Timeline of smoking and disease
This is a timeline of FIXME.
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|Year||Disease||Inhalation type||Event type||Details||Country/region|
|1958||Cancer||Mainstream smoke||Public opinion||44 percent of people in the United States already believe smoking causes cancer.||United States|
|1958||Lung disease, heart disease||Mainstream smoke||Study||A number of medical associations warns that tobacco use is linked with both lung and heart disease.||United States|
|1962||Heart cancer, lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A study states a conclusive link between smoking and heart and lung cancer in men. The report also states the same link is likely true for women, although women smoke at lower rates and therefore not enough data is available.|
|1964||Bladder cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A report by the Surgeon General of the United States (USDHEW 1964) notes a relationship between smoking and bladder cancer.||United States|
|1968||Lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||The Surgeon General of the United States concludes that smoking causes lung cancer in women.|
|1968||Influenza||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study of 1,900 male cadets after the 1968 Hong Kong A2 influenza epidemic at a South Carolina military academy, compares thee groups: nonsmokers, heavy smokers, and light smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) had 21% more illnesses and 20% more bed rest, light smokers (20 cigarettes or fewer per day) had 10% more illnesses and 7% more bed rest."||United States|
|1970||Second-hand smoke||Concept development||The term "passive smoking" is first used in the title of a scientific paper.|
|1972||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Surgeon General of the United States report (USDHEW 1972) notes that epidemiologic evidence demonstrates a significant association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the pancreas.||United States|
|1974||Second-hand smoke||Concept development||The term "environmental tobacco smoke" can be traced back to an industry-sponsored meeting held in Bermuda.||Bermuda|
|1975||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Smoking restrictions start being put in place in the United States, with the first in Minnesota and carrying on with various local and state governments legislating smoke-free or clean indoor air laws.||United States|
|1975||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Italy bans smoking on public transit vehicles (except for smokers' rail carriages) and in some public buildings (hospitals, cinemas, theatres, museums, universities and libraries).||Italy|
|1975||Tooth loss||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study concludes that tooth loss is twice higher in smokers than in non-smokers|
|1979||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A report by the Surgeon General of the United States (USDHEW 1979) indicates that a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer has been demonstrated.||United States|
|1979||Influenza||Mainstream smoke||Statistics||Surveillance of a current influenza outbreak at a military base for women in Israel reveals that influenza symptoms developed in 60.0% of the current smokers vs. 41.6% of the nonsmokers.||Israel|
|1980||Bladder cancer||Study||The United States Department of Health and Human Services report (USDHHS 1980) notes a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of bladder cancer.||United States|
|1982||Kidney cancer||Study||Report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes that cigarette smoking is a contributory factor in the development of kidney cancer.||United States|
|1982||Influenza||Mainstream smoke and second-hand smoke||Study||Study concludes that smoking may substantially contribute to the growth of influenza epidemics affecting the entire population.|
|1982||Esophageal cancer||Study||Report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes that smoking is a major cause of esophageal cancer.||United States|
|1986||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstram smoke||Study||The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that smoking causes cancer of the pancreas.|
|1989||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Report by the Surgeon General of the United States estimates that 29 percent of pancreatic cancer deaths in men and 34 percent in women could be attributed to smoking.|
|1989||Inflammatory bowel disease||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study indicates that smoking increases the risk of symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease.|
|1990||Bladder cancer||Study||Report by the United States Department of Health and Human Services concludes that smoking causes bladder cancer.|
|1990||Lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Report by the United States Department of Health and Human Services concludes that smoking cessation reduces the risk of lung cancer compared with continued smoking. "|
|1990||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Investigations of K-ras mutations in pancreatic cancer show that the probability of mutation are significantly higher among smokers compared with nonsmokers in several studies.|
|1992||Second-hand smoke||Statistics||A review estimates that secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for 35,000 to 40,000 deaths per year in the United States in the early 1980s.||United States|
|1993 (December)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||It becomes illegal in Peru to smoke in any public enclosed places and any public transport vehicles.||Peru|
|1993||Influenza||Mainstream smoke||Study||A study of community-dwelling people 60–90 years of age, finds that 23% of smokers have clinical influenza as compared with 6% of non-smokers.|
|1995||Mainstream smoke||Policy||California becomes the first U.S. state to ban smoking in enclosed public spaces.||United States|
|1996||Impaired vasolidation||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with impaired vasodilation among adult nonsmokers.|
|1997||Sudden infant death syndrome||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).|
