Timeline of online advertising
This page is a timeline of online advertising. Major launches, milestones and other major events are included.
|1978–1992||This era pre-dates the World Wide Web. Much of online advertising during this time period is done through Email, in the form of spamming. Such activities have continued to this day, but became much more common after the ban against the commercial use of the internet was lifted in 1991.|
|1993–1999||With people now having their own websites, banner ads are used as a source of income to pay for these websites and as side money. Companies like Prodigy, Global Network Navigator (GNN), and HotWired are pioneers in the business of online advertising. Some of the companies that would later dominate online advertising are created, including Google and DoubleClick. Some models that originated at this time include: display advertising (specifically, banner ads), pay-per-click advertising (starting with Overture/Goto.com, in the context of search), ad exchanges (starting with OpenX), popup ads (by Ethan Zuckerman of Tripod.com), and behavioral targeting and retargeting (by DoubleClick).|
|2000–2002||This period sees the burst of the tech bubble. There are few launches and acquisitions in this period. The main development during this period is Google's launch of Adwords (its search advertising tool) and the growth of Adwords along with increased Internet and search engine use.|
|2003–2006||After recovery from the bursting of the tech bubble, the pace of acquisitions and new company formation increases again. During this period, companies such as Google, Microsoft, Yahoo!, and AOL acquire many nascent advertising companies, and new companies such as Criteo form.|
|2007–2010||The period begins with Google's acquisition of DoubleClick (that would prove to be a great success) and Microsoft's acquisition of aQuantive (that would ultimately be written off). Big companies continue to buy key ad technology companies in this period. Acquisitions by Google/DoubleClick prove the most valuable, including the acquisition of AdMob and Invite Media. Yahoo! and AOL also acquire some companies, and Apple enters the game with its acquisition of Quattro.|
The period also sees the launch of Digiday and AdExchanger, two online publications devoted to online advertising and digital media.
|2011–2013||With the rebranding of DoubleClick's core offerings as DoubleClick For Publishers (DFP), and significant expansion in features available, DoubleClick Ad Exchange comes to dominate the ad exchange world, and DFP comes to dominate the publisher-facing side of ad serving. This puts Google in a strong position with respect to display advertising, in addition to its search stronghold.|
Two other players that enter advertising at a larger scale at this time are Facebook (through the use of sponsored stories) and Amazon (with the introduction of the Amazon Advertising Platform). Twitter also starts monetizing through promoted tweets.
The period also sees more development of standards around real-time bidding (with OpenRTB 2.0) and norms around what advertisers can track and how they should disclose this information.
|2014–2017||Social media advertising continues to grow; Instagram, Pinterest and Snapchat are among the new players in the space.|
Google retains its dominant position in display advertising, but faces more pressure from both buyers and sellers to make its policies more friendly to their needs. Inefficiencies in the ad serving process lead to opportunities for innovations like header bidding. Google attempts to render these redundant by allowing for more competition in the ad serving.
Verizon acquires AOL and then Yahoo!, with the former acquisition explicitly being justified as an ad tech acquisition.
|Year||Month and date||Event Type||Advertisement Type||Description|
|1978||May 3||Milestone||Email marketing||The first instance of email spam is sent, the purpose of which is advertising.|
|1980||Launch||N/A||Usenet, a popular discussion forum, launches, and is occasionally overwhelmed with advertising spam posts.|
|1984||Launch||Banner advertising||Prodigy launches, offering one of the first online advertising services; although these ads are always in the same spot on the screen, and are non-clickable.|
|1991||March||Milestone||N/A||The ban on commercial use on the NSFNET is lifted by the National Science Foundation (NSF).|
|1993||Launch||Banner advertising||GNN, one of the first web publication and web advertising services, is launched by O'Reilly Media.|
|1994||Milestone||Banner advertising||The first ever clickable advertisement is sold to a Silicon Valley law firm by GNN.|
|1994||Launch||N/A||HotWired, the first commercial web magazine, launches.|
|1994||October 27||Milestone||Banner advertising||The first ever banner is sold to AT&T, and is visible on the first issue of HotWired.|
|1995||May||Acquisition||Banner advertising||GNN is acquired by AOL for $11 million.|
|1995||August||Launch||Ad serving||NetGravity is founded by Paul Nakada, Tom Shields, and John Danner, and builds its ad serving product with Yahoo! as the first customer. The product, Netvertiser, launches on Yahoo! on October 23, 1995.|
|1996||Launch||Association||The Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) launches.|
|1996||Launch||Ad serving||DoubleClick, a prominent online advertising company, launches. DoubleClick uses the new technology of browser cookies to track users as they travel between websites.|
|1996||March||Launch||Web-ring advertising||LinkExchange is founded by Tony Hsieh (who would later become CEO of Zappos) and Sanjay Madan. Ali Partovi later joined them as a third partner in August 1996. In November 1996, when the company consisted of about 10 people, it moved from Hsieh's and Madan's living room to an office|
|1996||June||Launch||Demand-side platform||Connexity, a company providing advertising solutions for e-commerce companies, is founded.|
|1996||July||Launch, Milestone||Search advertising||Yahoo! launches the very first search ads in their search engine.|
|1997||Launch||Ad serving||aQuantive launches.|
|1997||Invention||Pop-up ads||Pop-up ads are invented by Ethan Zuckerman at Tripod.com, and considered to be a more aggressive and disliked advertising strategy.|
|1998||September 4||Launch||N/A||Google, an online search engine, launches. Google would later come to be the dominant player in search (and hence, search advertising) as well as display advertising.|
|1998||October 5||New feature||Retargeting, behavioral targeting||DoubleClick launches two new products: DataBank, that allows for targeting users based on their known correlations between their activity (the types of sites they visit) and purchase patterns, and Boomerang, a retargeting solution. Boomerang is the first retargeting solution.|
