Timeline of malaria vaccine
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- 2 Visual data
- 3 Timeline
- 4 Meta information on the timeline
- 5 See also
- 6 External links
- 7 References
|1940s-1984||Malaria immunization studies are conducted with aims at developing vaccines.|
|1984 onward||RTS,S, the first malaria vaccine candidate is developed.|
|1995 onward||RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate trials start to be conducted, mostly in Africa.|
|Present time||No effective malaria vaccine exists as of yet.|
The comparative chart below shows Google Trends data for Malaria vaccine (Vaccine) and HIV vaccine development (Topic), from January 2004 to March 2020, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.
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|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1942||Immunology development||Studies of inactivated sporozoite immunization show apparently beneficial effect of combining induction of cellular and humoral immune responses against malaria of domestic fowl.|
|1950s||Immunology development||Research finds that immunization of chickens with a mix of asexual and sexual stages of plasmodium gallinaceum blocks parasite infectivity.|
|1967||Immunology development||Research on avian malaria shows that killed sporozoites as well as sporozoites inactivated with ultraviolet light can produce a partial immunity after injection into birds. During the 1960s, the path to malaria vaccine development consolidates with immunization studies of mice with irradiated sporozoites, and posterior analyses of the mechanisms of immunity in this model.|
|1970||Immunology development||Research reveals immune cross protection against malaria in rodent systems.|
|1983||Publication||The first publications for cloning malaria antigens appear.|
|1984||Program launch||The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) and British pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) initiate collaboration to produce a malaria vaccine using GSK’s recombinant escherichia coli expression systems.|
|1985||Immunology development||Researchers find that immunization with processed fragments of called Merozoite surface protein-1 MSP-1 (one of the most studied of all malaria proteins) induce protective immune responses.|
|1986-1987||Immunology development||Team lead by Colombian Professor Manuel Elkin Patarroyo inoculates hundreds of aotus monkeys with experimental synthetic proteins designed to imitate bite of malaria proteins. By 1987 Patarroyo reports in Nature Magazine that three particular synthetic proteins protect a significant proportion of monkeys. However, a carrier molecule used to present the peptides to the monkeys’ immune systems appears to damage the animals’ livers.||Colombia|
|1987||Vaccine development||Researchers working at GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK) laboratories, develop malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S (Mosquirix TM). It is the first vaccine created by combining the malaria CS protein and hepatitis B surface antigen.||United Kingdom|
|1993||Vaccine development||Study on multi-stage, multi-component malaria vaccine cocktail featuring pre-erythrocytic, blood, and sexual stage antigens gives favourable results, however, further clinical development of this approach would not be reported.|
|1995||Vaccine development (trial)||First RTS,S vaccine clinical tests in humans are conducted in adults in the United States.||United States|
|1997||Vaccine development (trial)||RTS,S vaccine Key proof-of-concept (PoC) study shows 100% protection in 6 of 7 volunteers in challenge trial.|
|1998||Vaccine development (trial)||First RTS,S vaccine trials in Africa are conducted in Gambia.||Gambia|
|1999||Program launch||The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) is established, with aims at accelerating the development of malaria vaccines and catalyzing timely access in endemic countries.  The program launches with a $50 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.|
|2001||Organization||The GSK/MVI partnership (GlaxoSmithKline and PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)) initiates, with grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to PATH, with aims at developing RTS,S vaccine for infants and young children living in malaria-endemic regions in Sub-Saharan Africa."|
|2003||Vaccine development (trial)||RTS,S/AS02A malaria vaccine candidate phase IIb clinical trial is conducted in children from 1 to 4 years of age in Mozambique. The vaccine shows to be safe, immunogenic and efficacious, reducing plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria cases by 30% and episodes of severe disease by up to 58%. In addition, protection would appear to last for a 18 month follow‐up period.||Mozambique|
|2006||Program launch||The Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap launches.|
|2007||Publication||Phase II results in African children and infants are published in The Lancet and The New England Journal of Medicine.|
|2009-2014||Vaccine development (trial)||RTS,S vaccine phase III study is launched in Kisumu, Kenya, in July, under the auspices of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)/CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration. The trial would end in 2014, involving 15,459 infants and young children at 11 sites in seven African countries, being the largest malaria vaccine trial in Africa to date.||Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania|
|2011||Vaccine development (trial)||RTS,S vaccine Phase III trials results, released in October, show that in children aged 5-17 months, vaccination with RTS,S reduce the risk of clinical malaria and severe malaria by 56% and 47%, respectively. However, further results released show the vaccine less effective in infants aged 6-12 weeks at first vaccination.||Africa|
|2013||Update||The Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap (launched in 2006) is updated in November. The update represents a blueprint for second generation malaria vaccine development, including a new Vision, two new Strategic Goals and 13 priority activities.|
|2014||Vaccine development (trial)||Initial phase III result at 18 months of RTS,S trial introduction shows the vaccine efficacy of 46% in children and 27% among young infants against the clinical malaria.|
|2015||Policy||The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) announces having adopted a positive scientific opinion for GSK’s malaria candidate vaccine RTS,S (Mosquirix TM), in children aged 6 weeks to 17 months.|
|2016||Medical development||Biotechnology corporation Sanaria reports experimental malaria vaccine tested in varying doses providing 55 percent protection for one year to a few volunteers. The vaccine, made by the company, contains thousands of live malaria parasites weakened by radiation; the parasites would create an immune response but do not persist in the body for long.||United States|
|2016||Policy||Following the opinion of the CHMP, The World Health Organization recommends that the pilot implementations use the 4-dose schedule of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine in 3–5 distinct epidemiological settings in sub-Saharan Africa, at subnational level, covering moderate-to-high transmission settings, with three doses administered to children between 5 and 9 months of age, followed by a fourth dose 15–18 months later.|
|2017||Report||The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO/AFRO) announces on April 24, that Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi will partner with WHO in the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme (MVIP) that will make the RTS,S vaccine available in selected areas of the three countries.||Ghana, Kenya, Malawi|
|2017||Medical development||Research team at University of Tübingen in collaboration with biotech company Sanaria demonstrate 100% effectiveness in clinical trial of new malaria vaccine (Sanaria PfSPZ-CVac), when assessed at 10 weeks after last dose of the vaccine.||Germany|
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Timeline update strategy
- Timeline of malaria
- Timeline of mosquito net distribution
- Speculative timeline of future malaria events
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