Timeline of wild animal suffering

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This is a timeline of the movement to reduce wild-animal suffering (sometimes also called the "WAS" or "RWAS" movement).

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
1800s–1970 Wild-animal suffering is occasionally mentioned by philosophers as an example of the amorality of nature. In general, there is little discussion of whether humans should intervene to improve the situation.
1970–2000 After the emergence of the contemporary animal rights/welfare movement, wild-animal suffering is discussed by animal rights philosophers and their critics. The critics consider intervention in nature a reductio ad absurdum of animal rights, while some animal rights authors take it to be a serious moral issue.
2000–present Online communities dedicated to utilitarian ethics and effective altruism discuss wild-animal suffering as a serious issue. Activists begin forming organizations dedicated to WAS research and outreach. The academic moral philosophy community also continues debating the issue.

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1851 Publication Arthur Schopenhauer compares the pleasure experienced by a predator to the pain experienced by the prey to argue that the world contains more pain than pleasure.[1]
1856 July 13 Publication In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Darwin discusses the wastefulness and cruelty of nature as an evidence against the existence of a benevolent God.[2]
1860 May 22 Publication In a letter to Asa Gray, Charles Darwin cites wild-animal suffering—in particular, the suffering inflicted by parasitic wasps to caterpillar hosts—as an example of the theological problem of evil.[3]
1874 Publication John Stuart Mill's essay "On Nature" is published posthumously. The essay discusses the amorality and cruelty of nature and argues that humans should struggle against it.[4]
1973 June 14 Publication Peter Singer responds to a question about predation, arguing against interference in practice because the long-term consequences of intervention cannot be predicted. However, he accepts that intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering would be morally justified if one could be reasonably confident that the long-term effects would be positive.[5]
1979 Publication Stephen R. L. Clark's article "The Rights of Wild Things" is published. It argues that humans should defend wild animals against unusually large dangers, but should not try to regulate all of nature.[6]
1980 Publication Environmental philosopher J. Baird Callicott's article "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" is published. It discusses conflicts between animal liberation and environmental ethics.[7]
1984 (summer) Publication Environmental philosopher Mark Sagoff's article "Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce" is published.[8] The article argues that animal liberation and environmental ethics are incompatible. It claims that animal liberationists may be committed to supporting large-scale intervention to reduce wild-animal suffering, and argues that this should be taken as a reductio if one supports environmental ethics.
1987 Publication Animal rights philosopher Steve Sapontzis's article "Predation" is published in Ethics and Animals.[9]
1991 Publication Deep ecologist Arne Naess publishes an article arguing that humans should intervene in some cases of wild-animal suffering.[10]
1993 June Publication David Olivier publishes the article "Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste" (Why I am not an environmentalist) in the French animal rights journal Les Cahiers antispécistes.[11]
1995 Publication Economist Yew-Kwang Ng's paper "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" is published in Biology and Philosophy.[12] Ng introduces the term "welfare biology" (cf. conservation biology), which he defines as the positive study of the well-being of affectively sentient individuals. He discusses which species possess affective sentience. Ng then mentions that many species produce a large number of offspring, only a few of which survive to maturity. The paper argues that non-survivors suffer negative welfare. Since non-survivors greatly outnumber survivors, Ng considers this evidence in favor of the "Buddhist premise" (that wild animals experience more total suffering than happiness).
1995 Publication David Pearce publishes his transhumanist manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative, which argues that biotechnology can and should be used to eliminate the experience of suffering.[13] It includes a section on wild-animal suffering.
1996 December Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes its 14th edition, which is dedicated to discussing the problem of predation and human intervention in nature.[14] It features articles by David Olivier and Yves Bonnardel, as well as a translation of an article by Steve Sapontzis. For example, one article by Yves Bonnardel is entitled "Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale" ("Against the apartheid of species: On predation and the conflict between ecology and animal liberation").[15]
1998 October 20 Presentation David Olivier of Les Cahiers antispécistes discusses wild-animal suffering at a debate at the Maison de l’Écologie in Lyon.[16]
2003 (summer) Publication Tyler Cowen's paper "Policing Nature" is published in Environmental Ethics.[17] Cowen gives arguments from utilitarian, rights-based, and holistic moral perspectives in support of policing nature. He criticizes the argument that humans should refrain from interfering in nature because it is hard to predict the results of intervention. Cowen discusses predator population reduction as a possible intervention.
