Difference between revisions of "Timeline of mobile telephony"

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| 1980s || {{w|1G}} is deployed.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> Mobile phone technology starts to be released commercially.<ref name="History of Mobile / Cell Phone">{{cite web|title=History of Mobile / Cell Phone|url=http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/history/mobile-cell-phone.php|website=radio-electronics.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices begins.  
 
| 1980s || {{w|1G}} is deployed.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> Mobile phone technology starts to be released commercially.<ref name="History of Mobile / Cell Phone">{{cite web|title=History of Mobile / Cell Phone|url=http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/history/mobile-cell-phone.php|website=radio-electronics.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices begins.  
 
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| 1990s || Mobile telephony revolutionizes telecommunications during the decade.<ref name="The Case of Cellular Mobile Telephony">{{cite web|title=The Case of Cellular Mobile Telephony|url=https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-57548-8_4|website=springer.com|accessdate=21 August 2017}}</ref> {{w|2G}} Second–generation wireless telephone technology becomes available, <ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets"/> bringing the first digital systems to be deployed.<ref name="History of Mobile / Cell Phone"/><ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> {{w|Mobile phone operator}}s start offering {{w|prepay mobile phone}}s. European and American networks start to split apart and compete against one another.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/>  
+
| 1990s || Mobile telephony revolutionizes telecommunications during the decade.<ref name="The Case of Cellular Mobile Telephony">{{cite web|title=The Case of Cellular Mobile Telephony|url=https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-57548-8_4|website=springer.com|accessdate=21 August 2017}}</ref> {{w|2G}} Second–generation wireless telephone technology becomes available, <ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets"/> bringing the first digital systems to be deployed.<ref name="History of Mobile / Cell Phone"/><ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> {{w|Mobile phone operator}}s start offering {{w|prepay mobile phone}}s. European and American networks start to split apart and compete against one another.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> The {{w|IBM Simon}} is introduced, being possibly the world’s first smartphone.<ref name="A BIG CHANGE FOR HUMANITY"/>
 
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| 2000s || [[w:Apple Inc.|Apple]] introduces the {{w|iPhone}}. [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] operating system launches. {{w|3G}} technology starts deployment.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/>
+
| 2000s || [[w:Apple Inc.|Apple]] introduces the {{w|iPhone}}. [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] operating system launches. {{w|3G}} technology starts deployment.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> Between 2000 and 2003, the mobile phone experiences two of the biggest changes in its physical configuration: The introduction of QWERTY keyboard by {{w|BlackBerry}} as a popular standard, and the arrival of LCD {{w|touchscreen}}s.<ref>{{cite book |title=Technical Innovation in American History: An Encyclopedia of Science and Technology [3 volumes] |edition=Rosanne Welch, Peg A. Lamphier |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aWGHDwAAQBAJ&pg=RA2-PA219&lpg=RA2-PA219&dq=%22prepaid+mobile+phones%22+%221990s%22&source=bl&ots=hcZC-gr1MZ&sig=ACfU3U1l9aOFhwH7hg0SMd3gT6FWyajTDQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiy14z9paPkAhV3IbkGHSgYDb4Q6AEwFXoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22prepaid%20mobile%20phones%22%20%221990s%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| 2010s || A massive development in {{w|smartphone}} technology takes place. {{w|4G}} technology starts deployment.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> Mobile telephony keeps extending into developing and {{w|least developed countries}}. {{w|5G}} technology is still in development phase as no standard for its deployment has been concreted.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx|title=ITU towards “IMT for 2020 and beyond” - IMT-2020 standards for 5G|last=|first=|date=|website=International Telecommunications Union|language=en-US|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=19 August 2017}}</ref>
 
| 2010s || A massive development in {{w|smartphone}} technology takes place. {{w|4G}} technology starts deployment.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> Mobile telephony keeps extending into developing and {{w|least developed countries}}. {{w|5G}} technology is still in development phase as no standard for its deployment has been concreted.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx|title=ITU towards “IMT for 2020 and beyond” - IMT-2020 standards for 5G|last=|first=|date=|website=International Telecommunications Union|language=en-US|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=19 August 2017}}</ref>
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! Year !! Event type !! Details !!
