Timeline of calorie restriction
This is a timeline of calorie restriction, attempting to describe significant events in the history of the topic, especially concerning scientific research. Many of the events described in this timeline are illustrative of a much greater body of research on calorie restriction.
- 1 Sample questions
- 2 Big picture
- 3 Numerical and visual data
- 4 Full timeline
- 5 Meta information on the timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- How and when was the concept of calorie established? What are some foundational events describing its discovery?
- What are some notable research cases involving calorie restriction?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
- For calorie restriction effect type in the organism, sort the full timeline by "Calorie restriction effect type (when applicable)".
- You will see a variety of effects, ranging from behavior to health and longevity.
- What are some species having been studied in calorie restriction research?
- Sort the full timeline by "Research subject species (when applicable)".
- You will mostly see lab research in rodents. Other species, from nematodes to monkeys, are also mentioned.
- What are beneficial and what are harmful results for the organism in calorie restriction research?
- Sort the full timeline by "Effect direction (when applicable)".
- You will mostly see research cases concluding in beneficial results for subjects, most often rodents, but also other species. Harmful results are also described. Helpful results in humans are often in the form of advocacy rather than research.
- What are some books covering the topic of calorie restriction?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
Other events are described under the following types: "Concept development", "Diet introduction", "Notable case", "Organization", "Policy", and "Recommendation".
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|19th century||Basic science||The concept of calorie is developed in this time. The concept of calorie restriction is practically non-existent.|
|20th century (first half)||Basic concept and first discoveries||In the early century, Carlo Moreschi becomes the first to describe the effects of calorie restriction on cancer prevention. This would be followed by a large body of work demonstrating calorie restriction tumor preventive effects in various animal models. However, the basic concept of calorie restriction is founded in the late 1930s. In that same decade, calorie restriction possible impact on the growth and health of children becomes an important topic, while mechanisms that underlie aging are not on the radar screen yet. Since the late 1930s, the term calorie restriction becomes more widely used. In the 1940s, many researchers report that calorie restriction retards or prevents the onset of age-related diseases such as kidney disease, tumors, and leukemia.|
|20th century (second half)||Increased link to longevity and clinical introduction||From the 1950s towards the 1980s, the longevity effect of calorie restriction is reported in multiple species. Beginning in the 1970s, research on calorie restriction and aging markedly intensifies. Around the late 1970s and early 1980s, a resurgence in interest begins in the potential of calorie restriction to extend life. The work of Roy Walford in the United States is notable at this time. In the 1980s, the very-low-calorie diet starts being used for clinical purposes.|
|1990s onwards||Modern approach||Molecular biology is increasingly put to use in the effort to understand the basis of the actions of calorie restriction. Prior to it, morphological pathology and physiology were the primary tools used to explore CR.|
Numerical and visual data
Mentions on Google Scholar
|Year||calorie restriction||calorie restriction benefits||calorie restriction weight loss||calorie restriction longevity||calorie restriction oxidative stress|
The chart below shows Google Trends data for Calorie restriction (search term), from January 2004 to June 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map .