|1998||November 5||Acquisition||Web-ring advertising||Microsoft announces that it has acquired LinkExchange, a company that worked on monetization of web-rings.|
|1998||Invention, Launch, Milestone||Ad exchange||OpenX, one of the first ad exchanges, launches as an open source project.|
|1998||Launch||Search advertising||GoTo (later Overture, now Yahoo! Search Marketing), a search engine which offers search advertising, launches. It is among the pioneers of a pay-per-click model of search advertising, treating search advertising as a primary revenue source rather than a loss leader.|
|1999||Defunction||N/A||HotWired is shutdown after its domain is re-purposed by Lycos.|
|1999||July 13||Acquisition||Ad serving||DoubleClick acquires NetGravity for $530 million in stock.|
|2000||October 23||Launch||Search advertising||Google launches the prominent AdWords service, which allows for advertising based on a user's browsing habits and their search keywords.|
|2002||Invention, Milestone||Pop-up ads||With the annoyance brought about by pop-up ads, many prominent web browsers such as Firefox, Netscape, and Opera begin to roll out features to block these ads.|
|2003||March||Launch||Content-targeted advertising||Google launches its Content-Targeted Advertising Program, that would later be renamed AdSense. The advertisements come from AdWords advertisers, but rather than being related to the user's search intent, they are related to the content of the page..|
|2003||March 30||Launch||Ad exchange||Right Media, the company that operates the Right Media Exchange (RMX) launches. It would eventually be acquired by Yahoo!.|
|2003||April 23||Acquisition||Content-targeted advertising||Google acquires Applied Semantics, a company specializing in advertising targeted to the content of the pages on which the ad shows. The acquisition comes a month after Google's own release of its Content-Targeted Advertising Program, and leads to the program being renamed AdSense.|
|2003||October 7||Acquisition||Search advertising||Overture (formerly GoTo) is acquired by Yahoo! to enrich their search engine.|
|2003||December 15||Acquisition||Search advertising||aQuantive acquires Go Toast, a Denver-based pay-per-click online search technology company.|
|2004||January 7||Launch||Ad network||BlieLithium is founded by Gurbaksh Chahal and Krishna Subramanian as an ad network focused on behavioral targeting. The company would later be acquired by Yahoo! and its product woud become Yahoo! Advertising.|
|2004||February||Launch||Social media advertising||Facebook, the most popular social media network, launches.|
|2004||June 24||Acquisition||Ad serving||AOL acquires Advertising.com for $435 million.|
|2005||February 14||Launch||Banner advertising||YouTube, a popular video sharing website, launches.|
|2005||June 10||Acquisition||Ad formats||Gannett announcing that it is acquiring rich ad media formats company PointRoll for $100 million.|
|2005||Launch||Demand-side platform, retargeting||Criteo, one of the first demand-side platforms, launches. Its focus is on retargeting, and it would bring its product to market after four years of product development.|
|2006||April 10||Launch||Mobile advertising||Mobile advertising platform AdMob launches.|
|2006||August||Launch||Native advertising||YouTube launches its video advertising platform, which has a giant reach today.|
|2006||October||Acquisition||N/A||YouTube is acquired by Google for $1.65 billion.|
|2006||Invention, Launch, Milestone||Ad blocking||Adblock Plus, a very prominent ad-blocking add-on for web browsers, is released.|
|2006||Launch||Content discovery platform||Outbrain, a notable advertising company that powers external recirculation widgets, launches.|
|2007||Launch||Content discovery platform||Taboola, a notable advertising company that powers external recirculation widgets, launches.|
|2007||Launch||Behavioral targeting, Social media advertising||Facebook launches Beacon, an intricate advertising platform that tracks Facebook user's activities on websites outside of Facebook.|
|2007||April||Launch||Demand-side platform||Invite Media launches. It is the creator of Bid Manager, a demand-side platform (DSP). It would eventually be acquired by Google and the Bid Manager would be rebranded as DoubleClick Bid Manager (DBM).|
|2007||April 14||Acquisition||Ad serving||Google acquires DoubleClick, an advertising platform, for $3.1 billion.|
|2007||April 30||Acquisition||Ad exchange||Yahoo! acquires Right Media, the company behind the Right Media Exchange (RMX).|
|2007||May 1||Launch||Ad serving||The Rubicon Project is founded as an advertising network, by Frank Addante, Craig Roah, Duc Chau and Julie Matter.|
|2007||May 16||Acquisition||Ad serving||AOL acquires AdTech AG, an online ad-serving company based in Germany, at undisclosed terms. The company would operate as an independent subsidiary of the AOL-owned advertising.com.|
|2007||May 18||Acquisition||Ad serving||Microsoft acquires AQuantive, an advertising platform, for $6.5 billion. This includes Atlas DMT, the advertising technology division.|
|2007||July 23||Launch||Video advertising||TubeMogul launches, initially as a cross-platform video analytics tool. It would eventually become an online video advertising network and solution.|
|2007||September 4||Acquisition||Ad network||Yahoo! acquires ad network company BlueLithium, leading to it being rebranded as Yahoo! Advertising.|
|2007||Launch||Ad serving/demand-side platform||AppNexus, a company offering online advertising auction technology and advertising campaign management, launches.|
|2007||Launch||Demand-side platform||MediaMath, a notable demand-side platform, launches.|
|2008||March||Launch||Demand-side platform||Rocket Fuel Inc., a notable demand-side platform, launches.|
|2008||Launch||Publication||AdExchanger, a company with an eponymous website, that tracks the ad serving and ad exchange space, launches.|
|2008||Launch||Ad blocking||Rick Petnel creates Easylist, one of the most popular filter lists available for ad-blocking web browser add-ons. The filter list Easylist Privacy is also available, and focuses on the blocking of web elements that may invade a user's privacy.|
|2008||Launch||Data management platform||BlueKai, a cloud-based data management platform, launches as a marketing tech startup.|
|2009||Launch||Ad serving||Adzerk, a company that provides ad serving tech as well as tools to build an in-house ad server, is founded by James Avery, growing out of two niche ad networks started by him: The Lounge and Ruby Row. The company would soon acquire Stack Overflow as a customer and report raising seed funding of $650,000 in July 2011.|
