Timeline of malaria in 2017

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This is a timeline of malaria in 2017

Development summary

  • Parasites: Probability of malaria infection in humans is linked to parasitemia in vectors. Compound that blocks the parasite is obtained.
  • Vectors: Infection risk is found to be higher in cattle sheds. Drug-resistant vectors become urgent concerns. Mosquitofish are proposed for vector control.
  • Drugs, vaccines, treatment, and control methods: Testing methods are introduced. Advances on immunity are made. Positive effects on other diseases are found in antimalarial drug.
  • Eradication and control progress: Epidemics break out in Southern Africa.

Timeline

Date (news release) Type of event Event Geographical location
January 4 Development (vaccine) Researchers at the Center for Infectious Disease Research in Seattle approach to a malaria vaccine by infecting volunteers with a weakened form of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with aims at stimmulating immunity but posing no risk of infection. The experiment is reported to have been promising; after the bites, the volunteers’ bodies produced antibodies that could be potent enough to confer immunity to future infections. These findings are expected to work as the basis for a vaccine.[1] United States
January 6 Development (testing) Uganda-based company Matibabu develops a portable device, which uses light and magnetism to analyze blood composition for signs of malaria infection.[2] Uganda
January 7 Discovery (parasite) Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill find that Iron-deficiency anemia actually protects children against the blood-stage of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.[3] United States
January 12 Discovery (parasite) Researchers at Imperial College London find, for the first time, that the number of parasites each mosquito carries influences the chance of successful malaria infection.[4] United Kingdom
January 16 Development (testing) Researchers at Stanford University develop extremely cheap centrifuge made out of paper and string, which can also be made with 3D-printed plastic, with the potential to become a cost-effective method for lesser developed countries to test for illnesses such as malaria.[5] United States
January 16 Discovery (vector) Researchers claim that pondering the relationship between mosquitoes and cows may be key to reducing the spread of malaria in India, after finding that most of the mosquitoes that are known to transmit malaria rest in cattle sheds and feed on both cows and humans.[6] India
January 20 Microsoft magnate Bill Gates and Ray Chambers, the United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Health in Agenda 2030 and for Malaria, announce the launch of the End Malaria Council, a group of influential public and private sector leaders with aims at ensuring that malaria eradication remains a top global priority.[7] Switzerland (Davos)
January 20 Discovery (drug) Unexpectedly positive effects on brain cancer patients are noticed when treated with anti-malarial drug chloroquine.[8] United States
January 23 Discovery (vector) Research team from the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases uncover a component of a mosquito’s immune system that allows the insect to remain unaffected from malaria-causing parasites.[9] United States
January 23 Development (testing) Students at Makerere University in Kampala develop a wearable jacket–like device that measures a sick child’s breathing rate and temperature and is able to distinguish if the child has pneumonia or malaria, given that both diseases share almost indistinguishable clinical symptoms.[10] Uganda
January 24 Development (vaccine) Researchers from the University of Washington create genetically attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) by knocking out three genes (GAP3KO) in Plasmodium falciparum that arrest its development within the liver, thereby preventing its advance to blood infection, the stage of malaria that triggers disease symptoms. United States
February 1 Experts call for urgent action as drug-resistant malaria superbugs threaten a global public health disaster if expanding from Southeast Asia. Increasingly resistant to main artemisinin class of antimalarial drugs, the mosquito-borne uber-parasites would have taken hold in parts of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia and could sweep into India and on to Africa where most malaria deaths occur.[11][12] Southeast Asia
February 9 Discovery (vector) Researchers from Stockholm University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and KTH Royal Institute of Technology discover that malaria parasites produce a molecule, HMBPP ((E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate), which stimulates the human red blood cells to release more carbon dioxide and volatile compounds with an irresistible smell to malaria mosquitoes. This explains why malaria mosquitoes have preference for blood –and feed more– from people infected with malaria.[13] Sweden
February 10 Development (vaccine) Research team at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute discovers how malarial vaccine target (the protein RH5) helps parasites to invade human red blood cells. The study would reveal that the protein on the surface of the parasite called P113 anchors the RH5 protein, and provides a molecular bridge between the parasite and a red blood cell.[14] United Kingdom
February 15 Development (vaccine) Research team at University of Tübingen in collaboration with biotech company Sanaria demonstrate 100% effectiveness in clinical trial of new malaria vaccine (Sanaria PfSPZ-CVac), when assessed at 10 weeks after last dose of the vaccine.[15] Germany
February 22 Discovery (drug resistance) International team of scientists identifiy the African origin of Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria parasites detected in a Chinese patient, who had travelled from Equatorial Guinea to China. This would be the first identified case of an artemisinin-resistant malaria parasite contracted in Africa.[16] Equatorial Guinea
March 21 Development (tehnology) Using the Australian Synchrotron, researchers manage to map Plasmodium falciparum protein CyRPA in atomic detail for the first time, establishing how antibodies that block the function of CyRPA disrupt the parasite's ability to bind to and infect human red blood cells.[17] Australia
March 27 Development (vaccine) Researchers at Griffith University and the Gold Coast University Hospital report development of anti–malarial vaccine to "whole blood stage" (it means safe for humans to take and for human tests to go ahead).[18] Australia