|1997||Behavioral effects||Mainstream smoke||Study||Medical researchers find that smoking is a predictor of divorce.|
|1998||Lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study finds that nicotine activates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in lung cancer cells.|
|1998||Behavioral effects||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study finds that smokers have a 53% greater chance of divorce than nonsmokers.|
|1999||Stress||Mainstream smoke||Study||American Psychologist states: "Smokers often report that cigarettes help relieve feelings of stress. However, the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers, adolescent smokers report increasing levels of stress as they develop regular patterns of smoking, and smoking cessation leads to reduced stress. Far from acting as an aid for mood control, nicotine dependency seems to exacerbate stress. This is confirmed in the daily mood patterns described by smokers, with normal moods during smoking and worsening moods between cigarettes. Thus, the apparent relaxant effect of smoking only reflects the reversal of the tension and irritability that develop during nicotine depletion. Dependent smokers need nicotine to remain feeling normal."|
|1999||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study indicates that second-hand smoke exposure also affects platelet function, vascular endothelium, and myocardial exercise tolerance at levels commonly found in the workplace.|
|2000||Streptococcus pneumoniae||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study associates being a current smoker with a fourfold increase in the risk of invasive disease caused by the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.|
|2001||Lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A report by the Surgeon General of the United States on women and smoking concludes that “About 90 percent of all lung cancer deaths among U.S. women smokers are attributable to smoking”.||United States|
|2001||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study concludes that exposure to tobacco smoke for 30 minutes significantly reduces coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy nonsmokers.|
|2001||Squamous cell skin cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A study conducted in the Netherlands shows that the risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is increased by tobacco smoking.||Netherlands|
|2002||Mainstream smoke||Statistics||Research in Canada shows that about 17% of deaths are due to smoking (20% in males and 12% in females).||Canada|
|2002||Cancer||Active and passive smoking||Study||A study issued by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concludes that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers.|
|2002||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||The International Agency for Research on Cancer again concludes that smoking causes cancer of the pancreas and that the risk for pancreatic cancer increases with the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily; the risk remains high after allowing for potential confounding factors such as alcohol consumption; and the risk decreases with increasing time since quitting smoking.|
|2002||Kaposi's sarcoma||Mainstream smoke||Study||A study shows that smoking increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in people without HIV infection.|
|2003||Policy||India introduces a law banning smoking in public places like restaurants, public transport or schools. The same law also made it illegal to advertise cigarettes or other tobacco products.||India|
|2003 (December 3)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||New Zealand passes legislation to progressively implement a smoking ban in schools, school grounds, and workplaces by December 2004.||New Zealand|
|2003||Follicular lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study estimates in a case-control study including 1,319 patients that cigarette smoking has a significant impact on the risk of follicular lymphoma but not on the risk of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.|
|2003||Second-hand smoke||Concept development||As of year, "secondhand smoke" is the term most used to refer to other people's smoke in the English-language media.|
|2004||Asthma, allergies, and other conditions||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with worsening of asthma, allergies, and other conditions.|
|2004||Endometriosis||Mainstream smoke||Study||Some evidence is found for decreased rates of endometriosis in infertile smoking women.|
|2004||Bladder cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study observes in a U.S. population that there is a positive association between the use of tobacco and bladder cancer and that gender does not modify this association.||United States|
|2004 (March 29)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||The Republic of Ireland implements a nationwide ban on smoking in all workplaces.||Ireland|
|2004 (June 1)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Norway implements a nationwide ban on indoor smoking, becoming the second country to implement a nationwide ban on all indoor smoking, following Ireland by 3 months.||Norway|
|2004||Breast cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that there is "no support for a causal relation between involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke and breast cancer in never-smokers.|
|2004||Cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans.|
|2004||Third-hand smoke||Study||A study measures the levels of nicotine in dust in the homes of three different groups of families. Homes where parents smoke with children present in the home have the highest levels of nicotine found in dust in all rooms of the house, including the rooms of infants and children. Homes where parents attempt to limit exposure of cigarette smoke to their children have lower levels of nicotine found in dust. Homes that have not been smoked in do not contain any traces of nicotine.|
|2004||Policy||Bhutan becomes the first country to completely outlaw the cultivation, harvesting, production, and sale of tobacco products.||Bhutan|