2005 May Brian Tomasik first begins to think about animal welfare after reading essays by Peter Singer.[18]
2005 July Brian Tomasik reads Bernard E. Rollin's Animal Rights & Human Morality, which introduces him to the possibility of insect sentience.[18] He writes, "I was completely startled to realize this possibility and spent the next several minutes contemplating how much suffering the world would contain if this were true. The spider's webs in my basement began to take on a new, horrible significance."
2005 October 17 Brian Tomasik writes a letter to Peter Singer, asking him whether he thinks insects are sentient and whether they experience a net-negative balance of suffering over happiness.[18]
2005 June Brian Tomasik hears about and reads David Pearce's Hedonistic Imperative.[18] He writes, "This piece helped me see how bad suffering was and may have been one of the last straws helping me see that life in the wild was far below hedonic zero on average, especially when the pain of death was taken into account."
2006 June Publication Brian Tomasik's collection of essays on utilitarianism is first posted to his website at utilitarian-essays.com.
2006 (summer) Publication Brian Tomasik writes "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering".[19]
2006 December Community Seth Baum starts a utilitarian community blog Felicifia.com.[20] He had previously had a personal blog under the same name. Wild-animal suffering would become a popular topic of discussion on the site and its successor forum Felicifia.org.[21]
2006 April 29 Publication Matthew Clarke and Yew-Kwang Ng publish an article analyzing a kangaroo cull from the perspective of welfare biology.[22]
2006 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem".[23]
2008 (early) Oscar Horta writes to Brian Tomasik to cite one of his articles. Horta and Tomasik agreed that wild-animal welfare was important, and Horta began to discuss it with his Spanish / Latin American friends.[18]
2009 April Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Do Bugs Feel Pain?".[24]
2009 June 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Caring about Animal Suffering".[25]
2009 July Publication Brian Tomasik writes the first version of his article "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering".[26]
2009 Publication David Pearce publishes "Reprogramming Predators".[27] The post receives criticism from ScienceBlogs.[28]
2009 December 25 Community Brian Tomasik starts the Felicifia thread "How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?".[29]
2010 March 2 Community Felicifia member spindoctor starts the thread "Lobby group for wild animal suffering?".[30]
2010 May 10 Community Brian Tomasik considers forming an organization to promote concern for wild-animal suffering, and solicits advice on Felicifia.[31]
2010 April 19 Community Brian Tomasik creates the Facebook group "Most of the world's animal suffering occurs in the wild".[32][18]
2010 September 15 Project The domain name animal-ethics.org is registered.[33]
2010 September 19 Publication Jeff McMahan's piece "The Meat Eaters" is published in the New York Times.[34][35] He argues in favor of intervention in nature, and specifically reducing predation.
2010 Publication Philosopher Oscar Horta's article "Debunking the idyllic view of natural processes" is published.[36]
2012 October 30 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Medicine vs. Deep Ecology", which responds to the argument that we should not intervene in nature because ecosystems are complex systems.[37]
2012 May 24 Community The Facebook group is renamed to "Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering" following a poll.[38]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering".[39]
2013 June 24 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature".[40]
2013 September 4 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals".[41]
2013 November? Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals".[42]
2013 December 3 Presentation Adriano Mannino and Ruairí Donnelly give a talk on wild-animal suffering at the University of Zurich. [43][44]
2013 December 15 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation?".[45]
2013 Project Sentience Politics, an "anti-speciesist political think-tank", is founded as a subdivision of the Effective Altruism Foundation.[46] One of the issues originally considered by the project is wild-animal suffering.