Google Ngram Viewer
|Year||Event type||Calorie restriction effect type (when applicable)||Effect direction (when applicable)||Research subject species (when applicable)||Details||Location/researcher affiliation|
|1819–1824||Background||The calorie is first introduced by French chemist Nicolas Clément, as a unit of heat energy, in lectures during these years.||France|
|1879||Background||French chemist Marcellin Berthelot distinguishes between gram-calorie (modern calorie) and kilogram-calorie (modern kilocalorie).||France|
|1887||Background||The use of the kilogram-calorie (kcal) for nutrition is introduced in the United States by American chemist Wilbur Olin Atwater, a professor at Wesleyan University.||United States (Wesleyan University, Connecticut)|
|1896||Background||The modern calorie (cal) is first recognized as a unit of the centimetre–gram–second system of units (cgs).|
|1909||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Italian immunologist in Germany Carlo Moreschi finds that tumors transplanted into rats that were underfed did not grow as well as those transplanted into Ad libitum fed rats. This is the first hint that calorie restriction may have an effect on tumor progression.||Germany|
|1914||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent||American virologist Francis Peyton Rous reports that reducing food intake inhibits the occurrence of spontaneous cancers in rodents.||United States|
|1917||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||American biochemists Thomas Osborne and Lafayette Mendel publish the first scientific study showing that restricting food extends life.||United States (Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut)|
|1918||Literature||Weight loss||Helpful||Human||American doctor Lulu Hunt Peters publishes Diet & Health: With Key to the Calories, which is aimed at women and presents the concept of calorie reduction as the best form of weight loss and watching weight.|
|1920||Research||Longevity||Harmful||N/A||In opposition to 1917 report by Osborne and Mendel, T. Robertson and L.A. Ray publish scientific study concluding that restricting food shortens life.||Australia (University of Adelaide), Canada (University of Toronto)|
|1925||Background||The calorie starts being defined in terms of the joule.|
|1935||Research||Longevity||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||American biochemist Clive McCay and his colleagues publish a seminal paper, which shows that slowing the post-weaning growth of rats by markedly restricting their food intake significantly increases their longevity. This is the first widely known scientific publication on the impact of dietary restriction on life expectancy.||United States|
|1935||Research||Organ level effect (bone)||Harmful||Rodent (rat)||Study by Clive McCay and colleagues reports that calorie restriction results in extremely brittle femurs.||United States|
|1935||Research||Longevity||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Clive McCay and colleagues publish a landmark paper in the Journal of Nutrition entitled The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span and upon the ultimate body size which provides the first systematic research evidence that calorie restriction prolongs life.|
|1939||Research||Longevity||Neutral||N/A||C.M. McCay and colleagues publish a paper that defines for the first time the aging research value of the calorie restriction model, suggesting that calorie restriction may be a model for studying aging: “Retardation of growth by diets, complete except for calories, affords a means of producing very old animals for studying aging”.||United States (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York)|
|1942||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Human||Albert Tannenbaum writes: “It follows that the avoidance of overweight through restriction of food intake may aid in the prevention of human cancer or at least delay its onset”.|
|1947||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Research by Ball and colleagues reports that lifelong dietary restriction dramatically extends the life span of mice (a maximum life span of 850 days vs. 550 days), whereas dietary restriction for the first 240 days has little effect.|
|1948||Background||The current definition of the calorie is formally adopted as equivalent to approximately 4.2 joules.|
|1951||Research||Organ level effect (heart)||Helpful||Human||Study by Strom and Jensen recognizes beneficial effects of calorie restriction on heart function as a result of shortage of food during World War II.||Norway|
|1951||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Tokophrya infusionum||Study by Maria A. Rudzinska reports that calorie restriction decreases the mortality rate in Tokophrya infusionum (protozoan).||United States (New York University)|
|1960||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by Benjamin N. Berg and Henry S. Simms published in the Journal of Nutrition proposes link between life extension and reduction in body fat content.||United States|
|1961||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (brown rat)||Study by M.H. Ross reports on calorie restriction decreasing the mortality rate in Rattus norvegicus (rat).||United States (Biochemical Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware)|
