Timeline of malaria in 2017
This is a timeline of malaria in 2017
- Parasites: Probability of malaria infection in humans is linked to parasitemia in vectors. Compound that blocks the parasite is obtained.
- Vectors: Infection risk is found to be higher in cattle sheds. Drug-resistant vectors become urgent concerns. Mosquitofish are proposed for vector control.
- Drugs, vaccines, treatment, and control methods: Testing methods are introduced. Advances on immunity are made. Positive effects on other diseases are found in antimalarial drug.
- Eradication and control progress: Epidemics break out in Southern Africa.
|Global cases||219 million in 90 countries.|
|Distribution||The WHO African Region carries 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths. Five countries account for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%).|
|Malaria financing||Total funding for control and elimination is estimated at US$3.1 billion. Contributions from governments of endemic countries reach US$900 million, representing 28% of total funding.|
|Date (news release)||Type of event||Event||Geographical location|
|January 4||Development (vaccine)||Researchers at the Center for Infectious Disease Research in Seattle approach to a malaria vaccine by infecting volunteers with a weakened form of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with aims at stimmulating immunity but posing no risk of infection. The experiment is reported to have been promising; after the bites, the volunteers’ bodies produced antibodies that could be potent enough to confer immunity to future infections. These findings are expected to work as the basis for a vaccine.||United States|
|January 6||Development (testing)||Uganda-based company Matibabu develops a portable device, which uses light and magnetism to analyze blood composition for signs of malaria infection.||Uganda|
|January 7||Discovery (parasite)||Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill find that Iron-deficiency anemia actually protects children against the blood-stage of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.||United States|
|January 12||Discovery (parasite)||Researchers at Imperial College London find, for the first time, that the number of parasites each mosquito carries influences the chance of successful malaria infection.||United Kingdom|
|January 16||Development (testing)||Researchers at Stanford University develop extremely cheap centrifuge made out of paper and string, which can also be made with 3D-printed plastic, with the potential to become a cost-effective method for lesser developed countries to test for illnesses such as malaria.||United States|
|January 16||Discovery (vector)||Researchers claim that pondering the relationship between mosquitoes and cows may be key to reducing the spread of malaria in India, after finding that most of the mosquitoes that are known to transmit malaria rest in cattle sheds and feed on both cows and humans.||India|
|January 20||Microsoft magnate Bill Gates and Ray Chambers, the United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Health in Agenda 2030 and for Malaria, announce the launch of the End Malaria Council, a group of influential public and private sector leaders with aims at ensuring that malaria eradication remains a top global priority.||Switzerland (Davos)|
|January 20||Discovery (drug)||Unexpectedly positive effects on brain cancer patients are noticed when treated with anti-malarial drug chloroquine.||United States|
|January 23||Discovery (vector)||Research team from the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases uncover a component of a mosquito’s immune system that allows the insect to remain unaffected from malaria-causing parasites.||United States|
|January 23||Development (testing)||Students at Makerere University in Kampala develop a wearable jacket–like device that measures a sick child’s breathing rate and temperature and is able to distinguish if the child has pneumonia or malaria, given that both diseases share almost indistinguishable clinical symptoms.||Uganda|
|January 24||Development (vaccine)||Researchers from the University of Washington create genetically attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) by knocking out three genes (GAP3KO) in Plasmodium falciparum that arrest its development within the liver, thereby preventing its advance to blood infection, the stage of malaria that triggers disease symptoms.||United States|
|February 1||Experts call for urgent action as drug-resistant malaria superbugs threaten a global public health disaster if expanding from Southeast Asia. Increasingly resistant to main artemisinin class of antimalarial drugs, the mosquito-borne uber-parasites would have taken hold in parts of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia and could sweep into India and on to Africa where most malaria deaths occur.||Southeast Asia|
|February 9||Discovery (vector)||Researchers from Stockholm University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and KTH Royal Institute of Technology discover that malaria parasites produce a molecule, HMBPP ((E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate), which stimulates the human red blood cells to release more carbon dioxide and volatile compounds with an irresistible smell to malaria mosquitoes. This explains why malaria mosquitoes have preference for blood –and feed more– from people infected with malaria.||Sweden|
|February 10||Development (vaccine)||Research team at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute discovers how malarial vaccine target (the protein RH5) helps parasites to invade human red blood cells. The study would reveal that the protein on the surface of the parasite called P113 anchors the RH5 protein, and provides a molecular bridge between the parasite and a red blood cell.||United Kingdom|
