Timeline of bicycle transportation

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This is a timeline of bicycle transportation, attempting to describe significant events in the development of the technology and use of bicycles.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Before 19th century Multiple events lead to the development of the bicycle, starting with the invention of the wheel. As early as 500 BC, Chinese engineer Lu Ban is probably the first to mention a pedal powered cycle. During the Italian Renaissance, Giovanni Fontana, Leonardo Da Vinci and his student Gian Giacomo Caprotti lead the development of early prototypes. In the 17th century, Johann Hautsch and Stephan Farffler in Germany contribute with the development of the technology.
19th century The velocipede from 1860 is considered the first true bicycle. John Kemp Starley's Rover Safety Bicycle is regarded as the first model of “modern” bicycle.[1] In the 1860s, several different French inventors develop prototypes with pedals attached to the front wheel.[2] In the 1870s there are several advances in metallurgy, including hollow frame tubes and wire-spoked wheels.[3] From the 1880s onward, manufacturing technology improves even further and allows factories to mass-produce bicycles at lower costs.[4] By 1890, bikes are already popular.[5] The pneumatic tire and the chain drive, followed by the development of gears, revolutionize bicycling in the later century.[6]
1900s–1950s Golden Age of Bicycles. This means of transport becomes one of the primary means of public road transportation. Early bicycle clubs popularize recreational driving across Europe and the United States. Throughout time, the manufacturing costs come down significantly, which increase the use of bicycle all over the world.[7] During World War I, bicycles play a valuable role as the French, British and Germans deploy bicycle regiments and battalions.[1]
1960s onwards The modern age of bicycles starts with the increase of consciousness of the benefits of exercise and energy efficient transport.[7] In the 1960s there's a revival of interest in folding bikes.[8] During the 1970's the so-called Bike Boom occurs in the United States as the general public becomes aware of the value of exercise and energy-efficient transportation.[9] Faster and lighter bicycles are also introduced.[4] In the 1980s, the use of Mountain Bikes and BMXs become popular.[10] Bicycle frames in the 1990s become lighter and stronger.[6]
Present time It is estimated that about 16% of the global population can ride a bicycle. China is the global leader in bicycle production, sales, and export. Dockless bike share systems grow rapidly to involve over 100 cities and millions of bicycles.[11]

Full timeline

Year Category Details Location
3500 BC–1700s AD Early development The wheel is invented around this time.[9]
500 BC Early development Chinese inventor Lu Ban is probably the first to mention a pedal powered cycle.[1] This is supposed to be a large wooden device with complicated gears and pedals to make it move.[9] China
1418 Early development Italian engineer Giovanni Fontana is credited with building the first human powered land vehicle: a device featuring four wheels and using a continuous rope, connected via gears to the wheels.[11] Italy
1493 Early development A bicycle drawing appears in Leonardo Da Vinci's "Codex Atlanticus". However, the drawing is speculated to be made by his student Gian Giacomo Caprotti.No working prototype of the device would be ever made.[10][7][1] Italy
1649 Early development German mechanician Johann Hautsch develops a carriage able to transport one passenger over 500m with the use of the complicated mechanical drive. This device reminds more of a motorcar than a bicycle.[10][12][13] Germany
1680 Early development German inventor Stephan Farffler creates a manumotive carriage which is considered to be the first known tricycle. This model does not feature pedals, but is propelled with the use of hand crank.[14][15][16][10] Germany
1790 Early development Comte Mede de Sivrac in France develops the celerifere, an early precursor of the bicycle.[9] France
1817 Technology German engineer Karl Drais patents the Laufmaschine, which combines the three main principles of the bicycle: methods of propulsion, steering, and balance.[3] It is operated by kicking against the street.[2][17][4] Germany
1820 Model Denis Johnson of London releases his Dandy horse, using an elegantly curved wooden frame which allows the use of larger wheels. These improve the stability during the ride.[18] United Kingdom
1830s Background Due to improved safety for the rider, tricycles and quadricycles become popular.[3]
1839 Model Scottish blacksmith Kirkpatrick MacMillan develops an early rear wheel pedal driven bicycle.[1] United Kingdom
1850 Technology The first three-wheeler is introduced, allowing for a more stable ride.[17][19]