|1963||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Fish||Study by Alex Comfort reports that retarding the growth of fish by restricting food increases their longevity.||United Kingdom (University College London)|
|1965||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rotifer (Philodina acuticornis)||Study by D.D. Fanestil and C.H. Barrows Jr reports on calorie restriction decreasing the mortality rate in Philodina acuticornis, a species of freshwater bdelloid rotifers.|
|1973||Research||Health (immune system)||Helpful||Rodent||Study by American pathologist Roy Walford et al. in rodents using intermitent fasting protocol to explore the humoral responses of subjects reports that after 1 year of restriction, Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G antibodies activity was augmented. Being among the first to study the effects of calorie restriction on immune function in rodents, Walford would become a strong advocate for the use of calorie restriction in humans.||United States (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles)|
|1977||Research||Metabolic effect||Helpful||N/A||American biologist George A. Sacher proposes that calorie restriction retards aging by decreasing the intensity of energy metabolism.||United States (Argonne National Laboratory)|
|1977||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans)||Study by M.R. Klass reports on calorie restriction decreasing the mortality rate in C. elegans.||United States (University of Colorado Boulder)|
|1978||Notable case||Mortality||Harmful||Human||In this year, 58 people die in the United States after following very-low-calorie liquid protein diets.||United States|
|1980||Research||Organ level effect (white adipose tissue)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by Helen A. Bertrand et al. in rats reports that, under calorie restriction, the loss of white adipose tissue is disproportionately large.||United States|
|1980||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (Mus musculus)||Study by K.E. Cheney and colleagues reports on calorie restriction decreasing the mortality rate in house mice.||United States (University of California, Los Angeles)|
|1982||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Richard Weindruch and Roy Walford in 12- to 13-month-old mice on food restriction by using nutrient-enriched diets in accordance with the concept of "undernutrition without malnutrition" results in the mice on the restricted diet averaging 10 to 20 percent increases in mean and maximum survival times compared to the control mice.||United States|
|1984||Policy||Illness||Harmful||Human||The United States FDA starts requiring that very-low-calorie diets providing fewer than 400 calories a day to carry a warning that they can cause serious illness and need to be followed under medical supervision.||United States|
|1984||Literature||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Human||Roy Walford publishes Maximum Life Span a book on lifespan determination advocating calorie restriction.|
|1984||Research||Organ level effect (bone)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Research by Kalu et al. in rats concludes that calorie restriction completely prevents the senile bone loss recorded in ad libitum rats with femur strength to body weight ratios greater than in ad libitum.||United States (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)|
|1986||Literature||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Human||Richard Weindruch and Roy Walford publish The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction, an influential and comprehensive encyclopedia of calorie restriction studies that would encourage many scientists to become interested in, and to investigate, calorie restriction and its impact on aging.||United States|
|1986||Literature||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Human||Roy Walford publishes The 120-Year Diet: How to Double Your Vital Years, advocating the use of calorie restriction to increase human longevity.||United States|
|1987||Research||Behavior (physical activity)||Helpful||Rodent||Study by D E Harrison and J R Archer reports that the response shown by many rodents to calorie restriction is actually to increase levels of activity.|
|1988||Literature||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Human||Roy Walford and Richard Weindruch publish The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction.||United States|
|1991–1993||Diet introduction||Helpful||Human||Roy Walford's compiled data during his participation in Biosphere 2 is used to develop the CRON-diet, jointly with Lisa Walford, and Brian M. Delaney. IT consists in eating a diet low in fat and in calories but "nutrient-dense".||United States|
|1993||Research||Organ level effect (liver)||N/A||Rodent (rat)||Research by Alterman et al. in rats shows that calorie restriction has profound effects on the hepatic microsomal levels and activities of cytochrome P-450s, a superfamily of enzymes containing heme as a cofactor that functions as monooxygenases.||United States (Texas A&M University)|
|1994||Organization||Lifespan and mortality||Helpful||Human||The Calorie Restriction Society is founded. This organization sponsors conferences, funds anti-aging research, and offers practical guidance to its members.||United States|
