Timeline of malnutrition
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- What are some important organizations addressing undernutrition and hunger?
- Sort the full timeline by "Category" and look for the group of rows with value "Undernutrition".
- You will see a list of organizations, mostly operating worldwide.
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|Before c.10,000 BC||Hunting and gathering era||This period occupies about 90% of human history. People fare arguably better during this time than during the post agricultural revolution era, as the reduced population and nomadism are able to cope better with food scarcity. Also, hunter-gatherers enjoy a varied diet, while early farmers would obtain most of their food from one or a few starchy crops.|
|c.10,000 BC onwards||Post First Agricultural Revolution era||An increase in food production is followed by a population increase, making hunting and gathering an impossible return for most of the world due to the size of human density. This time represents a change in diet and nutrition, which becomes less rich due to the proliferation of monoculture. Famines abound as a consequence of several risks carried by agriculture, like droughts and floods.|
|c.18th–19th centuries onwards||Liberal capitalist era||A spectacular growth of wealth is experienced in this era. Capitalism creates abundance unmatched in human history. Famine becomes rare in those countries adopting free market.|
|Mid 20th century onwards||Raise of overnutrition||Modern food production system, focused on increasing output, successfully meets, and even exceeds, the nutritional needs of consumers in developed countries. Not only it satisfies energy, protein and fat requirements, but it reduces real prices of food. One of the consequences of this is the raise of overnutrition among the population for the first time in human history.|
|1735||Pellagra is first described in Spain. It is caused by a deficiency in niacin (vitamin B3).||Spain|
|1753||Undernutrition||Scottish surgeon in the Royal Navy, James Lind is generally credited with proving that scurvy can be successfully treated with citrus fruit.|
|1824||Undernutrition||Vitamin deficiency||Combe of Edinburgh in Scotland first describes pernicious anemia.|
|1847||Overnutrition||Organization||The British Relief Association is established.||United Kingdom (London)|
|1875||Undernutrition||Vitamin deficiency||Pepper reports bone marrow abnormalities in pernicious anemia patients.|
|1912||Undernutrition||C. Funk coins the term vitamine to describe the newly discovered growth factors because they are thought to be vital to life and quite mistakenly amines.|
|1921||Overnutrition||The first fast-food hamburger chain, White Castle, is founded in Wichita, Kansas.|
|1935||Undernutrition||Medical development||Jamaican pediatrician Cicely Williams introduces the term Kwashiorkor in a Lancet article, two years after she published the disease's first formal description. Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein–energy malnutrition characterized by edema and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.|
|1945||Organization||The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is established. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and improve nutrition and food security.|
|1946||Undernutrition||Organization||Freedom from Hunger is founded. Throughout the decades, it would be responsible for a number of hunger alleviation programs in Latin America, Asia and Africa.||United States|
|1955||Overnutrition||Organization||Ray Kroc founds the first McDonald’s in Des Plaines, Illinois.||United States|
|1961||Undernutrition||Organization||The World Food Programme is established.|
|1963||The WHO and FAO publish the Codex Alimentarius, which serves as an guideline to food safety.|
|1967||Overnutrition||Product||High fructose corn syrup is first introduced by The Food and Drug Administration and appears in fast food. This new substance is primarily used in soft drinks and to sweeten processed food items.|
|1969||Malnutrition||Conference||United States President Richard Nixon organizes a White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health to draw attention to widespread malnutrition and the nutritional problems of Americans. The conference goal is to compose a national nutrition policy and determine how to make it effective.||United States|
|1969||Undernutrition||Product||High energy food K-Mix 2 is developed by UNICEF as a therapeutic food in response to the Nigerian Civil War.|
|1973||Malnutrition||Regulation||The United States Food and Drug Administration creates the first regulations that require the nutrition labeling of foods. These regulations make any foods that are advertised or labeled based on their nutritional value to provide full nutrition facts.||United States|