 
! Year !! Event type !! Details !!
 
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| 1876 (March 10) || Antecedent || [[w:Scottish people|Scottish]]-born {{w|Alexander Graham Bell}}, the inventor of the {{w|telephone}}, makes the first phone call.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone">{{cite web|title=1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone|url=https://mcs-testequipment.com/story/1876-to-2015-the-history-of-the-mobile-phone/|website=mcs-testequipment.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1876 (March 10) || Prelude || [[w:Scottish people|Scottish]]-born {{w|Alexander Graham Bell}}, the inventor of the {{w|telephone}}, makes the first phone call.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone">{{cite web|title=1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone|url=https://mcs-testequipment.com/story/1876-to-2015-the-history-of-the-mobile-phone/|website=mcs-testequipment.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1894 || || Italian inventor {{w|Guglielmo Marconi}} transmits signals over the distance of 2 kms.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones">{{cite web|title=Invention Story of Cell Phones|url=https://www.engineersgarage.com/invention-stories/mobile-phone-history|website=engineersgarage.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 1894 || Prelude || Italian inventor {{w|Guglielmo Marconi}} transmits signals over the distance of 2 kms.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones">{{cite web|title=Invention Story of Cell Phones|url=https://www.engineersgarage.com/invention-stories/mobile-phone-history|website=engineersgarage.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1906 || Antecedent || Canadian-born inventor {{w|Reginald Fessenden}} manages to broadcast music through {{w|radio}}.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1906 || Prelude || Canadian-born inventor {{w|Reginald Fessenden}} manages to broadcast music through {{w|radio}}.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1908 || Antecedent || A man claims to have invented a wireless telephone. Being considered so crazy for this time, he is accused of fraud. The charges are later dropped.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
+
| 1908 || Prelude || A man claims to have invented a wireless telephone. Being considered so crazy for this time, he is accused of fraud. The charges are later dropped.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1921 || Antecedent || The Detroit Police Department introduce mobile radios in their police cars, giving rise to the car–to–car radios. However, the system doesn't work very well at the time.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1921 || Prelude || The Detroit Police Department introduce mobile radios in their police cars, giving rise to the car–to–car radios. However, the system doesn't work very well at the time.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1924 || Network launch || Wireless phones are tested on trains running between {{w|Berlin}} and {{w|Hamburg}}.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1924 || Network technology || Wireless phones are tested on trains running between {{w|Berlin}} and {{w|Hamburg}}.<ref name="physicslover">{{cite web |title=History of mobile phones and the first mobile phone |url=https://www.physicslover.in/2018/04/history-of-mobile-phones-and-first.html |website=physicslover.in |accessdate=25 June 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1926 || || The first successful mobile telephony service is offered to first class passengers in trains of the Deutsche Reichsbahn on the route between {{w|Berlin}} and {{w|Hamburg}}.<ref name="History of mobile phones and the first mobile phone"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1940 || Technology || {{w|Second World War}}: Hand-held radio receivers become widely available, opening up communications in battlefields around the world.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
| 1940 || Technology || {{w|Second World War}}: Hand-held radio receivers become widely available, opening up communications in battlefields around the world.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1945 || Network launch || The first service created just for mobile phones launches in {{w|Saint Louis}}, but the service doesn't work well and it does not last.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1945 || Network technology || The first service created just for mobile phones launches in {{w|Saint Louis}}, but the service doesn't work well and it does not last.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 (June) || Network launch || American company {{w|Bell Labs}} begins to offer mobile telephone services on vehicles in {{w|Saint Louis}}. A few weeks later, {{w|AT&T}} matches Bell Labs, offering its {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} ({{w|0G equivalent}}), at the time a wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services with limited coverage areas and a small number of available channels.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