|2004||Irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth, rapid heart beat||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study indicates that most smokers, when denied access to nicotine, exhibit withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth, and rapid heart beat.|
|2005||Cardiovascular disease||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study concludes that secondhand tobacco smoke exposure has immediate and substantial effects on blood and blood vessels in a way that increases the risk of a heart attack, particularly in people already at risk.|
|2005||Erectile dysfunction||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study shows that smoking is a key cause of erectile dysfunction (ED).|
|2005||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study shows that inhaled sidestream smoke is about four times more toxic than mainstream smoke.|
|2005||Breast cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||The California Environmental Protection Agency concludes that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger, primarily premenopausal females by 70%.|
|2005||Pulmonary emphysema||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study shows that pulmonary emphysema can be induced in rats through acute exposure to sidestream tobacco smoke (30 cigarettes per day) over a period of 45 days.|
|2006||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Scottish politician Andy Kerr introduces in Scotland a ban on smoking in public areas.||United Kingdom (Scotland)|
|2006||Sudden infant death syndrome||Second-hand smoke||Study||A report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes: "The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke and sudden infant death syndrome."||United States|
|2006||Asthma||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study finds positive association between household secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and the relative risk of developing asthma during childhood.|
|2006||Sudden infant death syndrome||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoking with 430 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) deaths in the United States annually.||United States|
|2007||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Smoking is banned in all public places in the whole of the United Kingdom.||United Kingdom|
|2007||Mainstream smoke||Cigarette advertising||As of year, only one Formula One team, Scuderia Ferrari, receives sponsorship from a tobacco company; Marlboro.|
|2007||Mainstream smoke||Public opinion||A poll by Gallup finds that 54% of Americans favour completely smoke-free restaurants, 34% favour completely smoke-free hotel rooms, and 29% favour completely smoke-free bars.||United States|
|2007||Low birth weight||Active and passive smoking||Study||Study suggests that environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy cause lower infant birth weights.|
|2007||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study suggests that smoking increases levels of liver enzymes that break down drugs and toxins. That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working. Specifically, levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 are induced.|
|2008 (December)||Mainstream smoke||Public opinion||Gallup poll, of over 26,500 Europeans, finds that "a majority of EU citizens support smoking bans in public places, such as offices, restaurants and bars. The poll further finds that "support for workplace smoking restrictions is slightly higher than support for such restrictions in restaurants (84% vs. 79%). Two-thirds support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs.||Europe|
|2008||Neurobehavioral effects||Second-hand smoking||Study||Study identifies neurobehavioral effects of second-hand smoking.|
|2008||Endometrial cancer||Study||A meta-analysis of 34 studies notes that endometrial cancer, which is considered as one of the most common female genital tumors, is negatively associated with ever smoking.|
|2008 (September)||Inflammatory bowel disease||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study suggests that prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure does not appear to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.|
|2008 (October)||Tooth decay||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study finds an increase in tooth decay (as well as related salivary biomarkers) associated with passive smoking in children.|
|2008 (October)||Policy||India introduces a ban on smoking in public.||India|
|2008||Mainstream smoke and second-hand smoke||Statistics||More than 161,000 deaths attributed to lung cancer are counted in the year in the United States. Of these deaths, an estimated 10% to 15% are caused by factors other than first-hand smoking; equivalent to 16,000 to 24,000 deaths annually. Slightly more than half of the lung cancer deaths caused by factors other than first-hand smoking are found in nonsmokers. Clinical epidemiology of lung cancer links the primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in non-smokers as exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, carcinogens including radon, and other indoor air pollutants.||United States|
|2009 (July 1)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Ireland prohibits the advertising and display of tobacco products in all retail outlets.||Ireland|
|2009||Third-hand smoke||Study||The term "third-hand smoke" is coined to identify the residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished and secondhand smoke has cleared from the air.|
|2009||Myocardial infarction||Mainstream smoke||Study||A systematic review and meta-analysis find that bans on smoking in public places are associated with a significant reduction of incidence of heart attacks.|
|2009||Coronary heart disease||Mainstream smoke||Study||A report by the U.S. Institute of Medicine concludes that smoking bans reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attacks, but the report's authors are unable to identify the magnitude of this reduction.||United States|
|2009||Atherosclerosis||Second-hand smoke||Study||Epidemiological studies show that both active and passive cigarette smoking increase the risk of atherosclerosis.|