1855–1860 Technology Ernest Michaux from France adds crank treadles to a velocipede (round shafts).[20] France
1858 Technology Pedals are added to the steerable laufmaschine.[21]
1860 Model French engineers Ernest Michaux and Pierre Lallement invent the velocipede, which is considered the first true bicycle.[3][17][22] In England it would be called boneshaker. A stiff contraption, the wheels are pure wood, and the tires are made of iron. Although very impractical and difficult for the rider, it is the first bike in cycling history to have the front-wheel pedals.[23][5] France
1861 Technology French blacksmith Pierre Michaux patents the bicycle pedal and starts using rubber tires and ball bearings for faster and easier use.[17] France
1861 Technology Crank and pedals are introduced, but not yet brakes, resulting in many dangerous “headers”.[17]
1862 Manufacturer The Bown Manufacturing Company is established in Birmingham[24] United Kingdom
1863 Technology French engineer Pierre Lallement in Paris attaches a pair of pedals to a two-wheeler (round spools of wood on a shaft).[20] France
1866 Technology Pierre Lallement is granted the first bicycle-related U.S. patent is granted for a single-sided counter-balanced bicycle pedal.[20] United States
1867 Model The velocipede (also called boneshaker) becomes so popular that up to 150 independent manufacturers produce them in France.[3][22][23] France
1868 Technology French mechanic Eugène Meyer patents the wire spoke wheel.[1] France
1868 Early development The term bicycle is first used to describe a two-wheeled pedal velocipede.[3] France, United Kingdom, United States
1868 Model The Roper Steam Velocipede is released as the first steam-powered bicycle, coming out around the same time that bicycles begin exploding on the market.[23]
1868 Application (sport) The first velocipede race is held in Paris. English racer James Moore wins.[3] France
1868 Model British engineer Thomas Humber develops a model fitting the description of future safety bycicles.[25] United Kingdom
1868 Technology French engineer Clément Ader is granted the first patent for rubberized wheels.[21] France
1869 Technology The first rubber tires are used for bicycles, marking a major change in the development and production as well as the capabilities of bikes.[23]
1870 Model The Penny-farthing bicycle is invented in England. With its five-foot diameter front wheel and minuscule rear wheel, the name comes from the idea that the wheels resemble two coins, the penny and the farthing next to each other. An inefficient model, the Penny-farthing is unstable, extremely difficult to get on and off and the front wheel is used for power and steering.[17][4] United Kingdom
1870 Technology Radial spokes are added to wheels, adopting some of the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution.[4]
1870 Model French mechanic Eugène Meyer makes a bicycle with very large front wheel and smaller back wheel.[10] He is believed to be the person primarily responsible for making the Penny-farthing feasible and widely known.[26] France
1870 Model English engineer Editing W. H. J. Grout patents the Grout Tension Bicycle, which introduces several innovations including hollow forks to save weight, rubber tyres for a better ride and adjustable spokes which could be tensioned to align the wheel.[27][28][29][30] United Kingdom
1870–1880 Technology British engineer Edward Alfred Cowper invents the ball bearing for bicycles. Others refine it for wheels, cranks and headsets.[20] United Kingdom
1872 Model The Penny-farthing is first manufactured in Britain.[23] United Kingdom
1872 Technology Ball-bearings are introduced.[4]
1874 Model British engineer Harry John Lawson designs the first rear chain driven "safety bicycle".[10][5] United Kingdom
1874 Application "Working bikes" are first mentioned in Paris, as couriers, for a newspaper and the stock market riding penny-farthings.[31] France
1876 Technology English inventors Thomas Browett and William Harrison patent an early version of the caliper brake.[21][4] United Kingdom
1876 Model English engineer Harry John Lawson desings the first bicycle to be called a safety bicycle.[32] United Kingdom
1877 Technology Designs for differential gearing mechanisms and shifters are patented.[4]
1879 Model British designer Harry John Lawson patents his chain-driven bicycle, with the chain making riding easier.[23] United Kingdom
1880 Organization The League of American Wheelmen is founded. It is one of the most well-known cycling associations in history.[23] United States
1880 Model The first rear-wheel-drive bicycle, featuring a chain connecting the pedals to the rear wheel, is mass-produced in England.[4] United Kingdom
1884 Model English industrialist John Kemp Starley designs his Rover Safety, with two wheels of equal size with a similar frame. It is built as the official alternative to the Penny-farthing.[23] Starley is widely considered the inventor of the modern bicycle.[33][34][35][36] United Kingdom