|2009||Launch||Ad measurement||Integral Ad Science is launched as AdSafe Media. The company would be known for addressing issues around fraud, viewability, brand risk and TRAQ, a proprietary media quality score.||2009||Launch||Demand-side platform||DataXu, a software copmany that runs a real-time bidding platform and would co-found the OpenRTB Consortium, launches.|
|2009||September 18||Launch||Ad exchange||Google launches its own ad exchange platform with DoubleClick.|
|2009||October 1||Launch||Demand-side platform||The Trade Desk, a technology company that operates a demand-side platform, launches.|
|2009||November 9||Acquisition||Mobile advertising||Google announces that it is in the process of acquiring mobile advertising platform AdMob for $750 million. The completion of the acquisition is announced on the Google blog on May 27, 2010.|
|2010||Launch||Ad measurement (search, viewability)||Moat is founded by Jonah and Noah Goodhart and Mike Walrath, who were previously involved with Right Media Exchange. The company provides an ad search tool and Internet-wide ad viewability data and insights.|
|2010||Launch||Publication||Digiday, a company and eponymous daily publication focused on digital marketing and digital media, launches. It would be one of the important publications covering news in the world of digital advertising.|
|2010||January 4||Acquisition||Mobile advertising||Apple acquires Quatto Wireless, a mobile advertising company. The acquisition comes shortly after Google's acquisition of AdMob.|
|2010||February 22||Launch||Ad serving||Google launches DoubleClick for Publishers (DFP), an advertising software as a service, as well as the sister product, DFP Small Business. DFP is a rebranding of the service previously called DoubleClick's DART ad server, and DFP Small Business is a rebranding of Google Ad Manager.|
|2010||April 12||Launch||Social media advertising||Twitter launches Promoted Tweets, which allows advertisers to pay for tweets to be shown in a user's feed.|
|2010||April 13||Launch||Viewability standard||The Media Rating Council approves RealVu's acccreditation for the Viewable Impression metric and related viewability metrics. This is the first viewability metric, and is an early harbinger of a shift toward viewability standard that would unfold over the next several years. Later in the year, RealVu would be awarded a certificate of excellence as a finalist for the prestigious Direct Marketing Association's (DMA) Innovation Awards for the Company's Viewable Impression metric.|
|2010||May||Launch||Data management platform||Krux, a data management platform (DMP), gets seed funding.|
|2010||June 3||Acquisition||Demand-side platform||Google confirms the acquisition of Invite Media. The Bid Manager would be rebranded as DoubleClick Bid Manager (DBM).|
|2010||October||Launch||End user control standard||The Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) launches the AdChoices program.|
|2010||December||New feature||End user control standard||Microsoft announces that the Do Not Track (DNT) standard will be supported in Internet Explorer 9. Subsequently, Firefox becomes the first browser to implement DNT, and Internet Explorer, Safari, Chrome, and Opera follow/|
|2011||January 24||Launch||Social media advertising||Facebook launches Sponsored Stories, where brands can pay money to have their posts or other interactions related to the brand (such as friend activity) appear in front of more users. The Sponsored Stories would appear in place of existing ads and would not increase the ad load on the site (later, Sponsored Stories would become part of the News Feed; however, at this time, they are not).|
|2011||August||Standard change||End user control standard||Apple announces that it is deprecating UDID, the unique device identifier that advertisers and others can use to identify a device.|
|2011||September 29||New terminology||Native advertising||At the Online Media, Marketing and Advertising Conference, Fred Wilson first uses the term "native advertising".|
|2011||November 4||New publisher||Native advertising||Viral content publisher BuzzFeed launches its advertising page, inviting brands to run viral advertising campaigns on BuzzFeed. (Note: the archived link is from November 11; the date of November 4 comes from Google Search snippet).|
|2011||December 20||Launch||Social media advertising||Facebook announces that, starting in January 2012, it will be showing ads in the news feed on web (not on mobile), with the name "Featured Stories". The stories must be based on actions by the viewer's friends or from pages that the viewer has liked. As of January 10, 2012, the feature has launched.|
|2012||January||Launch||Real-time bidding standard||OpenRTB 2.0, a specification for real-time bidding (RTB), is released.|
|2012||June||New feature||End user control standard||Apple announces two new identifiers, IDFA (Identifier for Advertisers) (a cross-app/cross-publisher identifier) and IDFV (Identifier for Vendors) (a publisher-specific identifier), which is hailed as good news for the mobile app advertising industry.|
|2012||July 12||Write-off||Ad serving||Microsoft writes off the value of its aQuantive acquisition, leading to post-mortems regarding what went wrong with the acquisition.|
|2012||October 2||Launch||Demand-side platform||Amazon.com announces its advertising ambitions at Advertising Week. This includes building out the Amazon Advertising Platform (AAP) into a full-fledged demand-side platform, and opening it up to agencies. Commentators note the huge potential of Amazon's rich data on people's purchase intent and interest in powering targeted advertising.|
|2012||New feature||End user control standard||The Express installation settings for Microsoft's web browser, Internet Explorer 10, turn Do Not Track on by default. The Digital Advertising Alliance protests this decision while a Microsoft spokesperson defends it. On September 7, Roy Fielding, one of the authors of the DNT standard, submits a change to ignore the header for users coming from IE10, leading to controversy. The patch is commented out on October 9, restoring original behavior. On April 3, 2015, Microsoft announces that the Express installation will no longer activate Do Not Track, but Microsoft will continue to highlight the option to users so that they are aware of it.|
|2012||December 11||Adoption||Viewability standard||Adweek reports that, starting 2013, the viewability standard will start rolling out seriously, through an initiative called the Making Measurement Making Sense (3MS) involving the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), and American Association of Advertising Agencies (4A's). In particular, Media Rating Council-accredited third-party researchers and analytics vendors will begin counting only viewable ad impressions.|
