Timeline of cloud computing
This is a timeline of cloud computing, attempting to describe significant events in the history and development of the technology.
|Time period||Development summary|
|1950s||Cloud concepts develop as a gradual evolution starting with mainframe computing. Organizations start using an increasingly complex and ever-changing system of mainframe computers to process their data. In the early days, mainframe computers are huge and prohibitively expensive.|
|1960s||The Cloud computing concept dates back to the early 1960s. The initial concepts of time-sharing become popularized via Remote Job Entry. This terminology would be mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC.|
|1970s||Computing development accelerates and the concept of the virtual machine becomes popular. This is the idea that two distinct computing operations can exist simultaneously on one piece of hardware. The concept of having potential customers have everything (all their facilities) connected on the same network, becomes a revolutionary idea during the decade and the next one. Mainframe computers become a thing of the past.|
|1980s||New, less expensive, and compact hardware components are invented. With this, every company start investing to buy their own hardware and maintain it themselves. Data centers' popularity decreases. With the introduction of client/server architecture, companies start purchasing inexpensive systems which are as useful as the traditional mainframe systems.|
|1990s||The idea of the cloud becomes reality. Telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, begin offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. The cloud symbol starts being used. Cloud computing extends its boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. The mid-decade sees the advancement of the internet being connected to huge numbers of personal computers, rather than just business ones. Both computers and a wired internet connection become cheaper until the average home can have one without financial difficulty. During the second half of the decade, companies begin to gain a better understanding of cloud computing and its usefulness in providing superior solutions and services to customers while drastically improving internal efficiencies.|
|2000s||After the dot-com bubble burst in the early-decade, companies such as e-tail giant Amazon.com Inc. play a key role in the development of cloud computing. Along the decade, internet power increases due to high-speed broadband, and the companies again replace the remote computing systems with web services.|
|2010s||The latest availability of high-capacity networks and low-cost computers, together with the widespread adoption of virtualization and service-oriented architecture, lead to the version of cloud computing we know today, and a model that is constantly evolving.|
|1950s||Concept development||Mainframe Computing develops, and along with it the idea to link computers together over great distance for a mixture of scientific and military purposes.|
|1954||Concept development||American computer scientist w:John Backus writes an early description of time-sharing in the 1954 summer session at MIT.|
|1955||Concept development||American computer scientist John McCarthy creates a theory of sharing computing time among an entire group of users.|
|1957||Concept development||American computer scientist Bob Bemer describes time-sharing in his article How to consider a computer in Automatic Control Magazine.|
|1958||Concept development|| Bob Bemer writes in a paper on time-sharing: |
"The computers would handle a number of problems concurrently. Organizations would have input-output equipment installed on their own premises and would buy time on the computer much the same way that the average household buys power and water from utility companies." 
|1961||Concept development||John McCarthy suggests in a speech at MIT that computing can be sold like a utility, just like water or electricity.|
|Mid-1960s||Concept development||American computer scientist J.C.R. Licklider presents an idea for an interconnected system of computers.|
|1966||Concept development||Canadian technologist Douglas F. Parkhill publishes The Challenge of the Computer Utility, which predicts that the computer industry would come to resemble a public utility “in which many remotely located users are connected via communication links to a central computing facility.”|
|1969||Concept development||Making use of J.C.R. Licklider's idea, American Internet pioneer Bob Taylor and American engineer Larry Roberts develop ARPANET, (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). which is considered the precursor of the Internet. With this creation, the concept of cloud computing develops.|
|1970s||Concept development||Bill Gates says, “No one will need more than 637 kb of memory for a personal computer.”|
|~1970||Concept development||The concept of virtual machines (VMs) is created. "Using virtualization software like VMware. It become possible to run more than one Operating System simultaneously in an isolated environment. It was possible to run a completely different Computer (virtual machine) inside a different Operating System."|
|1972||Background||IBM releases the first version if its VM operating system, a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems.|
|1977||Concept development||The cloud symbol is used to represent networks of computing equipment in the original ARPANET.|
|Early 1980s||Background||The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) launches an initiative to build a national backbone network that would be based on transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP).|
|1981||Concept development||The cloud symbol is used by the CSNET.|
|1982||Background||The first Ethernet adapter card for the IBM personal computer is released, introducing fast, inexpensive connections that would enable cloud computing.|
|1986||Background||A National Science Foundation Network project creates network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States.|
|Late 1980s||Background||Commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs) begin to emerge.|
|1990||Background||The online internet becomes visible to all when computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee invent the World Wide Web. In doing so, Berners-Lee links hypertext documents to an information system, making it accessible from any node on the network. The giant connecting concept finally gets enough computers attached to it and the connection of those machines together create a massive, interconnected shared pool of storage that won't be possible by a single organization or institution to afford.|
|1993||Concept development||The term cloud is used to refer to platforms for distributed computing when Apple spin-off General Magic and AT&T use it in describing their (paired) Telescript and PersonaLink technologies.|
|1994||Concept development|| The term 'cloud' is pioneered by Apple spin-off General Magic, an American software and electronics company co-founded by Bill Atkinson, Andy Hertzfeld and Marc Porat. The use of the cloud metaphor is used for virtualized services. Andy Hertzfeld in Wired Magazine comments on Telescript, General Magic's distributed programming language:
"The beauty of Telescript ... is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create sort of a virtual service. No one had conceived that before. The example Jim White (the designer of Telescript, X.400 and ASN.1) uses now is a date-arranging service where a software agent goes to the flower store and orders flowers and then goes to the ticket shop and gets the tickets for the show, and everything is communicated to both parties."
