Comparison of measures of abundance of malaria
This page compares various measures of the abundance of malaria in a given location.
|Measures||Variable and Formula||Explanation||Range||Derivatives||Sample table|
|Basic reproductive number||R0=bcV/r||"the expected number of hosts who would be infected after one generation of the parasite by a single infectious person who had been introduced into an otherwise naïve population" ""||Less than 1 in eliminated regions to possibly 3,000 in highly endemic areas|
|Biting disparity index||α||"The squared coefficient of variation of the human biting rate".|
|Entomological infection rate||EIR||In endemic areas of Africa, generally from 1 to over 1,000 infective bites per year; DCP2 gives less than 1 to over 300, but later on p420 says "With a high EIR (10 to 1,000)"||Annual Plasmodium falciparum EIR (APfEIR)|
|Entomological inoculation rate||EIR||"Is the product of the human biting rate and the sporozoite rate, the proportion of mosquitoes that have sporozoites in their salivary glands". "Is a commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission."||500 to 1.0||Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rate (Pf EIR)||See tables 1,3|
|Force of infection||FOI||"The number of new infections per person per unit of time."|
|Happenings rate||h=bE||"Is the force of infection, i.e., the per capita rate that uninfected people become infected with malaria."|
|Human biting rate||HBR, ma||"The nightly biting pressure of the vector on a human population" "The expected number of bites by malaria vectors, per person, per day (or per year)."|
|Human feeding rate||a=fQ||"The number of bites on a human, per mosquito, per day"|
|Hyperparasitemia||"Is defined as more than 5% erythrocytes parasitized." "Is defined in endemic areas by the WHO as parasite greater than or equal to 500,000/µl (10% parasitemia)".|
|Molecular force of infection||mFOI, molFOI||"Defined as number of distinct clones entering the body over time." "The number of incident parasite strains detected by genotyping per person-year at risk."||See Table 2|
|Multiplicity of infection||MOI||"Is the number of different Plasmodium falciparum strains co-infecting a single host."||here|
|Net infectiousness of humans to mosquitoes||κ|
|Parasite rate||PR||Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR)||here|
|Parasite ratio||X||"The prevalence of infection in humans, i.e., the proportion of humans with parasites."|
|Parasitemia||"The presence of parasites, especially malarial forms, in the blood."||From 5-20 parasites/µl (0.0001-0.0004 % of parasitemia) to 500,000 parasites/µl (10% of parasitemia).||Hyperparasitemia, Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP)||here|
|Sampling bias index||σ||"The proportion of mosquitoes that become infected after biting a human divided by the proportion of people with detected parasites."|
|Seroconversion rate||λ, SCR||"Is a function of antimalarial antibodies in the population and indicates exposure to infection."||See table 1,2,3|
|Seroprevalence||SP||"Prevalence of a marker as measured by results of serologic testing."||See table 3|
|Seroreversion rate||SRR, ρ|
|Slide positivity rate||SPR||"Used as a surrogate measure of malaria incidence."|
|Spleen rate||SR||"Is the proportion of people in a given population having enlarged spleens expressed as a percentage."|
|Sporozoite rate||SR Y||"The fraction of female mosquitoes with sporozoites". "The fraction of infectious mosquitoes, i.e., with sporozoites in their salivary glands."||0–??|
|Stability index||S=a/g||"The expected number of human bites taken by a vector over its lifetime."|
|Susceptibility bias index||BE||"The infectivity of mosquitoes in a naïve population divided by the infectivity of mosquitoes in an endemic population."|
|Vectorial capacity||C, V, cV||"Is the daily rate at which future inoculations arise from a currently infective case, provided that all females mosquitoes biting that case become infected." "The number of infectious bites on humans that arise from all the mosquitoes that are infected by a single person on a single day."|
Also mentions things like "the age at first infection, the fraction of a population that is infected (i.e., the parasite rate [PR]), the frequency and type of disease syndromes, the incidence of severe disease, the development and loss of functional immunity (i.e., immunity that reduces the frequency and severity of clinical symptoms), total malaria mortality, and the expected outcome of malaria control"
The initial version of the page was written by User:Issa.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
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