|2013||March||Adoption||Ad serving||Reddit starts using Adzerk for ad serving. This replaces DFP for serving external ads, and replaces Reddit's in-house ad management system for native advertising.|
|2013||April 26||Acquisition||Ad serving||Facebook acquires Atlas Solutions from Microsoft for $100 million, in order to enrich its already bustling advertising platform.|
|2013||May 1||Standard change||End user control standard||Apple announces that it is discontinuing accepting apps that use its deprecated identifier (the UDID) starting this date. Apple had announced the discontinuation of the identifier in August 2011 and introduced a replacement (the IDFA and IDFV) in June 2012.|
|2013||September 20||IPO||Demand-side platform||Rocket Fuel IPOs. Shares double on the first day of trading. This is the most successful ad tech IPO of 2013.|
|2013||October||Launch||Social media advertising||Instagram, a popular image sharing platform, releases its feature of having sponsored posts appear on user's feeds.|
|2013||October 30||IPO||Demand-side platform, retargeting||Retargeting-focused DSP Criteo IPOs on the NASDAQ, initially pricing its shares at $31.|
|2013||October 31||Standard change||End user control standard||Google announces that it is replacing "Android ID" with "Advertising ID" on Android devices. The move is analogized to Apple's move from UDID to Identifier for Advertising (IDFA).|
|2014||January 16||Open release||Real-time bidding standard||The first commit on the GitHub repository for the OpenRTB standard is recorded.|
|2014||February 24||Acquisition||Data management platform||Oracle acquires data management platform (DMP) company Bluekai.|
|2014||March 24||Launch||Social media advertising||Pinterest, a creative image sharing platform, launches it Promoted Pins service which allows for additional advertising in a user's feed.|
|2014||June 23||Launch||Ad blocking||UBlock Origin, a very prominent ad-blocking extension for web browsers, launches.|
|2014||June 30||Launch||Viewability standard||The Media Rating Council releases Version 1.0 (Final) of its Viewable Ad Impression Measurement Guidelines.|
|2014||July 18||IPO||Video advertising||Video advertising platform TubeMogul IPOs at $7 per share (half of its original intended IPO price), and rises 50% on its first day of trading.|
|2014||November 14||Launch*||Ad serving||Facebook re-launches Atlas.|
|2015||May 12||Acquisition||Ad serving||Mobile data carrier Verizon acquires AOL for $4.4 billion; the main value of the acquisition to Verizon is the ad technology owned by AOL. The deal is expected to help Verizon target ads better to users across devices, through the combination of AOL's ad tech and data and Verizon's data.|
|2015||July 19||New feature||Header bidding||The first commit for Prebid.js on GitHub is made by Paul Young. Prebid.js is a project at AppNexus to facilitate header bidding integrations.|
|2015||September 3||Acquisition||Ad serving||Verizon-owned AOL confirms the acquisition of Millennial Media for $238 million, to expand in mobile ads.|
|2015||November 2||New feature||Ad serving||Google DFP launches First Look, to allow buyers to access high-value users early on, and allow publishers to bring in high-value inventory at a higher priority than reserved impressions. Commentators view this as Google's answer to header bidding.|
|2016||April 13||New feature||Ad serving||Google announces that First Look is available to all DFP clients globally, and that it is testing exchange bidding in dynamic allocation (EBDA) with select partners, including Index Exchange and Rubicon Project. The move is seen as an effort to reduce the value of or need for header bidding.|
|2016||June 14||Launch||Social media advertising||Snapchat, a popular messaging app, begins to include advertisements between user's "stories".|
|2016||June 30||Shutdown||Ad serving||Apple shuts down the iAd app network and disbands the sales team, in favor of a new publisher-driven system.|
|2016||August||Major event||Ad blocking||Facebook states that they will start blocking the use of ad blocking extensions, specifically Adblock Plus and Adblock. In response to this, these ad-blockers began to block Facebook's blocking in a back-and-forth "war."|
|2016||September 15||Launch||Association||17 companies including the Interactive Advertising Bureau, Google, Procter & Gamble, Unilever, GroupM, and the Washington Post form the Coalition for Better Ads.|
|2016||September 21||IPO||Demand-side platform||The Trade Desk IPOs, and within a day, is trading at 60% more than the IPO offer price. It is the only "pure ad-tech" IPO of the year.|
|2016||September 26||Acquisition||Ad serving||Applovin is acquired by Chinese private equity firm Orient Hentai Capital for $1.42 billion.|
|2016||September 27||Launch||Ad guidelines||The Interactive Advertising Bureau introduces updates to its guidelines to address different ad sizes and formats, including 360 degree video, autoplays, emojis, and other emerging formats.|
|2017||February 10||Third-party verification||Facebook agrees to have its ad serving audited by the Media Rating Council.|
|2017||February 21||Third-party verification||YouTube agrees to have its ad serving audited by the Media Rating Council.|
|2017||February to April||Controversy||Ad serving||Google has a "brand safety" fiasco, after The Times of London publishes an article showing that advertisements are being shown alongside "extremist" YouTube videos. As a result, advertisers and agencies, initially in the United Kingdom, and later in the United States as well, pause their ads on YouTube. In response, Google promises to make improvements to its process for determining videos that are safe for ads, and also to give advertisers more visibility and control into the sort of content their ads are being shown against.|
|2017||March 31||New feature||Ad serving||Google announces that it is removing the "last-look" advantage for Ad Exchange in exchanging bidding in dynamic allocation (EBDA). Previously, all exchanges other than the Ad Exchange would have to submit bids first, and Ad Exchange would submit the final bid. Now, Ad Exchange would submit its bid along with all the other exchanges.|
|2017||April 18||Acquisition||Ad measurement (search, viewability)||Oracle acquires ad measurement company Moat for $850 million.|
|2017||June 1||Shutdown||Ad agency||AudienceScience shuts down after losing Procter & Gamble, its biggest client.|
(*) Such launches are not initial launches, but rather re-launches.
