage.[2][8] 802.11g lets consumers stream music at 54 Mbps.[7]
2009 4th generation: The 802.11n standard is released.[5][9] Faster and more reliable than before, it is built with more antennas and multiple streams of data.[2]
2013 Wi-Fi significantly improves with the emergence of the 802.11ac standard, which packs almost triple the speed of its predecessor, 802.11n. 802.11ac breaks the gigabit per second barrier.[7][10]
2015 Wi-Fi accelerates once again with the MU-MIMO standard.[7]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1941 Technology A spread spectrum technology is patented by composer George Antheil and actress Hedy Lamarr for use in guiding naval torpedoes. It consists in a signal which is spread over multiple frequencies in order to reduce interference. Spread spectrum improves wireless signals, however it does not resolve all interference.[11]
1971 Technology The University of Hawaii, led by engineer and computer scientist Norman Abramson, completes the first wireless data packet transfer ever attempted without a satellite or connected cables, using a new technology called Ultra High Frequency radio waves (UHF) to successfully connect seven computers, spread across different Hawaiian islands.[12]
1985 October 15 Technology IBM introduces Token Ring LAN, running at 4 Mbps.[13][14]
1985 Network The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the telecoms regulator in the United States, opens the wireless frequencies 900Mhz, 2.4Ghz, and 5.8Ghz to be used without the need for a government license. These radio bands are used by household appliances such as microwaves, and are assumed to have no practical application in communications due to interference.[15][11][12]
1987 Security American cryptographer Ron Rivest working at RSA Security develops the RC4 Cipher, a security cipher (Key size: 40-2048 bits).[16]
1988 Network The NCR Corporation, in hopes of adopting a wireless local area network (WLAN) standard for use in their wireless cash registers, turns to Victor Hayes, author of many of their data transfer standards, who, along with Bell Labs engineer Bruce Tuch, ask the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for assistance in utilizing these frequencies for a WLAN standard. A committee is created with the catchy title “802.11”. The standard would be published nine years later, named after the committee, and Victor Hayes would be called the "father of Wi-Fi".[11][14]
1989 Technology The NCR Corporation submits the WaveLAN design (a brand name for a family of wireless networking technology) to the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee.[14]
1990 Network The NCR Corporation introduces its wireless computing network, WaveLAN, to the public.[12]
1993 Network Henrik Sjödin proposes the creation of publicly accessible local area networks (LANs) at the NetWorld+Interop conference in The Moscone Center in San Francisco. While Sjödin does not use the term “hotspot”, this is considered the first mention of the concept.[14][17]
1993 August Public access wireless local area networks (LANs) are first proposed by Henrik Sjödin at the NetWorld+Interop conference in The Moscone Center in San Francisco. Sjödin do not use the term "hotspot" but refers to publicly accessible wireless LANs.[18]
1994 Carnegie Mellon University begins installing the first campus-wide wireless network.[12] The largescale installation is completed by AT&T.[14] The network is called "Wireless Andrew" (named for university benefactors Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon).[14] Started as a National Science Foundation-funded research network to support Carnegie Mellon's wireless research initiative, Wireless Andrew originally provides coverage in seven campus buildings. In 1999, it would expand to serve all 65 residential, academic and administrative buildings on the campus — covering approximately 3 million square feet as well as outside areas.[19]
1996 Technology Australian electrical engineer John O'Sullivan, working at the Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), develops a technique for reducing multipath interference of radio signals transmitted for computer networking. This technique would eventually find its way into the 802.11a (and later) standards.[14][20][21]
1997 Release Wi-Fi is first released for consumers.[22] The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, chaired by Victor Hayes, releases the first wireless local area network (WLAN) standard, the IEEE 802.11, only supporting a maximum network bandwidth of 2 Mbps – too slow for most applications.[23][24]
1997 June 26 Wi-Fi security The Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is introduced as a security algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks.[16]
1998 Organization Wireless Internet Service Provider MobileStar is founded by Mark Goode and Greg Jackson. MobileStar becomes the first company to provide Wi­Fi hotspots (Mark Goode coined the term “hotspot”) in airports, hotels, or coffee shops, signing contracts with American Airlines, Hilton Hotels, and Starbucks.[14][25]
1999 July Service Apple Corporation introduces Wi-Fi as an option on its new iBook computers, under the brand name AirPort.[15]
1999 August Organization Six companies—Intersil, 3Com, Nokia, Aironet, Symbol and Lucent — jointly create the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA), with the idea of certifying that products from different vendors be truly compatible with each other.[15]
1999 September 16 Network The 802.11b protocol is released, expanding the original 802.11 standard, and supporting bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet.[24][26]