+
| 1946 (June) || Network technology || American company {{w|Bell Labs}} begins to offer mobile telephone services on vehicles in {{w|Saint Louis}}. A few weeks later, {{w|AT&T}} matches Bell Labs, offering its {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} ({{w|0G equivalent}}), at the time a wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services with limited coverage areas and a small number of available channels.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || Network launch || Interconnection of mobile {{w|transmitter}}s and receivers with the {{w|Public switched telephone network}} (PSTN) begins in the United States, with the introduction of {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} (MTS) by the [[w:AT&T| American Telephone and Telegraph Company]].<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1946 || Network technology  || Interconnection of mobile {{w|transmitter}}s and receivers with the {{w|Public switched telephone network}} (PSTN) begins in the United States, with the introduction of {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} (MTS) by the [[w:AT&T| American Telephone and Telegraph Company]].<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1947 || Technology || Engineers at {{w|Bell Labs}} seek ways to implement cell service in vehicles, theorizing that hexagonal cells would work best for them. The first car phone service is attempted. A car phone service opens between {{w|Boston}} and {{w|New York}}, but this service soon fails.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> The same year, base stations for mobile phones come into being when engineers from Bell Labs develop the first stations.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/>|| {{w|United States}}
 
| 1947 || Technology || Engineers at {{w|Bell Labs}} seek ways to implement cell service in vehicles, theorizing that hexagonal cells would work best for them. The first car phone service is attempted. A car phone service opens between {{w|Boston}} and {{w|New York}}, but this service soon fails.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> The same year, base stations for mobile phones come into being when engineers from Bell Labs develop the first stations.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/>|| {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || || {{w|Bell Labs}} is the first company to propose a cellular radio telephone network.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1947 || Network technology || {{w|Bell Labs}} is the first company to propose a cellular radio telephone network.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1948 || Service coverage || The {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}}, initially only available in {{w|Saint Louis}}, becomes now available in about 100 towns in the United States. Using this service, an estimated 5,000 customers place approximately 30,000 calls each week. Each call has to be manually connected by an operator. The system also functions similar to a Walkie-Talkie: a button must be pushed down talk, then released to listen. The Mobile Telephone Service requires about 36kg of equipment in the vehicle. Expensive, it costs approximately US$ 15 per month (same buying power as $154.76 in 2017) plus an additional $0.30 to $0.40 per local call. <ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1948 || Service coverage || The {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}}, initially only available in {{w|Saint Louis}}, becomes now available in about 100 towns in the United States. Using this service, an estimated 5,000 customers place approximately 30,000 calls each week. Each call has to be manually connected by an operator. The system also functions similar to a Walkie-Talkie: a button must be pushed down talk, then released to listen. The Mobile Telephone Service requires about 36kg of equipment in the vehicle. Expensive, it costs approximately US$ 15 per month (same buying power as $154.76 in 2017) plus an additional $0.30 to $0.40 per local call. <ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1952 || Network launch || A-Netz network is launched as a Mobile Radio Network in {{w|West Germany}}.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref>{{cite book|last1=Berg|first1=Christian|title=Smartphones und Tablets. Ihre Auswirkungen auf den privaten Alltag|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=p5OtoGHRXFsC&pg=PA6&dq=%22A-Netz%22+%221952%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwip2oXUiKvVAhUDHZAKHYH8DWkQ6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=%22A-Netz%22%20%221952%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|West Germany}}
+