|1995||Infrastructure as a service||IaaS provider iland is founded.|
|1996||Concept development||References to the phrase "cloud computing" appear with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document.|
|1996||Software as a service||SaaS company CallidusCloud is founded.|
|1997||Concept development||Professor Ramnath Chellappa is often credited with being the person who coined the term “cloud computing” in its modern context, at a lecture he delivered in the year. He defines it then as a “computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone.”|
|1998||Organization||Cloud computing company NetSuite is founded.|
|1998||Organization||American cloud computer company Rackspace is founded.|
|1998||Content delivery network||Akamai Technologies is founded in Massachusetts. It is the first company to build a large-scale business around Content delivery networks.|
|1999||Organization||Salesforce.com is founded in San Francisco. It is the first company to offer businesses applications over the internet, heralding the arrival of Software as a service, soon to become commonly known as SaaS. . The arrival of Salesforce, considered a pioneer in cloud computing, enables Software as a Service product.|
|2000||Cloud gaming||The first cloud gaming demonstration happens at the Electronic Entertainment Expo.|
|2001||Platform as a service||OutSystems is founded. It is a low-code development platform for the development of enterprise web and mobile applications, which run in the cloud.|
|2001||Software as a service||The United States Department of Agriculture links XML soil survey data with GIS, an early example of using software as a service to link devices across the Internet.|
|2003||Background||Web 2.0 arrives, expanding web capability. Videos, music and other multimedia can be hosted and delivered online resulting in greatly increased popularity, as well as massively expanded horizons in terms of what web designers can achieve.|
|2003||Platform as a service||Private application PaaS software WaveMaker is launched.|
|2003||Xen is released and creates a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) also known as a hypervisor, a software system that allows the execution of multiple virtual guest operating systems simultaneously on a single machine.|
|2004||Infrastructure as a service||Joyent is founded. The company specializes in application virtualization and cloud computing.|
|2005||Platform as a service||Cloud content management and file sharing service Box is founded.|
|2005||Infrastructure as a service||Cloud computing provider SoftLayer is founded.|
|2006||Platform as a service||Fotango, a London-based company owned by Canon Europe launches the world's first public platform as a service known as "Zimki".|
|2006 (March)||Infrastructure as a service||Rackspace Cloud is launched.|
|2006 (August)||Infrastructure as a service||The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud is introduced as an IaaS that lets organizations contract for computers to run their applications. The term "cloud computing" is popularized with this release. At the time of initial launch, AWS do not offer autoscaling, but the ability to programmatically create and terminate instances gives developers the flexibility to write their own code for autoscaling.|
|2006||Infrastructure as a service||New Zealand-based software firm GreenButton is founded.|
|2006 (August 9)||Concept development||Google CEO Eric Schmidt introduces the term "cloud computing" to an industry conference. “What’s interesting now is that there is an emergent new model, (..) I don’t think people have really understood how big this opportunity really is. It starts with the premise that the data services and architecture should be on servers. We call it cloud computing—they should be in a “cloud” somewhere.”|
|2006 (August)||Organization||Amazon creates Amazon Web Services as a subsidiary to provide on-demand cloud computing platforms, and introduces its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).|
|2006||Serverless computing||Zimki is released as the first "pay as you go" code execution platform, though it would be not commercially successful.|
|2007||Concept development||The "Cloud Phase" starts when the classification of Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS), and Software as a service (SaaS) get formalized.|
|2007||IBM begins to develop a strategy for cloud computing, announcing that it plans to build clouds for enterprise clients and provide services to fill what it regards as gaps in existing cloud environments.|
|2007||Platform as a service||Container-based cloud (PaaS) Heroku is founded.|
|2007 (October)||Partnership||IBM announces a partnership with Google to promote cloud computing in universities. In addition to donating hardware and machines, the two companies also provide a curriculum to teach students about cloud computing. |
|2007||Platform as a service||Apprenda is founded as an enterprise Platform as a Service.|
|2007||Organization||Dropbox is founded. It offers cloud storage and personal cloud, among other services.|
|2007||Organization||Netflix launches its video streaming service, using the cloud to stream movies and other video content into the homes of eventually millions of subscribers worldwide.|
|2008||Concept development||The term "cloud computing" comes into popular use.|
|2008||Organization||Cloudera is founded. It provides a software platform that runs in the cloud.|
|2008 (April)||Platform as a service||Google releases Google App Engine, allowing developers to host web applications in its managed data centres.|