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
- The first iteration of the timeline was created by Avi Glozman on Wikipedia with payment from Vipul Naik, who also provided a list of event types and some sample events to get started with. The completion of the iteration (at the time of import into Timelines Wiki) is here.
- The second iteration was worked on by Vipul Naik. The methods used in this iteration include:
- Reading through recent posts and archives of digital advertising and digital content publications like Digiday and AdExchanger to get a better qualitative sense of the sorts of topics discussed around digital advertising.
- Using web search engines with various search keywords that combine ad tech terms with history terms, along with date range selection tools in search, to get a bunch of pages that talk of the history of ad tech. Then, using the lists of companies and events obtained this way and explicitly searching with those as keywords to get more specific data on them.
What the timeline is still missing
The timeline is lacking in a few important respects:
- It does not provide a clear sense on the timeline of migration to digital for advertisers who have (or previously had) a big advertising presence. A number of lists of largest advertisers is available online.
- It does not give enough importance to advertising agencies, the intermediaries between the companies on behalf of which advertisements are made, and the DSPs or ad networks that actually manage ad pacing, bidding, and delivery. Advertising agencies are responsible for designing ad creatives and manage the relationship with the DSP (or sometimes directly with the ad network or publisher). They again pre-date the Internet, so their migration to digital (or the evolution of new digital-focused agencies) is worth understanding. Examples include Havas and GroupM.
- More coverage is needed of "brand safety" issues.
- More coverage is needed of issues related to viewability, ad fraud, and third-party measurement and verification.
- Maybe a row or two on hacks such as floor price optimization, and other evolutions in the real-time bidding space?
- More coverage of attribution and connection with offline purchases (to the extent that it strongly connects with online advertising)
- "Reflections on the 25th Anniversary of Spam". www.templetons.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "NSFNET - The Internet Launching Pad". www.livinginternet.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "History of Online Display Advertising | Vantage Local". www.vantagelocal.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "The History of Online Advertising". AdPushup Blog. 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Nifty 50: THE INTERNET". www.nsf.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Electronic Commerce - CHM Revolution". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Online advertising: A history from 1993 to the present day [infographic]". Marketing Tech News. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Wasserman, Todd. "This Is the World's First Banner Ad". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "AOL Buys Everyone". tidbits.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "A Brief History of NetGravity". Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "About: Our Story". Interactive Advertising Bureau. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "DoubleClick Inc.: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- Hallward, Derek (July 28, 2015). "A Brief History of Retargeting Cross-Device". AdBrain. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Ni, Perla (May 27, 1999). "The American Dream: Running Your Own Show" (PDF). AsianWeek.
- "Ali Partovi on LinkedIn". LinkedIn. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Company Info". LinkExchange.com. Archived from the original on January 28, 1998.
- "About Connexity". Connexity. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Heine, Christopher (27 October 2014). "20 Years of Digital Advertising: From Banner Ads to Sponsored Snapchats". Adweek. Adweek. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- Dignan, Larry (May 18, 2007). "aQuantive: Who are these guys? The instant messages and emails about Microsoft's $6 billion purchase of aQuantive go something like this: Whoa that's a big deal. I'd hate to be short aQuantive.". ZDNet. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Cook, Karla (12 September 2016). "A Brief History of Online Advertising". HubSpot. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- Zuckerman, Ethan (August 14, 2014). "The Internet's Original Sin. It's not too late to ditch the ad-based business model and build a better web.". The Atlantic.
- "Company – Google". www.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!? -- InformationWeek". 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "DoubleClick Launches Closed-Loop Marketing Solutions. Suite of New Products Answers the Question of ROI and Standardizes Ad Management for Online Advertising". DoubleClick, Inc. October 5, 1998. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Wingfield, Nick (November 5, 1998). "Microsoft Buys LinkExchange For About $250 Million in Stock". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "A History of Ad Tech Acquisitions". Ad Ops Insider. July 19, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Microsoft Acquires LinkExchange to Greatly Expand Small-Business Services From MSN". Microsoft. November 5, 1998. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Company Facts - OpenX". OpenX. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- Ellam, Andrew (March 1, 2003). "Overture and Google: Pay-Per-Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions" (PDF). London Business School. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "20 Years Of Web Publishing: Former HotWired And Pathfinder Execs Look Back On 1994". International Business Times. 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Petersen, Andrea (July 13, 1999). "DoubleClick to Acquire NetGravity In Push to Own Online-Ad Market". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "DoubleClick, NetGravity tie". CNN. July 13, 1999. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Google AdWords Turns 15: A Look Back At The Origins Of A $60 Billion Business". Search Engine Land. 2015-10-28. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Pop-up ads: now even worse - Geek.com". Geek.com. 2002-12-24. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Matt, Cutts. "Google Guy". Web Master World. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04.