|1994||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Peter P. Fu and colleagues shows that caloric restriction profoundly inhibits liver-tumor formation after initiation by 6-nitrochrysene in male-mice.||United States (National Center for Toxicological Research, Arkansas)|
|1994||Research||Metabolic effect (oxidative stress)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by R.S. Sohal and colleagues in mice reports that isolated mitochondria from subjects under calorie restriction show reductions in superoxide radical production.||Unted States (Southern Methodist University, Dallas)|
|1995||Research||Behavior (cognitive effect)||Neutral||N/A||Study by M.W. Green et al. concludes that short-term food deprivation has little or no detrimental effect on cognitive function, also indicating that "deficits in cognitive function found to be associated with spontaneous dieting are unlikely to be due primarily to any direct physiological or nutritional effects of food deprivation".||United Kingdom (Institute of Food Research, Reading, Berkshire)|
|1995||Literature||Longevity||Helpful||Human||Roy Walford publishes The Anti-Aging Plan, which promotes calorie restriction in humans.|
|1995||Research||Endocrine effect (leptin and other adipokines)||Harmful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Robert C. Frederich and colleagues in mice shows that the loss of body fat during calorie restriction results in profound reductions in circulating levels of several adipokines, including leptin.||United States (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts)|
|1996||Research||Metabolic effect (oxidative stress)||Helpful||Rodent||Study by B.P. Yu in mice concludes that calorie restriction in subjects reduces oxidative stress.||United States (University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio)|
|1997||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent||Study by Hart and Turturro in rodents reports that calorie restriction in subjects reduces the susceptibility to cancer.||United States (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas)|
|1997||Research||Organ level effect (alimentary tract)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Casirola et al. in mice reports tha intestinal nutrient uptake in calorie restriction animals is significantly higher for D-sugars, L amino acids and L-glucose than in same-age ad libitum animals.||United States (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey)|
|1997||Research||Organ level effect (muscle)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Aspnes et al. in mice reports that calorie restriction has a protective effect against sarcopenic muscle loss in subjects.||United States (University of Wisconsin–Madison)|
|1998||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by T.J. Spady et al. shows that dietary energy restriction abolishes development of prolactin-producing pituitary tumors in rats treated with 17 beta-estradiol.||United States (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha)|
|1998||Concept development||The term caloric restriction mimetic is coined by Lane, Ingram, and Roth, of the National Institute on Aging in a seminal paper in the Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine, the forerunner of Rejuvenation Research.||United States (National Institute on Aging, Maryland)|
|1998||Research||Health||Neutral||Human||Verdery and Walford show that calorie restriction in humans produces physiological effects that are similar to those found in rodents and monkeys.|
|1998||Research||Metabolic effect (oxidative stress)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by M.V. Aksenova and colleagues in rats concludes that calorie restriction relieves age-associated levels of oxidative stress and lessen protein damage in the brain.||United States (University of Kentucky)|
|1998||Research||Health (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Research by Barzilai et al. in rats shows that calorie restriction for 18 months restores hepatic insulin sensitivity to the same levels observed in young rats (4 months). Aging is accompanied by a marked increase in hepatic resistance to the action of insulin.||United States (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York)|
|1999||Research||Health (cancer)||Neutral||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Pugh et al. in mice shows that calorie restriction performed from the age of 12 months onwards resunts in the incidence of the most prevalent cancer (plasma cell neoplasm) being higher in calorie restricted mice (66%) than in controls (41%). However calorie restriction is found to increase the age at which tumor-bearing mice died, also reducing the percentage of mice dying with cancers, suggesting that CR retards the promotion and/or progression of existing lymphoid cancers.||United States (Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin–Madison)|
|1999||Research||Mortality||Helpful||Monkey||Study by Roth et al. in monkeys suggests that mortality is reduced in subjects on calorie restriction.||United States (National Institute of Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland)|
