Timeline of collectivization of agriculture

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This is a timeline of collectivization of agriculture, which refers to the process of organizing agricultural production on a collective or cooperative basis, where land, resources, and production are controlled and managed collectively by the state or a group of farmers.

Full timeline

Year Collectivization type Event type Details Location
1861 Emancipation of the Serfs in Russia - The emancipation of serfs in Russia abolishes the feudal system and granted peasants limited land rights. However, the majority of peasants remain tied to the land and face numerous challenges in agricultural production.
1906-1907 Stolypin Reforms in Russia - Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin introduced agricultural reforms in Russia, including the encouragement of private land ownership and the establishment of peasant land banks. These reforms aimed to modernize agriculture and improve productivity.
1909 Voluntary collective farming "Collective farming was also implemented in kibbutzim in Israel, which began in 1909 as a unique combination of Zionism and socialism – known as Labor Zionism. The concept has faced occasional criticism as economically inefficient and over-reliant on subsidized credit."[1] Israel
1917-1921 Russian Revolution and Civil War - Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the Russian Civil War ensues, which results in significant agricultural disruption and a decline in food production.
1918 Communist collectivization "Soviet state farms, began to be created in 1918[2] as an ideological example of "socialist agriculture of the highest order".
1927–1933 "The Soviet Union introduced collective farming in its constituent republics between 1927 and 1933"
1928 First Five-Year Plan in the Soviet Union - Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union initiates the first Five-Year Plan, emphasizing rapid industrialization and agricultural collectivization as a means to support industrial growth.
Late 1920s Formation of Collective Farms (Kolkhozes) - The Soviet government begins promoting the formation of collective farms, encouraging peasants to pool their land, livestock, and labor into collective units.
1929-1933 Forced Collectivization in the Soviet Union - The policy of collectivization is accelerated, often through coercive measures. Peasants who resist collectivization are subjected to persecution, including confiscation of property, exile, and violence.
1932-1933 Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor) - The forced collectivization, coupled with other factors such as natural disasters and government policies, leads to a devastating famine in Ukraine. Millions of people die due to starvation.
1930s-1940s Collectivization in Other Soviet Bloc Countries - The collectivization model was implemented in other Soviet Bloc countries, including Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltics, and parts of Eastern Europe. The specifics varied across countries, but the goal was to eliminate private agriculture and establish collective farms.
1949 Land Reform in the People's Republic of China - After the Communist Party of China came to power, land reform is implemented, redistributing land from landlords to peasants. This lays the foundation for future collectivization efforts.
1953 "The Land Reform Law of 4 December 1953 called for (1) confiscation of land belonging to landlords who were enemies of the regime; (2) requisition of land from landlords not judged to be enemies; and (3) purchase with payment in bonds. The land reform was carried out from 1953 to 1956 in five "waves," each larger that the previous and extending to most of the good agricultural land of North Vietnam. Some farming areas did not undergo land reform but only rent reduction and the highland areas occupied by minority peoples were not substantially impacted. Some land was retained by the government but most was distributed without payment with priority given to Viet Minh fighters and their families."[3] Vietnam
1953 Collectivization in East Germany - The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) implemented collectivization policies in agriculture, aiming to consolidate small landholdings into larger, state-controlled agricultural cooperatives known as Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaften (LPGs).
1953-1962 Virgin Lands Campaign in the Soviet Union - In an attempt to increase agricultural production, the Soviet Union launched the Virgin Lands Campaign, encouraging cultivation of previously unused lands in Kazakhstan and Siberia.
1954–1956 Communist collectivization "Land reform in North Vietnam was accomplished from 1954 to 1956 by confiscating and redistributing land owned by landlords to poor and landless peasants" Vietnam
1956 Khrushchev's Virgin Lands Campaign - Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev launched a campaign to increase agricultural production in the Soviet Union by cultivating previously uncultivated lands, particularly in the virgin lands of Kazakhstan and Siberia. The campaign involved the establishment of large-scale collective farms.
1958-1962 Great Leap Forward in China - Under Chairman Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward aimed to rapidly transform China's economy through agricultural and industrial collectivization. However, it resulted in widespread famine and economic hardships.
1959–1963 Agrarian reforms in Cuba
1960s-1970s Collectivization in other Communist countries - Other Communist countries, such as North Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba, implemented various forms of collectivization in their agricultural sectors, often following the Soviet model.
1970s Agricultural Collectivization in Ethiopia - The Ethiopian government under Mengistu Haile Mariam implemented collectivization policies known as "villagization" in rural areas. This involved relocating farmers from dispersed settlements into larger agricultural cooperatives, aiming to increase agricultural productivity and control.
1977 Communist collectivization "Between 1977 and 1983, farmers began to collectivize into CPAs – Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria (Agricultural Production Cooperatives). Farmers were encouraged to sell their land to the state for the establishment of a cooperative farm, receiving payments for a period of 20 years while also sharing in the fruits of the CPA." Cuba
1980 Land reform in Zimbabwe
1980s Agricultural Reforms in Hungary - Hungary undertook agricultural reforms to transition from the collective farming system to a more market-oriented agricultural sector. These reforms allowed for greater individual farm ownership, privatization of agricultural land, and the dismantling of collective farms.
Late 1980s Dissolution of Collective Farms - With the decline of socialism and the fall of the Soviet Union, many countries transitioned away from collective farming systems towards more market-oriented agricultural models.
1986 "In 1986, more than 97 percent of the rural population belonged to the country's more than 100,000 solidarity groups. Unlike the large communes of the Khmer Rouge, the solidarity groups were relatively small. They consisted initially of between twenty and fifty families and were later reduced to between seven and fifteen families." Cambodia
1990s Decollectivization in Eastern Europe - With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, many countries embarked on the process of decollectivization. This involved returning agricultural land to private ownership, dismantling collective farms, and transitioning to market-based agricultural systems.
2020s The Indian government implements various agricultural reforms, including the introduction of laws to liberalize agricultural markets and promote contract farming. These reforms aim to modernize the agricultural sector, improve farmers' income, and attract private investment. India

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  1. Y. Kislev, Z. Lerman, P. Zusman, "Recent experience with cooperative farm credit in Israel", Economic Development and Cultural Change, 39(4):773–789 (July 1991).
  2. Padalka, S. Radhosps (РАДГОСПИ). Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine.
  3. Moise (1983), pp. 178-181