1884 Application English cyclist Thomas Stevens rides a high-wheeler bike on a journey around the globe.[2]
1884 Technology British machinist William Bown invents the "Aeolus" pedal with rubber tread, the first pedal with ball bearings.[20] United Kingdom
1885 Manufacturer Bianchi is founded in Italy. It is the world's oldest bicycle manufacturing company in existence, having pioneered the use of equal-sized wheels.[37] Italy
1885 Manufacturer British manufacturer Raleigh Bicycle Company is founded.[38] United Kingdom
1885 Background The first motorcycle is released.[23]
1887 Application English-born American immigrant Thomas Stevens becomes the first person to travel around the world on a bicycle, using the Penny-Farthing.[23]
1887 Model American inventor, Emmit G. Latta files a patent for his new folding bike, with the idea to enhance portability and make commuting easy.[5][8] United States
1888 Technology Scottish inventor John Boyd Dunlop develops inflatable pneumatic bicycle tires, thus providing a smoother ride than existing solid-rubber tires.[23][9][3] United Kingdom
1889 Technology Daniel Stover and William Hance patent the bicycle brake operated by backward pedal with a back pedal seat.[21][23] This break would later become known as safety brake, and would also later become a standard feature on bicycles.[21]
1890 Technology The idea to use aluminum for bikes rises, provided its light weight.[23]
1891 Model The Tandem Velocipede is patented. It is the world’s first two-seater bike.[23]
1893 Manufacturer British manufacturer Campion Cycle Company is founded.[39] United Kingdom
1893 Model English engineer William Henry James Grout develops an early folding bike.[8][23] United Kingdom
1893 Model American engineer Michael B. Ryan files a patent for his folding bicycle model.[40] United States
1894 Model The first bamboo bicycle is manufactured.[4]
1894 Application (transport) The first bicycle messenger system is launched in California, to relay mail between Fresno and San Francisco, after a railroad strike brings postal delivery to a halt.[4] United States
1894 Infrastructure The first bikeway in the United States is created with the opening of the Brooklyn’s Ocean Parkway.[41] United States
1895 Manufacturer German-born mechanical engineer Ignatz Schwinn and Adolph Arnold establish in Chicago the Arnold, Schwinn & Company to produce bikes.[42] United States
1895 Model Ogden Bolton Jr. is granted a patent for a battery-powered bicycle with "6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current (DC) hub motor mounted in the rear wheel. The device has no gears and the motor can draw up to 100 amperes from a 10-volt battery.[23][42] United States
1895 Technology Julien Simon and Victor Dussault from France invent the folding tandem.[40] France
1895 Technology Ogden Bolton Jr. is granted a patent for a battery-powered bicycle with "6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current (DC) hub motor mounted in the rear wheel".[43] United States
1895 Technology Charles Hanson invents the clipless pedal.[44]
1895 Technology There are two patent offices in the United States, one for bicycles and one for everything else.[20] United States
1895 Technology Charles Hanson from Rhode Island invents the first clipless pedal. It twists to lock and unlock and has rotational float.[20] United States
1896 Application (sport) The 1896 Summer Olympics mark the first time that competitive cycling appears in the Olympic games.[23] Greece
1896 Notable comment American social reformer Susan B. Anthony writes: "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. It gives woman a feeling of freedom and self-reliance."[42] United States
1896 Technology Coaster Brakes are developed, allowing the bike to move forward without requiring the pedals to move. These also operate as brakes by turning the pedals backwards.[21]
1897 Technology The first butted steel bicycle tube is manufactured.[4]
1897 Model An early electric bicycle is built by American engineer Hosea W. Libbey.[45] United States
1897 Technology Duck Brakes are introduced, using a rod operated by a lever on the handlebar. Inorder to slow down the vehicle, the rider pulls the lever to pull rubber rollers against the front tire.[21]
1897 Technology Joseph Hanson patents a new type of floating clipless pedal.[20]
1898 Technology Freewheeling brakes are introduced, allowing for bicycles to continue moving without being pedaled. Adding safety and convenience, freewhiling would change the design of almost every bicycle made after its invention.[23][46]
1898 Model Gordon J. Scott from Philadelphia files a patent for an electric velocipede, featuring a pedal-powered battery regenerator. In this model, the pedals spin a generator, which in turn drives a small motor.[21][47] United States