|2008 (April)||Autoscaling||Third-party autoscaling software for Amazon Web Services appears. These include tools by Scalr and RightScale, which is used by Animoto, which is able to handle Facebook traffic by adopting autoscaling.|
|2008||Infrastructure as a service||NASA's OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, becomes the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. It is the first open source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds.|
|2008 (May 29)||Infrastructure as a service||Eucalyptus is released. It is the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds.|
|2008 (middyear)||Concept development||Global research and advisory Gartner sees an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them". and observes that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas."|
|2008||Concept development||Gartner begins to discuss the rise of cloud computing, claiming that it would become 'as influential as e-business'.|
|2008||Application||The United States National Science Foundation begins the Cluster Exploratory program to fund academic research using Google-IBM cluster technology to analyze massive amounts of data.|
|2008||Infrastructure as a service||VMware launches vCloud, a public cloud computing service built on vSphere.|
|2008||Infrastructure as a service||CtrlS is founded in India.|
|2008 (November)||Infrastructure as a service||Object-based cloud storage platform EMC Atmos is released.|
|2008||Content delivery network||Amazon launches its own CDN, CloudFront.|
|2009 (March)||Cloud standard||Open Cloud Computing Interface is released as a set of specifications delivered for cloud computing service providers.|
|2009 (March 7)||Platform as a service||AppScale is released as a serverless platform for building and running scalable web and mobile applications on any infrastructure.|
|2009||Concept development||Oracle's founder Larry Ellison describes cloud computing as 'water vapour' and asserts that it's just "a computer attached to a network".|
|2009||Google releases Google Apps, bringing cloud computing into common usage. Google and others start to offer browser-based application via Google apps and other apps.|
|2009||Growth||Cloud computing begins to dominate the start-up and enterprise market at the end of the year.|
|2009 (December)||Pricing model||Spot Instances for Amazon Web Services’ Elastic Compute Cloud are introduced as a way for major cloud providers to sell spare cloud capacity at considerable savings over on-demand instances.|
|2010||Platform as a service||Microsoft releases Microsoft Azure, a cloud computing service created for building, testing, deploying, and managing applications and services through Microsoft-managed data centers.|
|2010 (February 16)||Infrastructure as a service||Australian IaaS provider OrionVM is founded.|
|2010 (May 19)||Platform as a service||BigQuery is launched as a RESTful web service that enables interactive analysis of massively large datasets working in conjunction with Google Storage.|
|2010||Rackspace and NASA pioneer a free Open-source software platform for cloud computing.|
|2010||Platform as a service||Cloud computing company GreenQloud is founded.|
|2010||Policy||The General Services Administration announces it will use cloud computing as primary means for hosting the government’s official information portal, USA.gov.|
|2010||Cloud robotics||The term "Cloud Robotics" first appears in the public lexicon as part of a talk given by James Kuffner at the IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robotics entitled "Cloud-enabled Robots". Since then, "Cloud Robotics" would become a general term encompassing the concepts of information sharing, distributed intelligence, and fleet learning that is possible via networked robots and modern cloud computing.|
|2010||Platform as a service||CloudBees is founded. It provides a PaaS to build, run, and manage web applications.|
|2010||Policy||The U.S. Office of Management and Budget issues "cloud first" mandate, requiring agencies to identify three services to move to the cloud and retire associated legacy systems.|
|2010||Platform as a service||Docker, Inc. is founded as dotCloud, Inc. by Solomon Hykes in San Francisco, initially running a PaaS type of business.|
|2010 (October 1)||Infrastructure as a service||FUJITSU Cloud IaaS Trusted Public S5 is released as a cloud computing platform that aims to deliver standardized enterprise-class public cloud services.|
|2011||Platform as a service||Cloud services provider Jelastic is founded with the purpose to provide Java, PHP, Ruby, Node.js or Python developers with an easy way to setup application environments and deploy applications quickly.|
|2011 (March)||Organization||Zadara Storage is founded. The company develops enterprise cloud storage software and hardware that offers file, object and block storage solutions for businesses.|
|2011 (June)||Cloud standard||Networked Help Desk is launched.|
|2011 (June 24)||Infrastructure as a service||American cloud infrastructure provider DigitalOcean is founded.|
|2011||platform as a service||Red Hat releases OpenShift, a cloud computing platform as a service.|
|2011||Organization||Cloudian is founded as a data storage company.|
|2011||Content Delivery Network||AT&T introduces their new cloud-based Content Delivery Network that enables content to flow from its 38 data centers around the world to reduce transit and latency times.|
|2011||Platform as a service||Cloud Foundry is released. The open source software provides a common platform for building applications that run in the cloud.|