|February 15||Development (vaccine)||Research team at University of Tübingen in collaboration with biotech company Sanaria demonstrate 100% effectiveness in clinical trial of new malaria vaccine (Sanaria PfSPZ-CVac), when assessed at 10 weeks after last dose of the vaccine.||Germany|
|February 22||Discovery (drug resistance)||International team of scientists identifiy the African origin of Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria parasites detected in a Chinese patient, who had travelled from Equatorial Guinea to China. This would be the first identified case of an artemisinin-resistant malaria parasite contracted in Africa.||Equatorial Guinea|
|March 21||Development (tehnology)||Using the Australian Synchrotron, researchers manage to map Plasmodium falciparum protein CyRPA in atomic detail for the first time, establishing how antibodies that block the function of CyRPA disrupt the parasite's ability to bind to and infect human red blood cells.||Australia|
|March 27||Development (vaccine)||Researchers at Griffith University and the Gold Coast University Hospital report development of anti–malarial vaccine to "whole blood stage" (it means safe for humans to take and for human tests to go ahead).||Australia|
|April 17||Development (prevention)||Scientists at the University of Cape Town develop a compound (named MMV048) that both cure and prevent malaria in mice by blocking the parasite across its multiple life stages, thus interrupting the infection cycle.||South Africa|
|May 4||Scientific development||Research team from the University of Melbourne, the University of Chicago and the University of Amsterdam, working with scientists from the United States, Europe and Australia, publishes study involving more than 600 children in the small village of Bakoumba in southeast Gabon where it found that each infected child had a different strain of the malaria parasite and a distinctly different set of the up to 60 genes that the human immune system focuses on to detect and control this infection. These findings would help explain why people can’t develop immunity to malaria and indicate that control programs should focus on the structure of the parasite’s diverse strains in addition to the number of infections.||Gabon|
|May 17||Scientific development||Research team at National Taiwan Ocean University shows how a anon-toxic mixture of chitin-rich crab shell powder and nano-sized silver particles inhibits growth of mosquito larvae, thus providing a way of curbing the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes, and malaria in particular.||Taiwan|
|May 18||Scientific development||Researchers at Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics discover that protection from the most severe form of malaria is linked with natural variation in human red blood cell genes.||United Kingdom|
|May 19||Speakers at seminar propose breeding mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) that feeds on larvae as a potent domestic tool for vector control and a natural solution to malaria.||India|
|May 21||Scientific development||Scientists from the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) find a unique mosquito species (described as anopheles funestus) that are responsible for the 90 per cent of the malaria burden in rural parts of Tanzania.||Tanzania|
|May 22||Medical development||Artemisia annua, an ancient Chinese traditional medicinal herb is reported to be successfully used to treat malaria patients in Congo, after 18 patients, that didn't respond to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), were completely cured with the ancient medicine.||Congo DR|
|May 22||Epidemic||Namibia records 22,596 malaria cases in the country since the announcement of an outbreak in January.||Namibia|
|May 22||Epidemic||Nearly 3,000 cases of Malaria with at least 30 deaths are confirmed in Limpopo province.||South Africa|
|May 23||Scientific development||Research team at Lehigh University finds a link between deforestation and increasing malaria rates across developing countries.||United States|
|May 27||Scientific development||Research at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital associates noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes with increased risk for severe malaria infection.||Sweden|
|May 30||Funding||International consortium Target Malaria receives a US$17.5 million grant from the Open Philanthropy Project to help develop ways to control the spread of malaria.|
|June 1||Mosquito net distribution||Millions of insecticide-treated mosquito nets are delivered in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone.||Guinea–Bissau, Sierra Leone|
|June 4||Infection||Two cases of malaria are reported in the Indian city of Gurugram.||India|
|June 5||Policy||North Korea rejects a South Korean civic group offering to provide anti-malarial supplies because of the South's support of new Sanctions against North Korea.||Korea|
|June 7||Program launch||Researchers at Umeå University develop the GAMBOOST model, a host of weather information gathered from satellite images to accurately predict outbreak of malaria with a one-month lead time.||Sweden|
|June 7||Scientific development||Study on mice suggests that malaria parasites can also weaken bones. If they do the same in people, they could stunt the growth of children infected with the disease.||Japan (Osaka University)|
|June 11||Campaign||At least 10,295 suspected cases of malaria and 29,402 mosquito-breeding sites (63 per Km2) are identified in Ahmedabad city during 16-day-long anti-malaria campaign aimed at surveillance of malaria cases, checking breeding sites and creating awareness.||India|