1999 Terminology The term "Internet of things" is coined.[12]
1999 WiFi is introduced for home use.[22]
1999 Router American company Linksys releases the WRT54G router, pioneering Wi-Fi technology.[7]
2000 Network The IEEE 802.11a-1999 standard is approved a month after 802.11b, offering faster speeds than 802.11b (upto 54 Mbps) and using the 5Ghz frequency. The standard falls behind in popularity because the necessary hardware is more expensive and the signal range is weaker.[14]
2000 By the time, digital wireless users outnumber analogue subscribers.[1]
2001 June Security Port based Network Access Control IEEE 802.1X-2001 Standard is released.[27][16]
2002 The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance coins the term Wi-Fi, a portmanteau of Wireless and Hi-Fi, a term used in the music industry as an abbreviation of High Fidelity. The WECA rename themselves Wi-Fi Alliance.[11]
2002 October Security The Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE release the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), an encryprion protocol using RC4 Cipher.[16]
2002–2005 Growth Over 100 million internet connected devices are sold each year in this period, marking a big shift in consumers’ reliance on Wi-Fi in their day-to-day lives.[12]
2003 Faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier WiFi versions combine to make the 802.11g standard.[22]
2003 June Network The 802.11g protocol is released, combining the faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier versions, offering up to 54 Mbps.[26][14]
2003 September Network Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA; sometimes referred to as the draft IEEE 802.11i standard) is released by the Wi-Fi Alliance.[16]
2003 The United States, Europe, and other delegations at the International Telecommunications Union World Radio Conference (WRC-03) agree to globally allocate 5.15–5.35 GHz and 5.47–5.725 GHz for a total of 455 MHz for WLAN devices globally.[28][14]
2003–2007 Expansion Mobile phone users surpass those using landline telephone in the United States.[29]
2004 The First Wi-Fi devices, such as personal digital assistants, mobile phones and TVs, hit the market.[30]
2004 June Encryption protocol The Counter Mode with Cipher-Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is released by IEEE.[16]
2004 June 24 Network The IEEE 802.11i (an amendment to the original IEEE 802.11 protocol) is released, specifying security mechanisms for wireless networks.[16][14]
2004 September Security protocol The WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) Certification is introduced by the Wifi Alliance.[16][31][32]
2005 Terminology The term “WiFi” is added to the Merriam-Webster English Dictionary.[30][12]
2005 Network The IEEE 802.11e-2005 is released as an approved amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard.[14]
2006 Organization Fon is established by Argentinean entrepreneur Martín Varsavsky. It is considered the first WiFi community, with members sharing a bit of WiFi at home and in return they get free connectivity on the go.[30]
2006 Late Network The Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS; originally, Wi-Fi Simple Config) is introduced to the market by the Wi-Fi Alliance, as a wireless network security standard that tries to make connections between a router and wireless devices faster and easier.[16][33]
2007 March 8 Network The IEEE 802.11-2007 Standard is approved.[16]
2007 June Technology T-Mobile US rolls out a service, T-Mobile HotSpot@Home, that allows a single handset to switch seamlessly from cellular to Wi-Fi access in the home and at the 8,900 T-Mobile Hotspot locations in the United States.[34]
2007 September 5 Product Apple Inc. releases the iPod touch, which connects to the internet only through Wi-Wi.[12]
2007 Router Routers using the 802.11n standard are released, transmitting about 450 megabits per second (Mbps).[7]
2008 July Network The IEEE 802.11r-2008 or fast BSS transition (FT) (also called fast roaming) is published as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard to permit continuous connectivity aboard wireless devices in motion, with fast and secure handoffs from one base station to another managed in a seamless manner.[16][35]
2009 Network The final version of the 802.11n is released, which is even faster and more reliable than its predecessor. "This increase in efficiency is attributed to ‘Multiple input multiple output’ data (MIMOs), which uses multiple antennas to enhance communication of both the transmitter and receiver. This allowed for significant increases in data without the need for higher bandwidth or transmit power".[22][14]
2009 Expansion WiFi device sales surpass 600 million globally.[30]
2009 May Router Novatel Wireless introduces the first MiFi device in the United States, as a wireless router that acts as mobile Wi-Fi hotspot.[36][37]
2009 May 21 Service Virgin America becomes the first U.S. domestic airline to offer Wi-Fi across its fleet.[12]
2009 September 11 Network The IEEE 802.11w-2009 Draft is introduced, featuring protected management frames.[16]
2009 Expansion The 1 billionth Wi­-Fi chipset is sold.[14][1]
2009 Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) wins a $200 million settlement from major companies including Nintendo, Hewlett Packard and Microsoft, in a lawsuit based on its 1996 patent.[14]
2010 February Network The IEEE 802.1X-2010 Standard is introduced, featuring Port Based Security Framework (3rd Standard).[16]
2010 Expansion The number of Wi­Fi hotspots around the world reaches 1 million.[14][1]