|1974||Undernutrition||Organization||The World Food Council is established by the United Nations General Assembly as a coordinating body with the purpose for national ministries of agriculture to help alleviate malnutrition and hunger and to facilitate the development of new agricultural techniques to increase food production. WFC would be officially suspended in 1993, with its functions being absorbed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Food Programme.|
|1974||Undernutrition||Organization||Non-profit vegan food relief organization Food for Life Global is founded.|
|1974||The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition is adopted.||Italy (Rome)|
|1975||Undernutrition||Organization||United States non-governmental organization WhyHunger is founded. It works around the world to support grassroots-led social movements, organizations, alliances and leaders working to end hunger and poverty.|
|1977||Undernutrition||Organization||The Hunger Project is founded as an organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger.||United States|
|1979||Undernutrition||Organization||Action Against Hunger (Action Contre La Faim) originates in France. It is a global humanitarian organization committed to ending world hunger, helping malnourished children and providing communities with access to safe water and sustainable solutions to hunger.||France|
|1982||Overnutrition||Organization||The Obesity Society is founded. It is focused on obesity science, treatment and prevention.|
|1985||Undernutrition||Organization||Famine Early Warning Systems Network.|
|1985||Undernutrition||Organization||Project Open Hand is founded in San Francisco. It provides meals to sick and vulnerable people.||United States|
|1989||Overnutrition||Product||Wendy’s first introduces their US$0.99 Super Value Menu, which consists of several popular items for a bargain.|
|1990||Undernutrition||Statistics||There are a reported 216 million undernourished people in the world.||Worldwide|
|1992||Undernutrition||Organization||Food Donation Connection is founded as a private American company. It serves as the liaison between restaurants/food service companies interested in donating surplus food, and local social service agencies that distribute food to people in need.||United States|
|1992||Undernutrition||Organization||Nutrition International is founded. It is an international not for profit agency based in Canada that works to eliminate vitamin and mineral deficiencies in developing countries.||Canada|
|1995||The World Health Organization estimates that 13.8 million children have some degree of visual loss related to Vitamin A deficiency (VAD).|
|2000||Overnutrition||Organization||National Obesity Forum is founded as a British independent professional organization which campaigns for a more interventional approach to obesity.||United Kingdom|
|2000||Undernutrition||Organization||The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is founded.||United States|
|2002||Overnutrition||Legal||McDonald’s is sued by a group of overweight children for obesity related health problems because of their consumption of the company's products.||United States|
|2002||Undernutrition||Program launch||The United Nations Special Session on Children sets a goal of the elimination of vitamin A deficiency by 2010.|
|2002||Undernutrition||Organization||Swiss-based foundation Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition is founded. It works with diverse partners to address the problem of malnutrition in the world.|
|2003||Undernutrition||Organization||California-based Nutrition and Education International is formed to fight widespread malnutrition among women and children who live in high-mortality areas in Afghanistan. |
|2003–2005||Statistics||According to FAO food balances, available calories in OECD countries average 3,400 per person, up from 2,900 in 1964-66. Similar increases are recorded outside the OECD, in Latin America, North Africa and Asia-Pacific, where daily per capita caloric availability now generally exceeds 3,000 calories per person.|
|2006||Undernutrition||Statistics||The Global Hunger Index is established.|
|2007||Undernutrition||Program launch||The World Hunger Relief program is launched by American fast food corporation Yum! Brands. It is most expansive private sector hunger relief effort, providing millions of meals to people in many countries.|
|2007||Overnutrition||Organization||The United States National Policy and Legal Analysis Network to Prevent Childhood Obesity is founded with the goal "to create strong childhood obesity policy interventions that will reverse the epidemic by 2015".||United States|
|2007||Undernutrition||Statistics||923 million people are reported as being undernourished, an increase of 80 million since 1990-92.||Worldwide|
|2008||Undernutrition||Statistics||The World Health Organization estimates that globally, half of all cases of undernutrition in children under five are caused by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene.||Worldwide|
|2008||Undernutrition||Organization||Nourishing USA is founded.||United States|