1898 Technology The freewheel is commercialized for the first time. Invented by German industrialist Ernst Sachs, the freewheel allows the rider to keep pedals stationary while the bicycle still moves forward, while using a different mechanism to do this than the coaster brake.[21] Germany
1899 Manufacturer The American Bicycle Company is founded.[48] United States
1899 Application (warfare) Bicycles are first used in conflict in the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa.[42] South Africa
1899 Technology Edmonds and Metzel invent the cylinder pedal.[20]
1900 Organization The International Cycling Union (Union Cycliste Internationale) is founded in Paris. It is the worldwide governing body for cycling.[49] France
1900 Model The bicycle design becomes standardized, adopting a basic diamond shape made from metal, pneumatic rubber tires, roller chain, one gear, and coaster brakes. This standard would remain unchanged for more than 50 years.[10]
1901 Model Bike manufacturers create the first recumbent bikes.[5][23]
1903 Application (sport) The first Tour De France is organized as a cycling race.[23] France
1903 Technology Sturmey-Archer is England invents the internal hub gears.[50] United Kingdom
1904 Manufacturer Dutch bicycle manufacturer Batavus is founded.[51] Netherlands
1905 Technology French engineer Paul de Vivie develops the first derailleur successful bicycle sprocket system. It consists of two sprockets that offer two different speeds, an uphill gear and downhill gear.[1] France
1905 Technology Manufacturers develop the rear derailleur gear and integrate it on bikes.[5]
1909 Manufacturer Spanish bicycle manufacturer Beistegui Hermanos is founded.[52] Spain
1914 Model The first recumbent bicycle, which allows the rider to sit down while pedaling, is introduced in France by Peugeot, a company later known more for its cars than its bikes.[4] France
1920 Model The Kids Bike is invented, weighing in at around 65 pounds, and mimicking aspects of the motor vehicle as automobiles become more desirable than bikes.[17] Manufacturers start to produce bicycles for kids.[5]
1921 Manufacturer Shimano is founded in Japan. Today, it controls 50% of the world’s bicycle component market, selling everything from brake parts to pedal components.[23] Japan
1923 Technology Bosch launches a dynamo (magneto) bicycle lighting system.[42]
1924 Model French manufacturer Charles Mochet starts producing Velocars, a series of human powered velomobiles in both single and two seat versions.[53][23] France
1928 Technology French industrialist Lucien Juy makes the the first Simplex derailleur.[54][55] France
1930 Technology Ignaz Schwinn introduces the spring fork and fat tire to handle the abuse of teenage boys. This would later become the preliminary design for the mountain bike.[42][17] United States
1930 Technology Italian racing cyclist and inventor Tullio Campagnolo patents the quick release hub, which allows for the wheels of a bicycle to be easily removed and re-installed.[42][23][4] Italy
1933 Model Schwinn introduces the first balloon tired bicycle.[56]
1933 Model Cruiser bicycles are introduced in the United States, only made for leisurely bike rides.[23][57] United States
1934 Application (sport) The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) bans recumbent bicycles from being used in cycling races under their name, for being too fast.[23]
1934 Model Schwinn releases the Aero Cycle, which includes a battery-powered headlight.[58]
1936 Chinese state-owned bicycle company Flying Pigeon is founded.[59] China
1938 Technology A cable operated system appears, allowing riders to change gears without dismounting.[1]
1938 Technology Thomas M McDonald from Montana files for a patent for a hub motor. This basic technology would be used in most electric bike motors even to this day.[60][42] United States
1938 Technology Simplex introduces a shifting derailleur that uses cables much like modern bicycles. This represents a major improvement over preexisting shifters and begins a push towards advanced shifting mechanisms.[4]
1948 Technology Indexed shifting on the handlebars is introduced.[4]
1955 Model Huffman Manufacturing releases the Huffy Radio Bicycle, which features a three vacuum tube radio built into the tank.[61] [23] United States
1956 Application (sport) The first official BMX race is held.[23]
1958 Application (sport) Women compete in the first-ever World Championships on the road and track in Reims, France. Balina Ermolaeva becomes the first women's World Sprint Champion, with Elsy Jacobs taking the road race.[42][4][62] France
1962 Model The Moulton bicycle is introduced. While not a folding bicycle per se, this model with its small wheels, serves as an inspiration for many folding bicycle designs that would follow.[23][8]
1963 Model Schwinn releases its Sting-Ray bike, providing the foundation for BMX racing.[4]