April 17 Development (prevention) Scientists at the University of Cape Town develop a compound (named MMV048) that both cure and prevent malaria in mice by blocking the parasite across its multiple life stages, thus interrupting the infection cycle.[19] South Africa
May 4 Scientific development Research team from the University of Melbourne, the University of Chicago and the University of Amsterdam, working with scientists from the United States, Europe and Australia, publishes study involving more than 600 children in the small village of Bakoumba in southeast Gabon where it found that each infected child had a different strain of the malaria parasite and a distinctly different set of the up to 60 genes that the human immune system focuses on to detect and control this infection. These findings would help explain why people can’t develop immunity to malaria and indicate that control programs should focus on the structure of the parasite’s diverse strains in addition to the number of infections.[20] Gabon
May 17 Scientific development Research team at National Taiwan Ocean University shows how a anon-toxic mixture of chitin-rich crab shell powder and nano-sized silver particles inhibits growth of mosquito larvae, thus providing a way of curbing the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes, and malaria in particular.[21] Taiwan
May 18 Scientific development Researchers at Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics discover that protection from the most severe form of malaria is linked with natural variation in human red blood cell genes.[22] United Kingdom
May 19 Speakers at seminar propose breeding mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) that feeds on larvae as a potent domestic tool for vector control and a natural solution to malaria.[23] India
May 21 Scientific development Scientists from the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) find a unique mosquito species (described as anopheles funestus) that are responsible for the 90 per cent of the malaria burden in rural parts of Tanzania.[24] Tanzania
May 22 Medical development Artemisia annua, an ancient Chinese traditional medicinal herb is reported to be successfully used to treat malaria patients in Congo, after 18 patients, that didn't respond to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), were completely cured with the ancient medicine.[25] Congo DR
May 22 Epidemic Namibia records 22,596 malaria cases in the country since the announcement of an outbreak in January.[26] Namibia
May 22 Epidemic Nearly 3,000 cases of Malaria with at least 30 deaths are confirmed in Limpopo province.[27] South Africa
May 23 Scientific development Research team at Lehigh University finds a link between deforestation and increasing malaria rates across developing countries.[28] United States
May 27 Scientific development Research at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital associates noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes with increased risk for severe malaria infection.[29] Sweden
May 30 Funding International consortium Target Malaria receives a US$17.5 million grant from the Open Philanthropy Project to help develop ways to control the spread of malaria.[30][31]
June 1 Mosquito net distribution Millions of insecticide-treated mosquito nets are delivered in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone.[32] Guinea–Bissau, Sierra Leone
June 4 Infection Two cases of malaria are reported in the Indian city of Gurugram.[33] India
June 5 Policy North Korea rejects a South Korean civic group offering to provide anti-malarial supplies because of the South's support of new Sanctions against North Korea.[34] Korea
June 7 Program launch Researchers at Umeå University develop the GAMBOOST model, a host of weather information gathered from satellite images to accurately predict outbreak of malaria with a one-month lead time.[35] Sweden
June 7 Scientific development Study on mice suggests that malaria parasites can also weaken bones. If they do the same in people, they could stunt the growth of children infected with the disease.[36] Japan (Osaka University)
June 11 Campaign At least 10,295 suspected cases of malaria and 29,402 mosquito-breeding sites (63 per Km2) are identified in Ahmedabad city during 16-day-long anti-malaria campaign aimed at surveillance of malaria cases, checking breeding sites and creating awareness.[37] India
June 12 Scientific development Research team from Britain and Japan discovers how mosquitoes fly by using high-speed cameras and computer images to understand the mechanics of how the insect moves its wings to stay in the air. This knowledge is expected to help find ways to stop mosquitoes from spreading diseases like malaria and zika in the future.[38] United Kingdom, Japan
June 13 Discovery (drug) International research team finds that antimalarial drug pyrimethamine reduces levels of protein SOD1 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the amount of lowering is related to the dose of pyrimethamine. While there is currently no cure for ALS, this study represents the first time a drug lowers a protein known to be relevant to disease progression.[39]
June 14 Scientific development Researchers at Pennsylvania State University identify a weakness in malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum by blocking the protein PfAP2-I, that is used by the parasite to enter the cells where it replicates billions of times before bursting forth into the bloodstream.[40] United States
June 14 Engineering Research team from the University of Maryland genetically engineers a fungus with spider and scorpion toxins with aims at killing malaria mosquitoes. The mutant fungus would prove to be harmless to other animals.[41] United States
June 15 Scientific development Researchers at University de Maine and Columbia University show how temperature rise in the last 35 years generated favorable conditions for malaria spread in the Ethiopian Highlands, an area previously out of malaria risk due to low temperature.[42] Ethiopia
July 5 Scientific development (parasite) Study at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon reveals for the first time that the parasite's rate of replication depends on the calories ingested by the host.[43] Portugal
July 13 Prevention German chemicals company BASF releases mosquito net containing new class of insecticide based on chlorfenapyr, that the company hopes will aid the fight against malaria.[44][45][46] Germany