|2009||Pancreatic cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study shows that current smokers are diagnosed with pancreas cancer six to eight years sooner than never-smokers.|
|2010||Philip Morris v. Uruguay||Uruguay|
|2010||Second-hand smoke||Study||Studies comparing females exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and non-exposed females, demonstrate that females exposed while pregnant have higher risks of delivering a child with congenital abnormalities, longer lengths, smaller head circumferences, and low birth weight.|
|2010||Third-hand smoke||Study||Study suggests that by-products of third-hand smoke may pose a health risk.|
|2010||Third-hand smoke||Study||A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that nicotine residue which coats smokers as well as interior car or room surfaces can react with nitrous acid present in the air to create tobacco-specific nitrosamines, carcinogens found in tobacco products. It is also found that ensuring ventilation while a cigarette is smoked does not eliminate the deposition of third-hand smoke in an enclosed space, according to the study's authors.|
|2010–2011||Third-hand smoke||Study||Studies show that humans can be exposed to third-hand smoke through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. There are also many surfaces that can accumulate THS compounds. Common surfaces that humans come into contact with daily include couches, furniture, curtains, and car seats. THS is thought to potentially cause the greatest harm to infants and young children because younger children are more likely to put their hands in their mouths or be cuddled up to a smoker with toxins on their skin and clothes. Infants also crawl on the floor and eat from their hands without washing them first, ingesting the toxins into their still developing systems.|
|2011 (May 31)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Venezuela introduces a restriction upon smoking in enclosed public and commercial spaces.||Venezuela|
|2011 (October)||Third-hand smoke||Policy||Christus St. Frances Cabrini Hospital in Alexandria, Louisiana seeks to eliminate third-hand smoke and forbids its employees to work if their clothing smells of smoke. This prohibition is enacted after it is known that third-hand smoke poses a special danger for the developing brains of infants and small children.||United States|
|2011||Stroke||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study strongly associates passive smoking with an increased risk of stroke, and this increased risk is disproportionately high at low levels of exposure."|
|2011||Breast cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study finds that smokers exhibit an increased risk for breast cancer when compared to never-smokers.|
|2011||Stillbirth, congenital malformation||Active and passive smoking||Study||Study associates stillbirth and congenital malformations in children.|
|2011||Second-hand smoke||Study||A commentary in Environmental Health Perspectives argues that research into "thirdhand smoke" renders it inappropriate to refer to passive smoking with the term "secondhand smoke", which the authors state constitutes a pars pro toto.|
|2012||Cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 22% of cancer-deaths are attributable to tobacco use.|
|2012||Pancreatic cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||A Study finds no evidence that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.|
|2012||Middle ear infection||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with increased risk of middle ear infections.|
|2012 (March)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Brazil becomes the first country in the world to ban all flavored tobacco, including menthols. The majority of the estimated 600 additives used are also banned, permitting only eight. This regulation applies to domestic and internationally imported cigarettes.||Brazil|
|2013||Lung cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study shows that passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.|
|2013||Third-hand smoke||Concept development||A study with six focus groups in metro and rural Georgia (USA) asks participants whether they have heard of third-hand smoke. Most of the participants have not heard about it and does not know what third-hand smoke is.|
|2013||Neural tube defects||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates maternal exposure to secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy with an increased risk of neural tube defects.|
|2013||Cognitive impairment, dementia||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study concludes that exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over.|
|2013||DNA damage||Third-hand smoke||Study||Study suggests that thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells.|
|2014||Lung cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||A review finds that smoking cannabis doubles the risk of lung cancer, though cannabis is in many countries commonly mixed with tobacco.|
|2013||Prostate cancer||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study suggests that current smokers have a reduced risk of prostate cancer compared with never-smokers.|
|2014||Learning difficulties, developmental delays, executive function problems||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with learning difficulties, developmental delays, and executive function problems.|
|2014||Sinusitis||Second-hand smoke||Study||The majority of studies find a significant association between secondhand smoke exposure and sinusitis.|
|2014||Miscarriage||Second-hand smoke||Study||A meta-analysis finds that maternal secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of miscarriage by 11%.|
|2014||Allergic diseases||Second-hand smoke||Study||A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a slightly increased risk of allergic diseases among children and adolescents. The evidence for an association is weaker for adults.|
|2015 (January)||Sleep disordered breathing||Second-hand smoke||Study||Most studies find a significant association between passive smoking and sleep disordered breathing in children.|
|2015||Type 2 diabetes||Second-hand smoke||Study||A study associates second-hand smoke with type 2 diabetes.|