|June 12||Scientific development||Research team from Britain and Japan discovers how mosquitoes fly by using high-speed cameras and computer images to understand the mechanics of how the insect moves its wings to stay in the air. This knowledge is expected to help find ways to stop mosquitoes from spreading diseases like malaria and zika in the future.||United Kingdom, Japan|
|June 13||Discovery (drug)||International research team finds that antimalarial drug pyrimethamine reduces levels of protein SOD1 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the amount of lowering is related to the dose of pyrimethamine. While there is currently no cure for ALS, this study represents the first time a drug lowers a protein known to be relevant to disease progression.|
|June 14||Scientific development||Researchers at Pennsylvania State University identify a weakness in malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum by blocking the protein PfAP2-I, that is used by the parasite to enter the cells where it replicates billions of times before bursting forth into the bloodstream.||United States|
|June 14||Engineering||Research team from the University of Maryland genetically engineers a fungus with spider and scorpion toxins with aims at killing malaria mosquitoes. The mutant fungus would prove to be harmless to other animals.||United States|
|June 15||Scientific development||Researchers at University de Maine and Columbia University show how temperature rise in the last 35 years generated favorable conditions for malaria spread in the Ethiopian Highlands, an area previously out of malaria risk due to low temperature.||Ethiopia|
|July 5||Scientific development (parasite)||Study at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon reveals for the first time that the parasite's rate of replication depends on the calories ingested by the host.||Portugal|
|July 13||Prevention||German chemicals company BASF releases mosquito net containing new class of insecticide based on chlorfenapyr, that the company hopes will aid the fight against malaria.||Germany|
|July 27||Drug||Indian pharmaceutical Cipla launches a drug used for the treatment of severe malaria in young children.||India|
|August 21||Drug||Medical scientists launch a patient trial for “KAF156”, a next-generation anti-malarial compound with the potential to treat drug-resistant strains of the malaria parasite in Africa.|
|September 13||Drug||Researchers at Tulane University develop AQ-13, a drug that is effective against non-severe cases of malaria. The drug is able to clear the parasite responsible for the disease within a week, matching the effectiveness of the most widely used treatment regimen.||United States|
|September 16||Scientific development||Researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne discover that carbohydrates play a vital role in the malaria parasite's infection of humans. The discovery is expected to lead to more effective vaccines.||Australia|
|September 28||Scientific development (treatment)||Two papers from the Malaria Research Institute at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health report promising strategies against malaria, one having discovered a strain of bacteria that can spread rapidly and persist long-term among malaria-carrying mosquitoes. A genetically modified version of that strain strongly suppresses development of the malaria parasite, making the mosquitoes much less likely to transmit these parasites to humans. A second study shows that a genetic modification that boosted the immune system of malaria-carrying mosquitoes not only suppresses malaria parasites in the insects but also can spread quickly. The findings are expected to lead the development of bacteria and mosquitoes that would be released into mosquito populations in the wild, then propagate on their own to reduce malaria transmission to humans in endemic areas.||Unitd States|
|October 3||Scientific development||Researchers at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine show that targeting an immune checkpoint molecule at the right time during infection allows mice to quickly clear malaria infections.||United States|
|October 26||Scientific development||Researchers at the National Institutes of Health identify new targets for anti-malaria drugs, and show that the deadliest malaria parasite needs two proteins to infect red blood cells and exit the cells after it multiplies.||United States|
|November 17||Scientific development (treatment)||Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) and UC San Diego School of Medicine find that chloroquine, which is used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus.||United States|
|December 4||Scientific development (parasite)||Research group at Osaka University discovers that proteins called RIFIN expressed on erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum help the parasite to suppress the host immune response, causing severe malaria. The findings are expected to contribute to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutic drugs against malaria.||Japan|
|December 14||Scientific development (parasite)||Researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine identify a way to block the ability of parasites that cause malaria to shield themselves against drug treatments in infected mice. The finding is expected lead to the development of new approaches to combat malaria in humans.||United States|
- Timeline of malaria
- Timeline of malaria in 2014
- Timeline of malaria in 2015
- Timeline of malaria in 2016
- Timeline of malaria in 2018
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