|2000||Literature||Longevity||Helpful||Human||R.L. Walford publishes Beyond the 120-Year Diet: How to Double Your Vital Years, which argues that longevity can be significantly increased by a diet that contains all the required nutrients but about a third fewer calories.|
|2000||Research||Metabolic effect (autophagy)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by G.Cavallini and colleagues in rats reports that calorie restriction prevents the age-dependent decline of autophagic proteolysis and improves the sensitivity of liver cells to stimulation of lysosomal degradation.||Italy (Dipartimento di Patologia sperimentale, Biotecnologie mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Pisa)|
|2000||Research||Health (disease)||Helpful||Monkey||Study by Black et al. in monkeys suggests that morbidity, in particular neoplastic disease, is reduced in subjects on calorie restriction.|
|2001||Research||Organ level effect (bone)||Harmful||Monkey||Study by Black et al. reports that short term (1 year) calorie restriction in young, 4 years old, male monkeys delayed skeletal maturation and reduced bone mass whereas adult-onset calorie restriction, 19 years old, had no significant effect on bone mass compared with control male monkeys.||United States (Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore)|
|2001||Research||Organ level effect (skin)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Research by N.M. Elsayed in rodents reports that oxidative protection of the lung tissue is enhanced by calorie restriction and rats under CR exposed to ozone show lowered oxidative damage and elevated survivability.||United States (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.)|
|2001||Research||Health (obesity)||Helpful||Human||A review by P. Mustajoki and T. Pekkarinen finds that the very-low-calorie diet in the treatment of obesity has no serious harmful effect when done under medical supervision, for periods of 8–16 weeks with an average weight loss of 1.5-2.5 kg/week.||Finland (Peijas Hospital, Department of Medicine, Vantaa)|
|2001||Research||Behavior (reproduction)||Harmful||Rodent||Research by Caprio et al. in rodents reports that when female animals are under calorie restriction their fertility is reduced, presumably as a mechanism to prevent them becoming pregnant at a time when insufficient resources are available to support a reproductive event.||Italy (Universita’ di Tor Vergata, Università La Sapienza)|
|2002||Research||Behavior (hunger)||Neutral||Human||Study by Hansen et al. reports that circulating levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone secreted by the stomach, is increased in the plasma during diet induced weight loss in obese humans, suggesting that ghrelin may contribute to the sustained appetite associated with calorie restriction.||Denmark (Aarhus University Hospital), Japan (National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka)|
|2002||Research||Longevity||Helpful||Multiple species||According to paper by Lane et al., there are more than 2,000 animal studies on calorie restriction showing dramatic results across many different species, which provide good evidence that restricting calories slows down aging and can extend youthfulness.|
|2003||Research||Lifespan and mortality||Harmful||Rodent||Research in rodents by Forster et al. shows that the effect of calorie restriction may be negative if the restriction is started very late in life.||United States (Institute for Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth)|
|2003||Research||Endocrine effect (ghrelin)||Neutral||Rodent (rat)||Research by Barazzoni et al. in rats concludes that during calorie restriction, levels of ghrelin are increased.||Italy (Dipartmento di Scienze Cliniche, Morfologiche e Technologiche-DSCMT, Clinica Medica, Trieste)|
|2003||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||A systematic metaanalysis by Dirx et al. of 14 studies in mice suggests that subjects on calorie restriction develop between 41% and 69% less mammary tumors than the control groups.||Netherlands (Maastricht University)|
|2003||Research||Organ level effect (bone)||Harmful||Rodent (rat)||Research by LaMothe et al. in rats concludes that axial and appendicular bones are adversely influenced by calorie restriction in late-middle-aged subjects in different manners.|
|2003||Research||Longevity||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Research by Matthias Blüher et al. in mice suggests that reduced fat mass without calorie restriction can be associated with increased longevity.||United States (Harvard Medical School, Boston)|
|2003||Research||Organ level effect (liver)||Harmful||Rodent (rat)||Study by U.M. Apte reports rats under calorie restriction showing increased susceptibility to liver damage induced by the hepatotoxicant thioacetamide.||United States|
|2003||Research||Endocrine effect (adiponectin||Harmful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Combs et al. in mice reports increased levels of adiponectin by calorie restriction.||United States (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)|
|2004||Research||Health (immune system)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Research by Christopher A Jolly shows that calorie restriction delays thymic involution in mice.||United States (The University of Texas at Austin)|