- "RightMedia.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Auchard, Eric. "Yahoo to buy rest of Right Media for $680 mln". Reuters. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Morrissey, Brian (April 23, 2013). "Today in History: Google Buys Applied Semantics". Digiday. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "Yahoo! Inc. - Press Release". 2008-03-31. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "AQuantive buys Denver paid-search firm". Puget Sound Business Journal. December 16, 2003. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Parker, Pamela (December 15, 2003). "aQuantive Acquires Go Toast". Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "BlueLithium.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Hendrickson, Mark (September 4, 2007). "Yahoo! Acquires Ad Network BlueLithium". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Sterling, Greg (September 4, 2007). "Yahoo Acquires Ad Network BlueLithium". Search Engine Land. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Phillips, Sarah (2007-07-25). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "AOL Acquires Advertising.com for $435 Million. Looks to Bolster Online Ad Growth With Pay-per-performance Model". Advertising Age. June 24, 2004. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "YouTube Grows Up: A Visual History of How the Video-Sharing Site Has Changed Over The Past 8 Years - New Media Rockstars". New Media Rockstars. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Morrissey, Brian (June 10, 2005). "Gannett Buys PointRoll for $100 Mil.". AdWeek. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Reyes, Juliana (January 22, 2014). "17 biggest Philadelphia tech business acquisitions since 2000. When Boomi, a Berwyn-based cloud computing company, got acquired by Dell, the Wired headline read: "Dell Discovers Internet Mojo...in Philadelphia?" Maybe after a few more local exits, Wired will drop the question mark.". technical.ly. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "Performance Marketing That Drives More Sales | Criteo". www.criteo.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "AdMob: STA Travel's iPhone advertising campaign takes flight". Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- "ADMOB GOOGLE INC. :: OpenCorporates". OpenCorporates. 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "YouTube Launches Video Ad Platform". www.mediapost.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Peters, Jeremy W. (2006-10-09). "Google to Acquire YouTube for $1.65 Billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "About Adblock Plus". adblockplus.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "EP 43: Ori Lahav / OutBrain - Startup Camel Podcast". Startup Camel Podcast. 2014-10-05. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "Taboola | crunchbase". www.crunchbase.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Our Story | World's Largest Discovery Platform | Taboola". www.taboola.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Facebook's Beacon More Intrusive Than Previously Thought". PCWorld. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Story, Louise; Helft, Miguel (2007-04-14). "Google Buys DoubleClick for $3.1 Billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- Wauters, Robin (May 16, 2007). "AOL Acquires ADTECH". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "Microsoft to Acquire aQuantive, Inc. | News Center". news.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "What Facebook's Atlas Means for Brands and Agencies". Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Nicole, Kristen (July 23, 2007). "TubeMogul Launches Cross-Network Video Tracking Tool". Mashable. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "About MediaMath – MediaMath". www.mediamath.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Programmatic Marketing Company | Rocket Fuel". Rocket Fuel. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "About AdExchanger. An Award-Winning Media and Events Company". AdExchanger. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Whoriskey, Peter (2008-06-25). "One Man, One Long List, No More Web Ads". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Bort, Julie. "CONFIRMED: Oracle Buys Marketing Tech Startup BlueKai". BusinessInsider.com. Business Insider News. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Our Story". Adzerk. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Wauters, Robin (July 12, 2011). "Ad Serving Technology Startup Adzerk Secures $650,000". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Peterson, Tim (November 29, 2012). "AdSafe Rebrands as Integral Ad Science". Adweek. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- Ha, Anthony (January 2, 2014). "Integral Ad Science Raises $30M, August Capital-Led Round To Find High Quality Ad Impressions". TechCrunch. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- "DataXu". CrunchBase. April 2014.
- "Google Launches DoubleClick Ad Exchange". Bloomberg.com. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "The Trade Desk". CrunchBase. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Google Acquires AdMob For $750 Million". TechCrunch. November 9, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Helft, Miguel (November 9, 2009). "Google Set to Acquire AdMob for $750 Million". New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "We've officially acquired AdMob!". Google Official Blog. May 27, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Moat". CrunchBase. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (April 18, 2011). "MOAT: A Search Engine For Ads, And So Much More". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- "About". Digiday. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Apple Buys Quattro, an Ad Firm". New York Times.
- Kincaid, Jason (January 4, 2010). "Denied AdMob, Apple Buys Competing Ad Platform Quattro Wireless For $275 Million". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "The next generation of ad serving for online publishers". Official Google Blog. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "Google Announces DoubleClick For Publishers As Yield Optimization War Continues To Heat Up". AdExchanger. February 23, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (February 22, 2010). "DART Is Now DoubleClick For Publishers, Google Ad Manager Gets Rebranded DFP Small Business". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Twitter launches 'promoted tweets' in a bid to make money". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "MRC Accredited Viewable Impressions". RealVu. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "RealVu Honored by the Direct Marketing Association With Certificate of Excellence as Innovation Award Finalist". September 28, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "About Krux". Krux. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Investing in Exchange Bidding". DoubleClick Advertiser Blog. June 3, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick. "Google Confirms Invite Media Acquisition, Brings Bidding To Display Ads". TechCrunch.
- "DAA Celebrates its First Anniversary". Oct 25, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- IEBlog (2010-12-07). "IE9 and Privacy: Introducing Tracking Protection".
- Angwin, Julia (2011-01-21). "Web Tool On Firefox To Deter Tracking". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Nick Wingfield (2011-04-14). "Apple Adds Do-Not-Track Tool to New Browser". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-04-14
- Constine, Josh (January 24, 2011). "Facebook's Sponsored Stories Turns News Feed Posts Into Home Page Ads". Adweek. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Morrissey, Brian (January 25, 2011). "Facebook Launches 'Sponsored Stories'". Adweek. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Rawson, Chris (August 19, 2011). "iOS 5 deprecates UDID as identifier for developers, but it's not the end of the world". Engadget. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "UIDevice uniqueIdentifier Deprecated - What To Do Now?". Stack Overflow. August 9, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "Infographic: The History of Native Advertising". nativeadvertising.com. October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- "Help / Advertising and Partnerships". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011.