| 1952 || Network technology || A-Netz network is launched as a Mobile Radio Network in {{w|West Germany}}.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref>{{cite book|last1=Berg|first1=Christian|title=Smartphones und Tablets. Ihre Auswirkungen auf den privaten Alltag|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=p5OtoGHRXFsC&pg=PA6&dq=%22A-Netz%22+%221952%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwip2oXUiKvVAhUDHZAKHYH8DWkQ6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=%22A-Netz%22%20%221952%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|West Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1956 || Service launch || The first ever partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), is introduced in Sweden. <ref name="Evolution of Mobile Phones from 1956 - 2007">{{cite web|title=Evolution of Mobile Phones from 1956 - 2007|url=http://www.techeblog.com/index.php/tech-gadget/evolution-of-mobile-phones-from-1956-2007|website=techeblog.com|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Car phone|url=https://ar.pinterest.com/pin/561472278517029808/|website=pinterest.com|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
| 1956 || Service launch || The first ever partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), is introduced in Sweden. <ref name="Evolution of Mobile Phones from 1956 - 2007">{{cite web|title=Evolution of Mobile Phones from 1956 - 2007|url=http://www.techeblog.com/index.php/tech-gadget/evolution-of-mobile-phones-from-1956-2007|website=techeblog.com|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Car phone|url=https://ar.pinterest.com/pin/561472278517029808/|website=pinterest.com|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || Network launch || [[w:Ericson|Ericsson Company]] releases the first fully automated mobile telephone. Introduced in Sweden, the system, known in [[w:Swedish language|Swedish]] as [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem A]] (MTA), allows for automated connection from a rotary handset (that’s the circular dialing knob to me and you) mounted within a car, but requires an operator to forward calls.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones"/><ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones">{{cite web|title=A Brief History Of Mobile Phones|url=http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/history-mobile-phones/|website=makeuseof.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 1957–1961 || Product development || Soviet engineer {{w|Leonid Kupriyanovich}} develops a number of mobile phones that look surprisingly similar to modern mobile devices. One of these devices weighs just 70 grams and can fit into the palm of the hand.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || Network launch || [[w:Altai (mobile telephone system)|Altai]] mobile telephone system (системы "Алтай") is introduced as a pre-cellular {{w|0G}} radiotelephone service in the Soviet Union.<ref>{{cite web|title=Мобильная связь в СССР (7 фото)|url=http://www.vasi.net/community/kartinki/2009/05/15/mobilnaja_svjaz_v_sssr_7_foto.html|website=vasi.net|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Soviet Union}}
+
| 1959 || Network technology || The Post Office Radiophone Service is launched in {{w|Manchester}}. The system requires callers to connect through an operator. However, that operator could connect users to any subscriber across all of Great Britain.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1957–1961 || Product development || Soviet engineer {{w|Leonid Kupriyanovich}} develops a number of mobile phones that look surprisingly similar to modern mobile devices. One of these devices weighs just 70 grams and can fit into the palm of the hand.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
+
| 1960 || Network technology || [[w:Ericson|Ericsson Company]] releases the first fully automated mobile telephone. Introduced in Sweden, the system, known in [[w:Swedish language|Swedish]] as [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem A]] (MTA), allows for automated connection from a rotary handset (that’s the circular dialing knob to me and you) mounted within a car, but requires an operator to forward calls.<ref name="Invention Story of Cell Phones"/><ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones">{{cite web|title=A Brief History Of Mobile Phones|url=http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/history-mobile-phones/|website=makeuseof.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1959 || Network launch || The Post Office Radiophone Service is launched in {{w|Manchester}}. The system requires callers to connect through an operator. However, that operator could connect users to any subscriber across all of Great Britain.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1962 || Network technology || {{w|AT&T}} develops a prototype for the first generation cellular mobile communications technology.<ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || {{w|AT&T}} develops a prototype for the first generation cellular mobile communications technology.<ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1962 || Network technology || Swedish [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem A]] (MTA) is replaced by [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem B]] (MTB), which uses {{w|transistor}}ized mobile sets. This system would last until 1983.<ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || Network launch || Swedish [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem A]] (MTA) is replaced by [[w:MTD (mobile network)|Mobiltelefonisystem B]] (MTB), which uses {{w|transistor}}ized mobile sets. This system would last until 1983.<ref name="A Brief History Of Mobile Phones"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 1963 || Network technology || [[w:Altai (mobile telephone system)|Altai]] mobile telephone system (системы "Алтай") is introduced as a pre-cellular {{w|0G}} radiotelephone service in the Soviet Union.<ref>{{cite web|title=Мобильная связь в СССР (7 фото)|url=http://www.vasi.net/community/kartinki/2009/05/15/mobilnaja_svjaz_v_sssr_7_foto.html|website=vasi.net|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Soviet Union}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1964 || Pre-cellular [[w:Very High Frequency|VHF]]/[[w:Ultra High Frequency|UHF]] {{w|radio}} system launch || {{w|Improved Mobile Telephone Service}} (IMTS) is introduced by {{w|AT&T}} as a replacement to {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} (MTS) and improved on most MTS systems by offering direct-dial rather than connections through a live operator.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica">{{cite web|title=Mobile telephone|url=https://www.britannica.com/technology/mobile-telephone#ref1079050|website=britannica.com|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 1964 || Pre-cellular [[w:Very High Frequency|VHF]]/[[w:Ultra High Frequency|UHF]] {{w|radio}} system launch || {{w|Improved Mobile Telephone Service}} (IMTS) is introduced by {{w|AT&T}} as a replacement to {{w|Mobile Telephone Service}} (MTS) and improved on most MTS systems by offering direct-dial rather than connections through a live operator.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica">{{cite web|title=Mobile telephone|url=https://www.britannica.com/technology/mobile-telephone#ref1079050|website=britannica.com|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
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| 1968 || System standard development || {{w|Bell Labs}} starts developing the {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) standard.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1965 || Network technology || {{w|AT&T}} introduces the first major improvement to mobile telephony, creating the Improved Mobile Telephone Service, which allows more simultaneous calls in a given geographic area, introducing customer dialing, and reducing the size and weight of the equipment.<ref name="A BIG CHANGE FOR HUMANITY">{{cite web |title=A BIG CHANGE FOR HUMANITY |url=https://phoneevolution.wordpress.com/ |website=phoneevolution.wordpress.com |accessdate=27 August 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
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| 1969 || || [[w:Penn Central Transportation Company|Penn Central Railroad]] equips commuter trains along the New York-[[w:Washington, D.C.|Washington]] route with special pay phones that allow passengers to place telephone calls while the train is moving.<ref name=GS2006>Gordon A. Gow, Richard K. Smith ''Mobile and wireless communications: an introduction'', McGraw-Hill International, 2006 {{ISBN|0-335-21761-3}} page 23</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1968 || Network technology || {{w|Bell Labs}} starts developing the {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) standard.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1969 || Program launch || Engineers from the Nordic countries meet and set up the first mobile phone system  international standard, the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT).<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise">{{cite book|last1=Boutellier|first1=Roman|last2=Heinzen|first2=Mareike|title=Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Gti4BAAAQBAJ&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=%22+mobile+phones%22+%22saint+louis%22+%221945%22&source=bl&ots=2eWiBDNLRy&sig=lINddVyZmQ57aDoDvXHPs_seaHI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWvYCJgKvVAhWKIpAKHQZmBnAQ6AEIOTAD#v=onepage&q=%22%20mobile%20phones%22%20%22saint%20louis%22%20%221945%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Scandinavia}}
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| 1969 || Network technology || [[w:Penn Central Transportation Company|Penn Central Railroad]] equips commuter trains along the New York-[[w:Washington, D.C.|Washington]] route with special pay phones that allow passengers to place telephone calls while the train is moving.<ref name=GS2006>Gordon A. Gow, Richard K. Smith ''Mobile and wireless communications: an introduction'', McGraw-Hill International, 2006 {{ISBN|0-335-21761-3}} page 23</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