|2010||Statistics||As of date, malnutrition is reported to be the cause of 1.4% of all disability adjusted life years.|
|2011||Overnutrition||Organization||EPODE International Network is founded. It is a non-governmental organization that seeks to support childhood obesity-prevention programs across the world.|
|2011||Undernutrition||Medical development||An international consensus group adopts a definition of cachexia as “a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that can be partially but not entirely reversed by conventional nutritional support.”|
|2011–2013||Undernutrition||Statistics||An estimated 842 million people suffer from chronic hunger in this period.|
|2012||Undernutrition||Organization||National Crusade Against Hunger (Mexico) is founded. A program sponsored by the Mexican government, its main purpose is to significantly reduce hunger and poverty in Mexico through social intervention, increasing the general socio economic status of the communities by the development of infrastructure.||Mexico|
|2012||Undernutrition||Charitable organization Vitamin Angels partners with vitamin A manufacturer, DSM, on distribution programs to eradicate childhood blindness by vitamin A supplementation.|
|2012–2018||Undernutrition||Statistics||The number of stunted children decreases from 165.8 million to 148.9 million in the period.||Worldwide|
|2013||Overnutrition||Product||Wendy’s enhances the size and names of their drinks to keep up with the demand for soda from their consumers. They 32-ounce soda “biggie” is changed to medium, adding large 42-ounce soda, and changing medium French fries to small, “biggie” to medium, and “great biggie” to large.|
|2013||Undernutrition||Vitamin deficiency||The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is 29% in low-income and middle-income countries, remaining highest in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.|
|2013||Undernutrition||Statistics||An estimated 165 million children are estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in the year.||Worldwide|
|2014||Undernutrition||Statistics||There are a reported 795 million undernourished people in the world in in the year, a decrease of 216 million since 1990.||Worldwide|
|2014||Undernutrition||Program launch||ShareTheMeal is founded. It is a crowdfunding smartphone application to fight global hunger through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). It enables users to make small donations to specific WFP projects and to track its progress. |
|2014||Overnutrition||Organization||Global Energy Balance Network is founded. It is a US-based nonprofit claiming to fund research into causes of obesity.||United States|
|2014||Undernutrition||Organization||No Food Waste is founded in India to address the problem of hunger.||India|
|2015||Undernutrition||Program launch||The European Union and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launch a partnership to combat undernutrition especially in children. The program initiatilly is expected to be implemented in Bangladesh, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Laos and Niger, aiming at helping these countries to improve information and analysis about nutrition so they can develop effective national nutrition policies.||Worldwide|
|2015||Undernutrition||Statistics||Protein-energy malnutrition is estimated to result in 323,000 deaths worldwide.||Worldwide|
|2015||Undernutrition||Statistics||One in seven newborns, or 20.5 million babies globally, suffer from low birthweight in the year, with wide variations across regions, from 7.0 percent in Northern America and Europe to 17.3 percent in Asia.||Worldwide|
|2017||Undernutrition||Statistics||More than 75 percent of the world’s hungry, 78 percent of the stunted children and 64 percent of the extreme poor live in middle-income countries, and only in a handful of the world’s poorest countries.||Developing world|
|2018||Undernutrition||Statistics||The United Nations estimates that there were 821 million undernourished people in the world in the year (10.8% of the total population).||Worldwide|
|2018||Overnutrition||Statistics||Globally, overweight affects 40.1 million children under five years of age in the year. While Asia and Africa have the lowest overweight prevalence (5.2 percent and 4.9 percent respectively), together they account for nearly three-quarters of all overweight under-fives in the world (46.9 percent in Asia and 23.8 percent in Africa).||Worldwide|
|2018||Undernutrition||Statistics||Worldwide, 49.5 million children under five are affected by acute malnutrition or wasting. More than two-thirds of all wasted children under five live in Asia.||Worldwide|
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How the timeline was built
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What the timeline is still missing
-  (For visual data)
- Protein–energy malnutrition
- Prenatal nutrition
- Undernutrition in children
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