- Delo, Cotton (December 20, 2011). "Facebook to Start Placing Ads in User News Feeds in January. 'Sponsored Stories' in the News Feed, But Not in Mobile for Now". Advertising Age. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (December 20, 2011). "Facebook Sponsored Story Ads To Appear In The Web News Feed In 2012". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Dembowsky, April (April 21, 2011). "Facebook to allow advertising in news feed". Financial Times. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Protalski, Emil (January 10, 2012). "Facebook starts displaying ads in the News Feed. Facebook has finally put ads in your News Feed. These new ads, which are labelled as Featured Stories, are displayed based on actions made by your friends and Pages you have Liked.". ZDNet. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Real-Time Bidding (RTB) Project: OpenRTB 2.5". Interactive Advertising Bureau. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Oiknine, Michael (June 28, 2012). "Apple's New Advertising ID in iOS6 Sets the Standard". Apsalar. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- Edwards, Jim (October 11, 2012). "Apple Has Quietly Started Tracking iPhone Users Again, And It's Tricky To Opt Out". Business Insider. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- "After the writedown: How Microsoft squandered its $6.3B buy of ad giant aQuantive". GeekWire. July 12, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Learmonth, Michael (October 2, 2012). "Amazon Breaks Silence on Ad Ambitions in Advertising Week Foray. A Coming-Out Party for Tech's Newest Entrant Into Ad Biz". Advertising age. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Wohlsen, Marcus (October 16, 2012). "Amazon's Next Big Business Is Selling You". Wired Magazine. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Peterson, Tim (December 17, 2012). "Amazon, Advertising's Sleeping Giant, to Awaken in 2013. E-commerce behemoth preps self-serve RTB platform". Adweek. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Microsoft ticks off advertisers with IE10 'Do Not Track' policy". CNET. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Microsoft's "Do Not Track" Move Angers Advertising Industry". Digits. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Apache does not tolerate deliberate abuse of open standards · apache/httpd@a381ff3". GitHub. Retrieved 2016-01-02.
- "Apache does not tolerate deliberate abuse of open standards · apache/httpd@a381ff3". GitHub. Retrieved 2016-01-03.
- "Microsoft sticks to its guns, keeps Do Not Track on by default in IE10". Ars Technica. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Apache Won't Override Do-Not-Track Headers". MediaPost Communications. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Microsoft rolls back commitment to Do Not Track". Computerworld. IDG. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Warzel, Charlie (December 11, 2012). "Advertisers Ready to Make an Impression. Web ad business finally moves to a new measurement standard, but it could get messy". Adweek. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "Quick update about ads on reddit". Reddit. March 21, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Biggs, John (May 30, 2013). "How Adzerk Made It Big (With Reddit's Help)". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "Why Reddit Built Their Advertising System On The Adzerk Platform". Adzerk. April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Coraggio, Anthony (April 28, 2014). "The Advertiser's Guide To Surviving Reddit". Moz. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Kern, Eliza (2013-02-28). "Facebook purchases Microsoft's Atlas Solutions for reported $100 million". gigaom.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "About Atlas | Atlas Solutions". atlassolutions.com. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Facebook to Acquire Atlas from Microsoft | Facebook Newsroom". Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- Bishop, Bryan (March 21, 2013). "Apple to finally stop accepting apps that use outdated UDID device identifier on May 1st". The Verge. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Peterson, Tim; Kantrowitz, Alex (September 20, 2013). "Rocket Fuel IPO Soars on First Day of Trading. Shares of Automated Ad Buyer Immediately More Than Double in Debut". Advertising age. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Constine, Josh; Crook, Jordan. "This Is What Instagram Ads Look Like". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Rodgers, Zach (October 30, 2013). "Criteo Goes Public, And Stock Jumps 30%". AdExchanger. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "Ad tech company Criteo raises $251 million by pricing upsized IPO at $31, above its upwardly revised $27-$29 range". October 29, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Sterling, Greg (October 31, 2013). "Google Replacing "Android ID" With "Advertising ID" Similar To Apple's IDFA". Marketing Land. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Hamilton, Peter (January 3, 2014). "Out With the Old, In With the New: Looking Back At Advertising Attribution Changes in 2013". Tune. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "Initial commit". OpenRTB via GitHub. January 16, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Pinterest gets serious about ad revenue with new 'promoted pins'". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "gorhill/uBlock". GitHub. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- "MRC Viewable Ad Impression Measurement Guidelines. Prepared in collaboration with IAB Emerging Innovations Task Force" (PDF). Media Rating Council. June 30, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Wilhelm, Alex (July 18, 2014). "TubeMogul Surges 48% In Its Debut After Cutting Its IPO Price". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Konrad, Alex. "TubeMogul's 50% IPO Jump Looks Great, But It's Actually A Sign Of Ad Tech Struggles". Forbes.