2013 Project Animal Ethics is registered as a 501(c)3 non-profit.[47]
2014 January 19 Project The first (non-placeholder) Wayback Machine snapshot of Animal Ethics is from this date.[48] Wild-animal suffering is one of their focus areas. Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta are two of its three founders.[49]
2014 July 8 Publication The Wikipedia article "Wild animal suffering" is published.[50]
2015 February 3 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "The Importance of Insect Suffering".[51]
2015 February Podcast Brian Tomasik is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the podcast The Reality Check.[52][53]
2015 March 5 Project Animal Ethics announces its first Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[54]
2015 April 12 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering" on the website Reasonable Vegan.[55]
2015 May 1 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It". It argues that reducing wild-animal suffering is a moral imperative.[56]
2015 May The philosophy journal Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism publishes a special double volume on the ethics of wild-animal suffering and intervention in nature, edited by Animal Ethics staff.[57]
2015 September Publication Simon Knutsson publishes "How Good or Bad Is the Life of an Insect?".[58]
2015 October 31 Community The /r/wildanimalsuffering subreddit is created.[59]
2015 November 5 Project The domain name utility.farm is registered.[60]
2015 November 28 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Estimating Aggregate Wild-Animal Suffering from Reproductive Age and Births per Female".[61]
2015 December 14 Publication Vox publishes an article by Jacy Reese arguing in favor of reducing wild-animal suffering.[62] This prompts critical responses from Motherboard and the National Audubon Society.[63][64]
2015 December 26 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Wild-Caught Fishing Affects Wild-Animal Suffering".[65]
2015 December Project Animal Charity Evaluators announces that Animal Ethics is one of their standout charities.[66]
2016 February Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "How Painful Is Death from Starvation or Dehydration?".
2016 March 15 Publication Catia Faria submits her PhD thesis "Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature".[67]
2016 March 20 Publication Magnus Vinding publishes the e-book "The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for “Wildlife Anti-Natalism”".[68]
2016 March 23 Project Animal Ethics announces that none of the submissions to its Essay Prize met the standards they expected, and the prize was not awarded. However, they gave a $1,500 grant to the author of the best paper, Meera Inglis from the Department of Politics of the University of Sheffield, to continue her research on invasive species.[69]
2016 April 22 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "The Myth that Reducing Wild Animal Suffering Is Intractable".[70]
2016 May 9 Publication The article "The ethics of wild animal suffering" by Ole Martin Moen is published.[71]
2016 May Publication Sentience Politics publishes the policy paper "Reducing suffering among invertebrates such as insects" by Simon Knutsson.[72]
2016 June Project The Foundational Research Institute publishes research plans announcing that it is "greatly increasing research on wild-­animal suffering".[73] However, this never came to pass and WAS is not a focus area of FRI as of 2018.
2016 August 25 Publication Michael Dickens publishes the blog post "Why the Open Philanthropy Project Should Prioritize Wild Animal Suffering".[74]
2016 September 1 Publication Phillipp Ryf submits his Master's Thesis "Environmental Ethics: The Case of Wild Animals".[75]
2016 September 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the results of an exploratory (n=612) Mechanical Turk study. The study is about the effects of vegan advocacy on attitudes towards wild-animal suffering. ACE claims that the results suggest that environmental messaging makes people less supportive of intervention. On the other hand, the post assuages WAS advocates' concerns that animal rights messaging does so.[76]
2016 September Presentation Stijn Bruers and Stefan Torges give talks about wild-animal suffering at the 2016 International Animal Rights Conference.[77][78]
2016 November 15 Presentation Peter Singer gives a talk on wild-animal suffering at the Princeton Environmental Institute.[79]
2016 November 19 Project Animal Ethics announces its second Essay Prize on suffering in nature and intervention, with a reward of $1,500.[80]
2016 November 25 Publication Michael Plant writes a blog post critiquing arguments for the claim that wild animals experience net suffering.[81] Brian Tomasik responds on his blog.[82]
2017 April 5 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes another survey on animal advocacy messaging and attitudes towards wild-animal suffering.[83]
2017 April 22 Project Utility Farm publishes its first article, arguing for "An Ethic of Intervention" with regard to wild-animal suffering.[84]
2017 April 26 Project Utility Farm announces its 2017 essay contest with a top prize of $1,500.[85] The contest received no quality submissions, and the prize was not awarded.[86]
2017 April Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $30K from the animal welfare EA Fund to the Effective Altruism Foundation's research of wild-animal suffering, stating that he is impressed with their work but is unsure how tractable it will be. He also cites internal changes at EAF that left WAS research with no funding.[87]
2017 May 3 Community Evan Gaensbauer creates the Facebook group "Wild Animal Welfare Project Discussion" as part of a larger attempt to build networks for new EA causes.[88]