|2011||Policy||The U.S. General Services Administration moves 17,000 e-mail users to Google Apps for Government.|
|2011 (October)||Software as a service||Adobe Systems releases the Adobe Creative Cloud, a set of applications and services from Adobe Systems that gives subscribers access to a collection of software used for graphic design, video editing, web development, photography, along with a set of mobile applications and also some optional cloud services..|
|2011 (November)||Infrastructure as a service||Portuguese cloud computing IaaS provider Lunacloud is founded.|
|2011||Policy||The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency seeks mission-resilient cloud to ensure military can withstand attack against pieces of the network.|
|2012||Product||CloudBolt is founded. It develops a hybrid cloud management platform that helps organizations to build, deploy and manage private and public clouds.|
|2013||Infrastructure as a service||Google Compute Engine is officially launched as an addition to the Google Cloud Platform. The offering stands as the IaaS component of the platform.|
|2013 (March)||dotCloud, Inc releases Docker as an open source aimed at simplifying usage of Linux containers and making them accessible for everybody.|
|2013||Growth||The Worldwide Public Cloud Services Market totals £78 billion, up 18.5 per cent on 2012, with IaaS as the fastest growing market service.|
|2013||Infrastructure as a service||Cloud Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) pioneer Safe Swiss Cloud is founded.|
|2013 (September 2)||Platform as a service||Cloud computing management platform openQRM is released.|
|2013||The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency closes US$600 million deal with Amazon Web Services to build a private cloud, bolstering confidence in security of the cloud.|
|2014 (January)||Platform as a service||Singapoeran cloud technology company Alpha7 is founded as a business cloud enabler.|
|2014 (June 7)||Infrastructure as a service||Google launches Kubernetes, an open-source container-orchestration system for automating application deployment, scaling, and management. Many cloud services offer a Kubernetes-based platform or infrastructure as a service (PaaS or IaaS) on which Kubernetes can be deployed as a platform-providing service.|
|2014||Growth||Global business spending for infrastructure and services related to the cloud reaches an estimated US$132 billion, up 20% from the amount spent in 2013.|
|2014 (June 30)||Platform as a service||IBM releases cloud PaaS Bluemix.|
|2014 (November 10)||Docker container services are announced for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).|
|2014 (November)||Serverless computing||Amazon introduces AWS Lambda, the first public cloud infrastructure vendor with an abstract serverless computing offering.|
|2015||Cloud gaming||Cloud gaming service GeForce Now is released.|
|2015 (May 1)||Software as a service||Spotinst is founded in Tel Aviv. It provides SaaS optimization platform that helps companies purchase and manage excess cloud infrastructure capacity.|
|2015 (May)||Pricing model||Google Introduces preemptible virtual machines (VMs) and lowers pricing for compute, with an average VM on Google's cloud about half the cost as when it was introduced.|
|2015 (20 August)||Infrastructure as a service||Citrix Systems releases Citrix Cloud, a cloud management platform that allows organizations to deploy cloud-hosted desktops and apps to end users.|
|2016 (February)||Serverless computing||Google Cloud Functions is released. Alongside a set of management tools, it provides a series of modular cloud services including computing, data storage, data analytics and machine learning.|
|2016||Serverless computing||IBM Cloud Functions is released in the public IBM Cloud.|
|2017 (September 26)||Pricing model||Google Cloud Platform starts offering pay-per-second billing for all virtual machine types and operating systems.|
|2017 (October)||Pricing model||Amazon Web Services starts implementing a pay-per-second billing for Linux virtual machines.|
|2018||Cloud gaming||Microsoft unveils Project xCloud,a new service able to stream any game released for the Microsoft Xbox One console to smartphones and tablets, so owners can play them almost anywhere.|
|2018 (November)||Infrastructure as a service||Apache CloudStack is released.|
|2019||Content delivery network||The CDN market is estimated to be more than US$10 billion in the year.|
|2020||Growth||The global market for cloud computing is estimated to exceed over US$241 billion by the time, with companies like Amazon Web Services and Salesforce quickly becoming global leaders in their fields.|
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You can think of our electronic meeting place as the Cloud. PersonaLink was built from the ground up to give handheld communicators and other devices easy access to a variety of services. [...] Telescript is the revolutionary software technology that makes intelligent assistance possible. Invented by General Magic, AT&T is the first company to harness Telescript, and bring its benefits to people everywhere. [...] Very shortly, anyone with a computer, a personal communicator, or a television will be able to use intelligent assistance in the Cloud. And our new meeting place is open, so that anyone, whether individual, entrepreneur, or multinational company, will be able to offer information, goods, and services.
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