|2004||Research||Organ level effect (lungs)||Harmful||Rodent (rat)||Study by Massaro et al. in rats suggests that calorie restriction increases the risk of development of emphysema, a lung condition that causes shortness of breath.||United States (University of Texas Health Science Center)|
|2005||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Stewart and colleagues in mice shows that skin cancer promotion is inhibited by calorie restriction.||United States (Iowa State University)|
|2005||Research||Organ level effect (skin)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Research by Bhattacharyya et al. in rats concludes that calorie restriction retards age related changes on the skin along with increased collagen and elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and capillaries in skin samples from the subjects.||United States (University of Illinois at Chicago)|
|2005||Research||Endocrine effect (insulin)||Neutral||Rodent (mouse)||Research by Argentino et al. in mice reports that calorie restriction reduces circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin (and glucose).||Argentina (Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Buenos Aires)|
|2005||Research||Metabolic effect (mitochondrial biogenesis)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Enzo Nisoli and colleagues reports that calorie restriction at 30% for 3 months results in mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain, heart, liver and particularly the adipose tissue of mice.||Italy, United Kingdom|
|2006||Research||Behavior (cognitive effects)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Research by Martin et al. reports evidence suggesting that calorie restriction and intermittent fasting may benefit neurons by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span.|
|2006||Research||Behavior (reproduction)||Harmful||Rabbit||Study by Brecchia et al. reports that, in female rabbits, food deprived completely for 24 and 48 hours results in decline in fertility by 23.9 and 21.4% respectively, matched by major disturbances in the endocrine axis linked to reproduction.||Italy|
|2007||Research||Metabolic effect (oxidative stress)||Helpful||Rodent (rat)||Study by Cenk Aydin et al. in rats concludes that subjects on calorie restriction are protected against oxidative stress induced by swimming exercise in the liver, heart and kidney. Two years later, the researchers discover the same effects in the brain and lungs.||Turkey (Uludag University, Bursa)|
|2007||Research||Behavior (cognitive effects)||Neutral||Rodent (rat)||Research by Martin et al. in rats reports no consistent pattern of verbal memory, visual retention/memory, or attention/concentration deficits being found over 6 months, and the energy deficit by calorie restriction or exercise was not significantly associated cognitive test performance.|
|2007||Research||Organ level effect (alimentary tract)||Harmful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Yang et al. in mice reports what is perhaps the most conspicuous change in the morphology of the alimentary tract under calorie restriction, which is the hypertrophy of the stomach observed in subjects.||United States (Louisiana State University System)|
|2007||Research||Longevity||Helpful||Human||Stydy by Speakman and Hambly calculates that if the lifespan effects observed in rodents translate faithfully to an effect in humans, then if a 48 year old engaged in 30% calorie restriction for 30 years, until the current mean life-expectancy of 78, they might expect to live only an extra 2.8 years because of the CR effect.|
|2007||Research||Organ level effect (kidney)||Helpful||Rodent||Research by Chen et al. in rodents concludes that calorie restriction attenuates increased susceptibility to kidney injury in old subjects.||United States (Texas A&M Health Science Center)|
|2008||Research||Health (cancer)||Helpful||Rodent (mouse)||Study by Wheatley et al. in mice suggests that although a low calorie diet does not induce weight loss, it may reduce colon cancer risk by lowering serum IGF-I levels.||United States (University of Texas at Austin)|
|2008||Research||Organ level effect (bone)||Harmful||Rodent (rat)||Research by Baek et al. in rats concludes that moderate caloric restriction may cause bone loss at susceptible bone sites to a similar degree as does the unloading effect of microgravity in astronauts.|
|2008||Research||Organ level effect (muscle)||Helpful||Non-human primate||Study by Colman et al. reports that calorie restriction has a protective effect against sarcopenic muscle loss in non-human primates.||United States (Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison)|
|2014||Recommendation||According to the NICE 2014 guidelines, the routine use of very-low-calorie diets is not recommended due to safety concerns, but this approach can be used under medical supervision if there is a clinical rationale for rapid weight loss in obese individuals, as part of a "multi-component weight management strategy" with continuous support and for a maximum of 12 weeks.|
|2018||Research||Health (brain)||Helpful/harmful||Grey mouse lemur||Researchers find that caloric restriction increases lifespan but affects brain integrity in grey mouse lemur primates.||France|
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