1964 Model The Italian Graziella is introduced. This model would excercise a large influence on future folding bicycles.[8] Italy
1964 Technology Japanese manufacturer SunTour introduces the slant parallelogram derailleur. This device is still in use on modern bicycles.[4]
1965 Infrastructure The first bicycle-sharing system is introduced in Amsterdam.[63][64][65] Netherlands
1968 Model The Raleigh Bicycle Company releases the Raleigh Chopper, aimed at children.[66][23] United Kingdom
1970 Model American designer Charlie Kelly and Gary Fisher develop a model built for hard-core terrain, featuring heavy-duty wheels and a suspension system, allowing it to climb steep inclines, ride over logs, rocks, dirt roads and anything else found on a mountain.[23] United States
1970 Application (sport) Cycling sport becomes popular leading to the making of mountain bikes.[5]
1974 Technology Teledyne introduces titanium bicycle frames on a consumer scale in the United States.[4] Cycling companies start to use titanium for their bikes due to its many key traits.[23] United States
1975 Technology The first carbon bike frame is introduced.[4]
1976 Application (sport) Repack Downhill, the world’s first major organized mountain biking race is held in California.[23][67][68] United States
1978 Organization The United States Bicycle Route System is established by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the same body that coordinates the numbering of interstate highways and routes in the United States.[69] United States
1979 Application (sport) Freddie Markham sets the world speed record of 81.8 Km/h, riding a Human Powered Vehicle.[23]
1979 Model Californian designer Joe Breeze creates his prototype of mountain bike, developed by many early designers including Otis Guy, Gary Fisher, and Craig Mitchell. This model features the first tough frames built for downhill racing.[21] United States
1980 Infrastructure The first cycle street in the world is constructed in Bremen, Germany.[70] Germany
1981 Model American manufacturer Specialized Bicycle Components releases the Specialized Stumpjumper; the first mass produced mountain bike.[23] United States
1983 Technology Bike computers (also called cyclocomputers) are introduced as small digital displays attached to the bicycle that displays information like speed, distance travelled and the current time.[23]
1984 Technology Addition of cogs to the rear gear cluster becomes popular, increasing the number of speeds from 15 to 18, 21 and 24.[21]
1984 Infrastructure The Bristol and Bath Railway Path opens, becoming the first part of the British National Cycle Network.[71] United Kingdom
1986 Technology Kestrel introduces the first non-lugged carbon frame, marking a major turning point in the market for carbon bikes as professional cyclists are now able to rely on the frames to hold up during races.[4]
1987 Model Paul Turner releases his full-suspension mountain bike, making a big improvement on the existing models.[23][4] United States
1987 Infrastructure Fietsplatform (the Dutch cycling platform) is established as a public-private organization. It is responsible for the development, maintenance, improvement and promotion of the Dutch network of long distance cycle-routes (4.500 km).[72] Netherlands
1989 Safety The Australian government passes the world’s first helmet laws, ordering all cyclists to wear a helmet, in order to curb serious injuries and deaths associated with bicycle accidents.[23] Australia
1989 Manufacturer RockShox is founded by Paul Turner. The company would becomes one of the most central companies in the development of mountain bikes.[4] United States
1990 Technology Shimano introduces integrated brake/gear levers[42], setting the stage for modern road bike handlebars.[4] Japan
1992 Model Vector Services Limited releases e-bike dubbed Zike, which includes NiCd batteries that are built into a frame member and include an 850 g permanent-magnet motor.[45]
1992 Technology French manufacturer Mavic introduces an electrically-controlled derailleur.[73][23] France
1993 Infrastructure The Trampe bicycle lift (Sykkelheisen Trampe in Norwegian) is invented and installed by Jarle Wanwik.[74] It is the first and only bicycle lift in the world.[75] Norway
1993 Application (sport) The first Cycle Messenger World Championship is held in Berlin.[62] Germany
1994 Technology SRAM introduces the disc brake, a metal disc that is attached to the wheel. When the brakes are trigger, the disc slows down, thus forcing the wheel to also slow. Intended primarily for off-road bikes, disc brakes would since become a standard component of mountain bikes.[23][4]
1994 Technology Sachs introduces the first mass-produced hydraulic disc brake system.[11]
1995 Infrastructure Construction of the Bogotá's Bike Paths Network begins.[76] Colombia