See also

References

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  2. "Matibabu uses light to diagnose malaria". techcrunch.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  3. "Now anaemia can protect your kids from malaria". deccanchronicle.com. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 
  4. "Malaria infection depends on number of parasites, not number of mosquito bites". imperial.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 
  5. "3D printing may play pivotal role in malaria testing thanks to Stanford University research". tctmagazine.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  6. "Cattle-sheds act as hub for malaria in India". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 
  7. "Global Leaders Launch Council to Help End Malaria". prnewswire.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  8. "This Malaria Drug Is Having an Amazing Effect on Brain Cancer Patients". sciencealert.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  9. "Why mosquitoes don't die of malaria". cosmosmagazine.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  10. "Pneumonia or malaria? A jacket that can tell the difference – and save lives". france24.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  11. "Malaria superbugs threaten global malaria control, scientists say". reuters.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  12. "Malaria superbugs threaten global health disaster". ft.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  13. "Why malaria mosquitoes like people with malaria". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  14. "Malaria vaccine target's invasion partner uncovered". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
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  16. "First detection of an artemisinin-resistant malaria parasite contracted in Africa". eurekalert.org. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  17. "Researchers discover 'map' in malaria vaccine hunt". phys.org. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  18. "Queensland researchers take 'huge step towards a malaria-free world'". brisbanetimes.com.au. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 
  19. "Experimental Drug Cures Malaria in Mice". voanews.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  20. "DNA fingerprinting reveals how malaria hides from immune system". uchicago.edu. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  21. "Can crab shells provide a green solution to malaria?". europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
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  23. "Natural solution to malaria: Breed fish that feeds on larvae". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  24. "Tanzania: New Malaria Scare in Rural Tanzania". allafrica.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  25. "An ancient Chinese traditional medicinal herb is being used to treat malaria patients in Africa". heplaidzebra.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  26. "Namibia records 22 500 malaria cases". namibian.com.na. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  27. "Malaria in Limpopo: Death toll and symptoms". enca.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  28. "Increase in malaria cases linked to deforestation". daijiworld.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
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  30. "Malaria elimination project wins $17.5m funding boost". imperial.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  31. "Target Malaria — General Support". openphilanthropy.org. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  32. "More than a quarter of people in Sierra Leone - at least two million - suffer from malaria, which accounts for a fifth of the country's child deaths". trust.org. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  33. "Malaria onset: Two cases reported in Gurugram". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  34. "N. Korea rejects S. Korea group's offer for malaria help". ABC news. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  35. "Data from satellite imagery useful for malaria early warning systems". Eurekalert. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  36. "Malaria may weaken the skeleton". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  37. "More than 29,000 breeding sites in Ahmedabad: Survey over 10,000 'malaria cases' likely". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  38. "Scientists Uncover Mystery of Mosquito Flight". voanews.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  39. "Malaria Drug Shows Promise for Lou Gehrig's Disease". newsmax.com. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  40. "Scientists Find 'Achilles Heel' in Malaria Parasite". voanews.com. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  41. "Mutant fungus uses spider and scorpion venom to kill malaria mosquitos". cosmosmagazine.com. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  42. "El calentamiento climático favorece la propagación de la malaria en Etiopía". tribunanoticias.mx. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  43. "Malaria parasites able to sense their hosts calorie intake". phys.org. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  44. "BASF unveils new mosquito net in battle against malaria". reuters.com. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  45. "New insecticide-treated mosquito net to fight against malaria". africanreview.com. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  46. "BASF unveils breakthrough insecticide for malaria control". news-medical.net. Retrieved 13 July 2017.