- Rodgers, Zach (July 17, 2014). "TubeMogul Prices IPO Shares Lower, Valuation Shrinks To $244M". Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Kantrowitz, Alex (July 18, 2014). "TubeMogul Raises Less Than Expected With IPO. Wall Street Still Cold On Ad-Tech Companies It Sometimes Sees as too Labor-Intensive". Advertising age. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Marshall, Jack (2016-11-18). "Shrugging off 'Atlas,' Facebook Continues Pivot from Ad Tech". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Kantrowitz, Alex (May 12, 2015). "Ad-Tech, not Content, Is King in the Verizon-AOL Deal. Takeaways From This Morning's Announcement". Advertising Age. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Popper, Ben (May 12, 2015). "Forget blogs, Verizon bought AOL for its ad tech business. This is about mobile marketing and video advertising, as dollars move from TV to the web". The Verge. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- O'Reilly, Lara (May 12, 2015). "Here's what the ad industry thinks of Tim Armstrong selling AOL for $4.4 billion to Verizon". Business Insider. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "first commit: Prebid.js". Prebid.js team on GitHub. July 19, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Yang, Paul (August 1, 2016). "Prebid.js: a year in the life of an open-sourced ad tech project". AppNexus. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "News Corp. Exits Rubicon Project Investment". AdExchanger. February 13, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Lunden, Ingrid (September 3, 2015). "AOL Confirms It Is Buying Millennial Media In $238M Deal To Expand In Mobile Ads". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "Google Is Beta Testing Its Answer To Header Bidding, Called 'DFP First Look'". AdExchanger. November 2, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Improving yield, speed and control with DoubleClick for Publishers First Look and exchange bidding". Google Official Blog. April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- O'Reilly, Lara (April 13, 2016). "Header bidding was the latest trend in ad tech designed to take on Google — now Google has effectively stamped it out". Business Insider. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Sluis, Sarah (April 13, 2016). "The End Of Header Bidding? Google Opens Up Dynamic Allocation To Outside Demand". AdExchanger. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Vincent, James (2016-06-14). "Snapchat will start showing ads between your friends' stories". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- Heine, Christopher (June 30, 2016). "As iAd Shuts Down, Apple May Be About to Get a Shot of Advertising Redemption. Marketers predict success for new app-install ads". Adweek. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- Paczkowski, John (January 13, 2016). "Apple To Disband iAd Sales Team. Six years after launching its advertising platform, Apple is moving to phase out its in-house iAd sales team in favor of a new publisher-driven system.". BuzzFeed. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "Here's Why Facebook Is Always Going to Win the Ad-Blocking War". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- "Google, P&G, industry groups try to repair broken consumer trust in online ads". Marketing Dive. September 16, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- O'Reilly, Lara (September 15, 2016). "Google and 16 other companies have formed a coalition that wants to police ads on the web". Business Insider. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Marvin, Ginny (September 16, 2016). "Google, Facebook, IAB & major brands form Coalition for Better Ads. In response to ad blocking, a global initiative forms to set new standards and develop technology to improve ad experiences.". Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "Coalition for Better Ads Will Use Research, Advocacy to Develop and Implement New Standards". Coalition for Better Ads. September 15, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- O'Reilly, Lara (September 21, 2016). "Ad tech company The Trade Desk goes public at $28.75 per share — a huge pop on its $18 price target". Business Insider. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Ha, Anthony (September 29, 2016). "The Trade Desk finishes strong at $30.10 per share after its first day on NASDAQ". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Primack, Dan (September 26, 2016). "Exclusive: AppLovin to Be Acquired by Chinese Investor for $1.4 Billion". Fortune. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Bort, Julie (September 27, 2016). "AppLovin, a 115 employee, profitable startup that never raised money from VCs, sold itself for $1.4 billion". Business Insider. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Tode, Chantal (September 27, 2016). "IAB overhauls ad guidelines to address autoplay video, emerging formats". Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Schiff, Allison (February 10, 2017). "Facebook Slowly Embraces MRC, Agrees To Independent Audit". AdExchanger. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Shields, Mike (February 10, 2017). "Facebook Slowly Embraces MRC, Agrees To Independent Audit". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- "Google's YouTube to undergo MRC audits for video viewability measurement. The audits encompass all aspects of YouTube's third-party measurement integrations with MOAT, DoubleVerify and Integral Ad Science.". MarketingLand. February 21, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Shields, Mike (February 21, 2017). "Google Agrees to YouTube Metrics Audit to Ease Advertisers' Concerns. Third party data collection partnerships will be vetted to boost marketers' confidence in ad viewing measurements agreed to get audited by the MRC.". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Mostrous, Alexi (February 9, 2017). "Google faces questions over videos on YouTube". Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Sluis, Sarah (March 17, 2017). "Google Gets Brexited As Havas UK, Gov and The Guardian Yank Ads Over Brand Safety". AdExchanger. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Weissbrot, Alison (March 27, 2017). "Rounding Up The Industry Coverage Of Google's Brand Safety Fiasco". AdExchanger. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Marshall, Jack; Nicas, Jack (April 3, 2017). "Google to Allow 'Brand Safety' Monitoring by Outside Firms. Alphabet unit offers new tools to marketers after ads ran alongside objectionable content". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Wakabayashi, Daisuke (April 3, 2017). "Google Training Ad Placement Computers to Be Offended". New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Sluis, Sarah (March 31, 2017). "Google Removes Its 'Last-Look' Auction Advantage". AdExchanger. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Levine, Barry (March 31, 2017). "Countering header bidding, Google drops its 'last look' advantage. The ad giant opens a beta version of its Exchange Bidding in Dynamic Allocation.". MarTech Today. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Oracle Buys Moat. Creates the World's Most Comprehensive Cloud Platform for Marketing Data and Analytics". Oracle. April 18, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Ha, Anthony (April 18, 2017). "Oracle acquires ad measurement company Moat". Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Wilhelm, Alex (April 20, 2017). "Morning Report: The Context Of Moat's $850 Million Oracle Exit". CrunchBase. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Schiff, Allison; Rodgers, Zach (June 1, 2017). "AudienceScience Shuts Its Doors Less Than A Month After P&G Client Loss". AdExchanger. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- Johnson, Bradley (December 4, 2016). "What You Need to Know About the World's Largest Advertisers, from Adidas to Yili. Total for Ad Age's First Ranking of 100 Biggest Spenders: $241B". Advertising age. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- O'Reilly, Lara (July 6, 2015). "These are the 10 companies that spend the most on advertising". Business Insider. Retrieved May 11, 2017.