1996 Application (sport) Mountain biking is first introduced during the 1996 Summer Olympics.[62] United States
1997 Infrastructure The concept of the bicycle street is incorporated in German road law.[70] Germany
1998 Model Ebikes, which include integrated electric motors that can be used for propulsion, begin a period of rapid adoption in Asia (China and India, in particular) and Europe.[11] Asia, Europe
2000 Model Miroslav Miljevic designs a model which includes solar powered battery. It is intended for commuters so when they leave their bike outside all day, they won't have to pedal home.[17]
2000 Technology German manufacturer Rohloff introduces the speed derailleur system.[50] Germany
2000–2012 Statistics The number of bicycle commuters in the United States increases by a 6 percent in the period.[62][62] United States
2002 Technology Italian manufacturer Campagnolo introduces 10 Co-gear clusters that allow 30 speed bicycles.[50] Italy
2003 Infrastructure The longest continuous bike path in Europe opens along the Albacete-Valdeganga highway in Spain, a distance of 22km.[77]
2004 Infrastructure The first Dutch “bicycle superhighway” opens between Breda and Etten-Leur. Since then, many others would be added.[78] Netherlands
2004 Infrastructure San Francisco, California begins experimenting with the shared lane marking, and develops a revised symbol consisting of a bicycle symbol with two chevron markings above the bicycle.[79] United States
2007 Statistics Electric bicycles are thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled vehicles on the streets of many major Chinese cities by the time.[45] China
2007 Manufacturer British bicycle manufacturer Boardman Bikes is founded.[80] United Kingdom
2008 Infrastructure London major Ken Livingstone announces twelve new bicycle routes, dubbed Cycle Superhighways in the city area.[81] United Kingdom
2009 Technology Shimano introduces the first commercially successful electronic gear shift system for road bicycles.[11][82] Japan
2009 Application (sport) Canadian cyclist Sam Whittingham sets human powered speed record of 132 km/h on level ground in a faired recumbent streamliner.[50]
2010 Statistics Worldwide production of bicycles is in the range of 125 to 130 billion units.[7]
2011 Application (cargo) A voluntary European standard (EN 15918) for two-wheel bicycle trailers is published.[83] Europe
2011 Infrastructure In Denmark, the first cykelgade (a bicycle boulevard) opens in Aarhus. Since then, many cyclestreets would be implemented in several cities across the country.[84] Denmark
2012 Technology Adaptrac develops a system that allows the rider to individually adjust tire pressure while riding. Through a system of carbon dioxide cartridges, this allows riders to maintain optimum traction when riding conditions change.[21]
2012 Infrastructure The first Danish bike freeway opens between the Vesterbro rail station in Copenhagen and Albertslund, covering 22 kilometers from A-B, with air pumps and other cyclist services dotted along the way.[85] Denmark
2012 Infrastructure In Belgium, the rue cyclable (in French / Walloon) or Fietsstraat (in Dutch / Flemish), is introduced into the Highway Code.[86] Belgium
2013 Expansion There are around 535 bike-sharing systems worldwide, made of an estimated fleet of 517,000 bicycles.[87] Worldwide
2014 Technology Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Batteries (known as NMC batteries) are introduced, with NMC delivering higher power in a smaller package than previous models. These batteries would become popular with electric bicycles.[21]
2014 Program launch European governments at the 4thHigh-level meeting on Transport, Health and Environment adopt the Paris Declaration, including a "clear call for member states to promote cycling and to develop a pan-European master plan for cycling within the framework of the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP)."[72] Europe
2014 Statistics 21 million bicycles are sold in the European Union in the year, outnumbering newly registered passenger cars by more than eight million.[72] European Union
2015 Infrastructure The number of bike-share bicycles hits an estimated 1,000,000 worldwide. China is by far the leader in the sheer number of bicycles,[64] followed by France with almost 43,000 bikes in 38 cities.[88]
2016 Infrastructure Germany launches its national 'Bike Autobahn' cycle network, a cycle route aimed to eventually cover 100 kilometers between the northwestern cities of Duisburg and Hamm.[89] Germany
2017 Statistics An estimated 16 million bikes on China’s streets transport about 130 million registered users.[90] China
2019 Infrastructure The last part of the bicycle parking Stationsplein Utrecht opens. With 12,500 parking places, it is the world’s largest bicycle parking.[91] Netherlands

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References

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