2017 June Project Wild-Animal Suffering Research is split off from Sentience Politics as a separate organization under the Effective Altruism Foundation. Sentience Politics shifts gears to focus exclusively on political campaigns in Switzerland, and gains independence from EAF.[89][90]
2017 June 1 Project The domain name was-research.org is registered.[91]
2017 June 10 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Keep (Known) Space Neutral" by Abraham Rowe.[92]
2017 June 11 Publication Utility Farm publishes "When Caring For Pets And Service Animals, Keep Other Animals In Mind" by Ari Benjamin.[93]
2017 June 29 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Vertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[94]
2017 July 5 Publication Brian Tomasik publishes "Which Stimuli Are Painful to Invertebrates?".[95]
2017 July 11 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "An Analysis of Lethal Methods of Wild Animal Population Control: Invertebrates" by Persis Eskander.[96]
2017 July 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Euthanizing Elderly Elephants: An Impact Analysis" by Ozy Brennan.[97]
2017 July 13 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Study: Effective Communication Strategies For Addressing Wild Animal Suffering" by Briana Schulzetenberg and Abraham Rowe, which found that WAS materials describing humans as "stewards of" or "participants in" nature were more effective than materials describing humans as "intervening" in nature.[98]
2017 October 4 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "We Have No Idea If There Are Cost-Effective Interventions Into Wild-Animal Suffering" by Ozy Brennan.[99]
2017 October 12 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Infant Mortality and the Argument from Life History" by Ozy Brennan.[100]
2017 October 18 Project Utility Farm publishes "Reviewing 2017 and Looking to 2018" by Abraham Rowe.[101]
2017 November 10 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "“Fit and Happy”: How Do We Measure Wild-Animal Suffering?" by Ozy Brennan.[102]
2017 November 22 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes "Parasite Load and Disease in Wild Animals" by Georgia Ray.[103]
2017 November 25 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Creating Welfare Biology: A Research Proposal" by Ozy Brennan.[104]
2017 November Funding Lewis Bollard of Open Philanthropy Project allocates $50K from the animal welfare EA Fund to Wild-Animal Suffering Research.[105]
2017 (fall) Project Rebecca Raible is awarded a £4,710 grant from the Centre for Effective Altruism to research WAS intervention ideas and write an overview of wild-animal suffering.[106]
2017 December 27 Publication Animal Ethics announces the winner of its second Essay Prize, "Life-fates: meaningful categories to estimate animal suffering in the wild" by Brazilian scientists Wladimir J. Alonso and Cynthia Schuck-Paim.[107]
2018 January 19 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Invertebrate Sentience: Urgent But Understudied" by Georgia Ray.[108]
2018 January 24 Publication Utility Farm publishes "Seven Broad Rules for Effective Discussions of Participation Ethics" by Abraham Rowe.[109]
2018 February 12 Publication The article "Wild animal suffering is intractable" by Nicolas Delon and Duncan Purves is published (online first).[110]
2018 February 13 Publication Animal Charity Evaluators publishes the blog post "To reduce wild animal suffering we need to find out if the cause area is tractable" by Persis Eskander.[111]
2018 February 16 Publication Animal Ethics publishes their 2018 strategic plan, which includes initiating "the development of welfare biology in academia with some biologists and animal welfare scientists beginning to work in this field ".[112]
2018 February 23 Publication Wild-Animal Suffering Research publishes the blog post "Are seafood substitutes good for wild fish?" by Georgia Ray.[113]
2018 March 23 Project Utility Farm announces the launch of Nature Ethics, a wild animal suffering outreach project.[114]
2018 March Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $100K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds.[115]
2018 April 14 Podcast Persis Eskander of Wild-Animal Suffering Research is interviewed about wild-animal suffering on the animal rights podcast Our Hen House.[116]
2018 April 30 Publication Animal Ethics publishes a bibliography of wild-animal suffering.[117]
2018 April Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a volume devoted to wild-animal suffering.[118]
2018 May Publication Les Cahiers antispécistes publishes a book entitled "Éliminer les animaux pour leur bien: promenade chez les réducteurs de la souffrance dans la nature" (Eliminate animals for their own good: walk among the reducers of suffering in nature) by Estiva Reus. The book critiques the wild-animal suffering movement.[119]
2018 June 10 Presentation EA Global 2018 takes place in San Francisco. Persis Eskander of WASR gives a talk about "Crucial Considerations in Wild-Animal Suffering".[120] Ozy Brennan (WASR), Persis Eskander (WASR), Kieran Greig (ACE), and Abraham Rowe (Utility Farm) participate in a panel on "Strategic Movement Building for Wild-Animal Suffering".[121] There is also a meetup for people interested in the topic.[122]
2018 June Funding Lewis Bollard allocates $70K to Animal Ethics, $40K to Utility Farm, and $30K to Wild-Animal Suffering Research via the EA Funds. He notes that all three organizations have converged around the strategy of building an academic field of wild-animal suffering, but have different approaches.[123]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Louis.