|2015||Asthma||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke exposure with an almost doubled risk of hospitalization for asthma exacerbation among children with asthma.|
|2015||Orofacial cleft||Second-hand smoke||Study||A study suggests that maternal passive smoking increases the risk of non-syndromic orofacial clefts by 50% among their children.|
|2015||Diabetes||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study indicates that it remains unclear whether the association between passive smoking and diabetes is causal.|
|2015||Meningococcal disease||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with invasive meningococcal disease.|
|2015||Mainstream smoke||Study||A study finds that about 17% of mortality due to cigarette smoking in the United States is due to diseases other than those usually believed to be related.||United States|
|2015||Psychosis||Mainstram smoke||Study||A meta-analysis finds that smokers are at greater risk of developing psychotic illness.|
|2015||Breast cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||A meta-analysis finds that the evidence that passive smoking moderately increases the risk of breast cancer has become "more substantial than a few years ago."|
|2015||Tuberculosis||Second-hand smoke||Study||Review suggests that passive smoking may increase the risk of tuberculosis infection and accelerate the progression of the disease, but the evidence remains weak.|
|2015||Cervical cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||An overview of systematic reviews finds that exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of cervical cancer.|
|2015||Depression||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study suggests that exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms.|
|2016 (January)||Mainstream smoke||Policy||Turkmenistan president Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov reportedly bans all tobacco sales in the country.||Turkmenistan|
|2016||Bladder cancer||Second-hand smoke||Study||A study finds that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a significant increase in the risk of bladder cancer.|
|2016||Third-hand smoke||Study||A study is done to look at how long third-hand smoke (THS) stay in three different fabrics over a timespan of 72 hours and post washing. The three different fiber types include wool, cotton, and polyester. Levels of THS are measured using a self-designed surface acoustic wave gas sensor (SAW) which measures a frequency change when a compound is laid down on the surface of the sensor. The results of this study find that third-hand smoke tends to stay in wool the most right after smoking and polyester the least. Wool has the slowest desorption while polyester has the fastest. Also, the study concludes that even though doing laundry and washing these fibers with detergent is an effective way to get rid of some of the smoke, there is still a remaining THS residue left on all the fibers.|
|2016||Atopic dermatitis||Second-hand smoke||Study||A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a higher rate of atopic dermatitis.|
|2016||Cognitive deficits||Study||Study reports that children exposed to secondhand smoke show reduced vocabulary and reasoning skills when compared with non-exposed children as well as more general cognitive and intellectual deficits.|
|2016||Periodontitis||Second-hand smoke||Study||A study associates second-hand smoke with a possible increased risk of periodontitis.|
|2016||Second-hand smoke||Study||A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a higher rate of atopic dermatitis.|
|2016||Third-hand smoke||Study||According to a study conducted by Northrup, 22% of infants and children are exposed to second-hand smoke, and third-hand smoke in their homes each year, comprising a major proportion of the 126 million nonsmokers exposed to harmful tobacco products annually.|
|2016 (October)||Cardiovascular disease||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of children.|
|2017||Second-hand smoke||Study||As of date, passive smoking causes about 900,000 deaths a year, which is about 1/8 of all deaths caused by smoking.|
|2017||Anesthesia complications||Second-hand smoke||Study||Study associates second-hand smoke with anesthesia complications and some negative surgical outcomes.|
|2017||Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma||Mainstream smoke||Study||Study including almost 44,000 individuals finds an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma and a decreased risk of basal cell carcinoma in current smokers compared to never-smokers.|
|2017||Third-hand smoke||Study||A paper uses the concept of "cessation imperative", explaining that the only way to fully protect people from exposure to thirdhand smoke is for smokers to quit smoking because even smoking in places when others are not present can expose people to tobacco smoke contaminants.|
|2018||Non-communicable disease||Mainstream smoke||Statistics||Study finds that 18% of noncommunicable disease (NCD) deaths are attributable to tobacco use in the European Region, meaning almost 1 in 5 premature NCD deaths could be avoided by eliminating tobacco use.||WHO European Region|
|2018||Mainstream smoke||Study||A report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes, “while it is biologically plausible that nicotine can act as a tumor promoter, the existing body of evidence indicates this is unlikely to translate into increased risk of human cancer.”|
|2019||Mainstream smoke||Study||The Surgeon General of the United States announces a link between serious disease and e-cigarettes, an alternative to smoking in which traditional tobacco companies heavily invest.||United States|
|2019||Tracheal cancer, bronchus cancer, lung cancer||Study||The report from WHO/Europe “European tobacco use – trends report 2019” notes that almost 9 in 10 deaths (including premature deaths) from trachea, bronchus and lung cancer in the European Region are related to tobacco. In other words, 90% of lung cancers could be avoided by eliminating tobacco use.||WHO European Region|
|2025||Program||New Zealand hopes to achieve being tobacco-free by this year.||New Zealand|
|2040||Program||Finland hopes to achieve being tobacco-free by this year.||Finland|
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