2010 Router Virgin Mobile releases its MiFi router with unlimited plan (the other plans charging after 5Gb of traffic), with no contract and low monthly costs.[37]
2010 Policy United States President Barack Obama, in response to the Federal Communications Commission’s proposed National Broadband Plan, signs a memorandum committing to freeing up 500 MHz of spectrum for the wireless industry.[14][38][39]
2010 June 7 Technology Apple announces FaceTime in conjunction with iPhone 4. A videotelephony product, FaceTime uses the device's front-facing camera to show the caller to the receiver, and vice versa. FaceTime works anywhere there is Wi-Fi.[40]
2010 December Router Creative users of the MiFi start to appear, with DoCoMo in Japan offering free WiFi in 820 taxis of the Tokyo Musen Cooperative taxi company using MiFi routers.[37]
2011 Expansion The number of Wi-Fi hotspots worldwide is estimated at 1.3 million.[41]
2012 Terminology The beamforming concept is introduced. It consists in focusing signals and concentrating data transmission so that more data reaches the target device.[22][42]
2012 March 1 Network The IEEE 802.11-2012 Standard is published, with the purpose of providing wireless connectivity for fixed, portable, and moving stations within a local area. This standard also offers regulatory bodies a means of standardizing access to one or more frequency bands for the purpose of local area communication.[16][43]
2012 March Public Wi-Fi The government of the United Kingdom selects 14 cities eligible for funding under the Superconnected Cities scheme, aimed at offering free public Wi-Fi. The citiers include Birmingham, Liverpool, Newcastle, Bradford, Bristol, Glasgow, Leeds, Nottingham, Manchester, Sheffield and the four UK capitals – London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. All now offer free public wi-fi in their city centers.[44]
2012 June Public Wi-Fi Free Wi-Fi is launched at a number of subway stations in Paris.[41]
2012 Legal Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) receives a further $229 million settlement in its patent cases, with estimated total settlements of over $1 billion expected in the following years.[14]
2012 Growth Research reports there is a total of 4.9 million global Wi-Fi hotspots.[45]
2013 March Organization The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) is incorporated by the Wi-Fi Alliance as a trade association. WiGig would develop and promote the adoption of multi-gigabit per second speed wireless communications technology operating over the unlicensed 60 GHz frequency band.[46]
2013 Technology Apple introduces FaceTime Audio. A version of FaceTime simply featuring audio-only, so only the user's voice is transmitted in the call.[47]
2013 July Product Starbucks partners with Google and, in conjunction with Level 3 Communications, announces Google Wi-Fi service in Starbucks locations in the United States, with up to 10 times faster connection than the service already powered by AT&T.[48]
2013 December Network IEEE 802.11ac (Wireless AC) is released as the new Wi-Fi standard, operating on the 5Ghz band, and offering potential speeds of 1733 Mbps.[11][49] The 802.11ac standard is the first to break the gigabit per second barrier.[30][14]
2014 Network The 802.11 standard is updated to 802.11ac, which provides better wireless speed and coverage to help support changing Wi-Fi needs.[12]
2014 Product Taiwanese multinational D-­Link releases the first portable 802.11ac router.[14]
2014 June Technology Apple announces WiFi calling for iPhone users with iOS 8. The new feature allows users to make and receive calls as well as send messages through a WiFi connection rather than using their voice or data plan.[50]
2015 Technology The Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) standard technology is released. Available in 802.11ac Wi-Fi, it can broadcast a signal from a number of sources to multiple systems simultaneously.[7][51]
2015 Expansion Nearly 70 million Wi­Fi hotspots are estimated worldwide.[14]
2015 Public Wi-Fi Lithuania ranks first for best public Wi-Fi, followed by Estonia and Singapur.[52][53]
2015 April Technology WhatsApp Call is introduced for Android and iOS as a new voice calling service, enabling users to make phone calls over the Internet.[54]
2015 October Technology AT&T first introduces Wi-Fi calling, a feature that allows customers to place calls over Wi-Fi in instances where a cellular connection is poor.[55]
2016 October 4 Product Google announces Google Wifi, a mesh-capable wireless router composed of three identical units, a quantity thought for large homes, though only one is needed for small households. The system has a built-in Network Assist feature set that uses logic to optimize the connection, allowing Wi-Fi devices to automatically connect to the closest unit and on the best channel at a given time.[56]
2017 May Network The IEEE 802.11ah wireless networking protocol (Wi-Fi HaLow) is published,[26] with the purpose of enabling a variety of new power-efficient use cases in the Smart Home, connected car, and digital healthcare, as well as industrial, retail, agriculture, and Smart City environments. Wi-Fi HaLow extends Wi-Fi into the 900 MHz band.[57]
2019 Growth Cisco Systems predicts 53 percent of monthly IP traffic will come from Wi-Fi connections worldwide, up from 42 percent in 2014.[58]
2020 July Network The 802.11ba standard is expected to be approved around this time.[26]
2020 Public Wi-Fi Public Wi-Fi hotspots are estimated to grow to 432 million globally by that time.[59]

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References

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