What the timeline is still missing

  • Tomasik articles that I didn't bother to add so far
  • New Nature Ethics articles
  • New WASR articles
  • ACE Research Funding
  • Horta articles
  • Other academic philosophy articles, perhaps, depending on relevance
  • There should be stuff between Mill and Singer?
  • Buddhists?

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

  1. Schopenhauer, Arthur (1851). On the Sufferings of the World. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. The pleasure in this world, it has been said, outweighs the pain; or, at any rate, there is an even balance between the two. If the reader wishes to see shortly whether this statement is true, let him compare the respective feelings of two animals, one of which is engaged in eating the other. 
  2. Murray, Michael (April 30, 2011). Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199596324. 
  3. "Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860]". Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. With respect to the theological view of the question; this is always painful to me.— I am bewildered.— I had no intention to write atheistically. But I own that I cannot see, as plainly as others do, & as I [should] wish to do, evidence of design & beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent & omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidæ with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice. 
  4. JS Mill. On Nature.
  5. Singer, Peter (June 14, 1973). "Food for Thought". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 2018-05-09. 
  6. Clark, Stephen R. L. (1979). "The Rights of Wild Things" (PDF). Inquiry. Routledge. 22 (1-4): 171–188. doi:10.1080/00201747908601871. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-22. It has been argued that if non‐human animals had rights we should be obliged to defend them against predators. I contend that this either does not follow, follows in the abstract but not in practice, or is not absurd. We should defend non‐humans against large or unusual dangers, when we can, but should not claim so much authority as to regulate all the relationships of wild things. 
  7. Callicott, J. Baird (1980). "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" (PDF). Environmental Ethics. 2 (4): 311–338. doi:10.5840/enviroethics19802424. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-09. 
  8. Sagoff, Mark (1984). "Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce". Osgode Hall Law Journal. 22 (2): 297–307. Archived from the original on 2016-06-02. 
  9. Sapontzis, Steve F. (1984). "Predation". Ethics and Animals. 5 (2). ISSN 0197-9094. doi:10.15368/ea.1984v5n2.1. Archived from the original on 2018-07-12. 
  10. Naess, Arne (1991). "Should We Try to Relieve Clear Cases of Suffering in Nature?" (PDF). Pan Ecology. 6: 1–5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-20. 
  11. Olivier, David (June 1993). "Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste" [Why I am not an environmentalist]. Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 7. Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. 
  12. Ng, Yew-Kwang (1995). "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering" (PDF). Biology and Philosophy. 10 (3): 255–285. doi:10.1007/BF00852469. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-06-22. 
  13. Pearce, David (1995). The Hedonistic Imperative. hedweb.com. Archived from the original on 2018-05-27. 
  14. Olivier, David; Bonnardel, Yves (December 1996). "Éditorial". Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 14. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. 
  15. Bonnardel, Yves (December 1996). "Contre l'apartheid des espèces" [Against the apartheid of species]. Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 14. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. 
  16. Olivier, David (April 1999). "Contribution au débat à la maison de l'écologie" [Contribution to the debate at the Maison de l’Écologie]. Les Cahiers antispécistes (in français). 17. Archived from the original on 2018-01-02. 
  17. Cowen, Tyler (2003). "Policing Nature" (PDF). Environment Ethics. 25 (2): 169–182. doi:10.5840/enviroethics200325231. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-03-17. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Tomasik, Brian (10 August 2012). "How I Started Writing about Wild-Animal Suffering". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. 
  19. Tomasik, Brian (2006). "Calculations Regarding Wild-Animal Suffering" (PDF). A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-12. 
  20. "Felificia Blog Post List". Utilitarianism Wiki. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  21. "Google search results for wild animal suffering on Felicifia". google.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. 
  22. Clarke, Matthew; Ng, Yew-Kwang (29 April 2006). "Population Dynamics and Animal Welfare: Issues Raised by the Culling of Kangaroos in Puckapunyal" (PDF). Social Choice and Welfare. 27 (2): 407–422. doi:10.1007/s00355-006-0137-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-03-17. 