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| 1971 || New term || The term ''cell'' comes into play when {{w|AT&T}} proposes splitting phone service into different areas across the cities. These areas are called ''cells''.<ref name="cell phone Timeline">{{cite web|title=cell phone Timeline|url=http://www.softschools.com/timelines/cell_phone_timeline/28/|website=softschools.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1969 || Organization || The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) Group is established in {{w|Scandinavia}} and {{w|Finland}} with the purpose to develop a mobile phone system that, unlike the systems being introduced in the {{w|United States}}, focuses on accessibility.<ref name="physicslover"/> || {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Sweden}}, {{w|Norway}}, {{w|Finland}}
 
|-
 
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| 1971 || Network launch || {{w|Autoradiopuhelin}} (ARP) network is launched in {{w|Finland}}. It is one of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks.<ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology">{{cite book|title=Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology|edition=Seo, DongBack|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=O9aeBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=%22Autoradiopuhelin%22+%221971%22&source=bl&ots=X6YAFDB728&sig=2-x4IlQA8QBaUzospfoxTxTEz6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0-9y5k6vVAhUCPpAKHRQPCJ4Q6AEIXzAM#v=onepage&q=%22Autoradiopuhelin%22%20%221971%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
+
| 1969 || PNetwork technology || Engineers from the Nordic countries meet and set up the first mobile phone system  international standard, the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT).<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise">{{cite book|last1=Boutellier|first1=Roman|last2=Heinzen|first2=Mareike|title=Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Gti4BAAAQBAJ&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=%22+mobile+phones%22+%22saint+louis%22+%221945%22&source=bl&ots=2eWiBDNLRy&sig=lINddVyZmQ57aDoDvXHPs_seaHI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWvYCJgKvVAhWKIpAKHQZmBnAQ6AEIOTAD#v=onepage&q=%22%20mobile%20phones%22%20%22saint%20louis%22%20%221945%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Scandinavia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || Network launch || {{w|B-Netz}} {{w|mobile radio}} network is launched in {{w|West Germany}}.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1971 || Terminology || The term ''cell'' comes into play when {{w|AT&T}} proposes splitting phone service into different areas across the cities. These areas are called ''cells''.<ref name="cell phone Timeline">{{cite web|title=cell phone Timeline|url=http://www.softschools.com/timelines/cell_phone_timeline/28/|website=softschools.com|accessdate=24 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1973 || Technology || 10 years before a cell phone was first released onto the market, [[w:Martin Cooper (inventor)|Martin Cooper]], a {{w|Motorola}} researcher and executive, makes the first analog mobile phone call using a heavy prototype model. The communication is carried out between Cooper and {{w|Joel S. Engel}} of {{w|Bell Labs}}.<ref>{{cite news|last=Shiels |first=Maggie |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2963619.stm |title=BBC interview with Martin Cooper | work=BBC News | date=April 21, 2003}}</ref><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/>|| {{w|United States}}
+
| 1971 || Network technology || {{w|Autoradiopuhelin}} (ARP) network is launched in {{w|Finland}}. It is one of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks.<ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology">{{cite book|title=Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology|edition=Seo, DongBack|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=O9aeBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=%22Autoradiopuhelin%22+%221971%22&source=bl&ots=X6YAFDB728&sig=2-x4IlQA8QBaUzospfoxTxTEz6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0-9y5k6vVAhUCPpAKHRQPCJ4Q6AEIXzAM#v=onepage&q=%22Autoradiopuhelin%22%20%221971%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 (December) || Network launch || {{w|1G}}, the first generation of {{w|wireless}} {{w|telephone}} {{w|technology}}, is launched in {{w|Japan}} by {{w|Nippon Telegraph and Telephone}} (NTT). It becomes the world's first mobile phone network to be launched.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> Initially deployed in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, within five years, the NTT network expand to cover the whole population of Japan and becomes the first nationwide 1G network.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets">{{cite book|last1=Hilbert|first1=Jeffrey L.|title=Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=4C_SCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=%221979%22+%221G%22+%22NTT%22+%22Japan%22&source=bl&ots=dsRRCNnxIe&sig=TQKZnLlJBulcFC3asRluSLTqsp8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiS5qe-86XVAhVBEZAKHRxLCT8Q6AEIYzAN#v=onepage&q=%221979%22%20%221G%22%20%22NTT%22%20%22Japan%22&f=false|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref name="Global Competitiveness of U.S. Advanced-Technology Industries: Cellular Communications"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 1972 || Network technology || {{w|B-Netz}} {{w|mobile radio}} network is launched in {{w|West Germany}}.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981–1986 || Network launch || The {{w|Nordic Mobile Telephone}} (NMT) system opens in {{w|Sweden}} and {{w|Norway}}. NMT is the first mobile phone network to feature international {{w|roaming}}. The system is introduced in {{w|Denmark}} and {{w|Finland}} in 1982, and in {{w|Iceland}} in 1986.<ref>{{cite web|title=Mobiltelefonens historie i Norge|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070213045903/http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|website=archive.org|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/> || {{w|Scandinavia}}, {{w|Finland}}