  23. Tomasik, Brian (August 2007). "The Predominance of Wild-Animal Suffering over Happiness: An Open Problem" (PDF). A Collection of Essays on Utilitarianism. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  24. Tomasik, Brian (April 2009). "Do Bugs Feel Pain?". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. 
  25. Tomasik, Brian (4 June 2009). "Caring about Animal Suffering". Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. 
  26. Tomasik, Brian (July 2009). "The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering". Foundational Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. 
  27. https://www.hedweb.com/abolitionist-project/reprogramming-predators.html
  28. http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2009/08/28/predatory-animals-are-bad/
  29. "How Best to Encourage Concern for Wild Animals?". Felicifia. December 25, 2009. Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. 
  30. "Lobby group for wild animal suffering?". Felicifia. March 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. 
  31. https://felicifia.org/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=270
  32. "Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering – Members". Facebook. Retrieved 16 July 2018. (registration required (help)). Brian Tomasik: Created group on April 19, 2010 
  33. https://whois.domaintools.com/animal-ethics.org
  34. McMahan, Jeff (September 28, 2010). "The Meat Eaters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  35. McMahan, Jeff (September 28, 2010). "Predators: A Response". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  36. Horta, Oscar (2010). "Debunking the Idyllic View of Natural Processes: Population Dynamics and Suffering in the Wild" (PDF). Télos. 17 (1): 73–88. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  37. Tomasik, Brian (30 October 2012). "Medicine vs. Deep Ecology". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. 
  38. "Best new name for this group (and/or movement)?". Facebook — Reducing Wild-Animal Suffering. May 22, 2012. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  39. Tomasik, Brian (24 June 2013). "Ideas for Volunteering to Reduce Wild-Animal Suffering". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2017-12-23. 
  40. Tomasik, Brian (24 June 2013). "Applied Welfare Biology and Why Wild-Animal Advocates Should Focus on Not Spreading Nature". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. 
  41. Tomasik, Brian (September 4, 2013). "Intention-Based Moral Reactions Distort Intuitions about Wild Animals". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. 
  42. Tomasik, Brian (2013). "Crop Cultivation and Wild Animals". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. 
  43. Mannino, Adriano; Donnelly, Ruairí. "Talk: Should we intervene in nature to help wild animals?". Sentience Politics. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. The talk was held at the University of Zurich on December 6, 2013. 
  44. frei denken uni basel (3 January 2014). ""Reducing Wild Animal Suffering" by Adriano Mannino & Ruairí Donnelly". YouTube. 
  45. Tomasik, Brian (December 15, 2013). "Does the Animal-Rights Movement Encourage Wilderness Preservation?". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. 
  46. "About Our Organization". Sentience Politics. Archived from the original on 2018-06-17. Sentience Politics was founded as a project of the Effective Altruism Foundation (EAF) in 2013. 
  47. https://www.guidestar.org/profile/46-1062870
  48. "HOME | Animal Ethics". Wayback Machine. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  49. "Conversation with Leah McKelvie and Oscar Horta of Animal Ethics". Animal Charity Evaluators. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. 
  50. "Wild animal suffering". Wikipedia. 8 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2018-07-22. Ruairí Donnelly moved page User:Ruairí Donnelly/sandbox to Wild animal suffering: Article is ready to be published 
  51. Tomasik, Brian (February 3, 2015). "The Importance of Insect Suffering". Essays on Reducing Suffering. Archived from the original on 2018-06-30. 
  52. http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-336-american-sniper-brian-tomasik-on-wild-animal-suffering-rent-to-own/
  53. http://www.trcpodcast.com/trc-337-women-in-science-brian-tomasik-on-wild-animal-suffering-part-2-blue-blood/
  54. "Animal Ethics Essay Prize". Animal Ethics. 5 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-09-28. 
  55. Tomasik, Brian. "Why Vegans Should Care About Wild Animal Suffering". Reasonable Vegan. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. 
  56. Vinding, Magnus (May 1, 2015). Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong and the Implications of Rejecting It. Smashwords. Archived from the original on 2018-07-22. 
  57. "Academic work on wild animal suffering edited by Animal Ethics activists". Animal Ethics. 23 December 2015. 
  58. http://www.simonknutsson.com/how-good-or-bad-is-the-life-of-an-insect
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