+
| 1973 || Technology milestone || 10 years before a cell phone is first released onto the market, [[w:Martin Cooper (inventor)|Martin Cooper]], a {{w|Motorola}} researcher and executive, makes the first analog mobile phone call using a heavy prototype model. The communication is carried out between Cooper and {{w|Joel S. Engel}} of {{w|Bell Labs}}.<ref>{{cite news|last=Shiels |first=Maggie |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2963619.stm |title=BBC interview with Martin Cooper | work=BBC News | date=April 21, 2003}}</ref><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/>|| {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981 || Network launch || The Saudi mobile phone network becomes operational.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|Saudi Arabia}}
+
| 1973 || Handset release || {{w|Motorola}} becomes the first company to mass produce the the first handheld mobile phone.<ref name="History of mobile phones and the first mobile phone">{{cite web |title=History of mobile phones and the first mobile phone |url=https://www.uswitch.com/mobiles/guides/history-of-mobile-phones/ |website=uswitch.com |accessdate=25 June 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1973 || Mobile phone service || A cellular telephone switching plan is described by Fluhr and Nussbaum.<ref>"Switching Plan for a Cellular Mobile Telephone System":, Z. Fluhr and E. Nussbaum, IEEE Transactions on Communications volume 21, #11 p. 1281 (1973)</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1977 || Network technology || A cellular telephone data signaling system is described by Hachenburg et al.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1109/T-VT.1977.23660 |title=Data signaling functions for a cellular mobile telephone system|year=1977|last1=Hachenburg|first1=V.|last2=Holm|first2=B.D.|last3=Smith|first3=J.I.|journal=IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology|volume=26|pages=82–88}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1979 (December) || Network technology || {{w|1G}}, the first generation of {{w|wireless}} {{w|telephone}} {{w|technology}}, is launched in {{w|Japan}} by {{w|Nippon Telegraph and Telephone}} (NTT). It becomes the world's first mobile phone network to be launched.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> Initially deployed in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, within five years, the NTT network expand to cover the whole population of Japan and becomes the first nationwide 1G network.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets">{{cite book|last1=Hilbert|first1=Jeffrey L.|title=Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=4C_SCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=%221979%22+%221G%22+%22NTT%22+%22Japan%22&source=bl&ots=dsRRCNnxIe&sig=TQKZnLlJBulcFC3asRluSLTqsp8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiS5qe-86XVAhVBEZAKHRxLCT8Q6AEIYzAN#v=onepage&q=%221979%22%20%221G%22%20%22NTT%22%20%22Japan%22&f=false|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/><ref name="Global Competitiveness of U.S. Advanced-Technology Industries: Cellular Communications"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1981–1986 || Network technology || The {{w|Nordic Mobile Telephone}} (NMT) system opens in {{w|Sweden}} and {{w|Norway}}. NMT is the first mobile phone network to feature international {{w|roaming}}. The system is introduced in {{w|Denmark}} and {{w|Finland}} in 1982, and in {{w|Iceland}} in 1986.<ref>{{cite web|title=Mobiltelefonens historie i Norge|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070213045903/http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|website=archive.org|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/> || {{w|Scandinavia}}, {{w|Finland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1981 || Network technology || The Saudi mobile phone network becomes operational.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|Saudi Arabia}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1982 || Policy || The European standard for protorypes is established.<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise"/> ||
 
| 1982 || Policy || The European standard for protorypes is established.<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1982 || || {{w|Ericsson}} constructs the first European cellular systems for use by service providers in {{w|Scandinavia}}.<ref name="Global Competitiveness of U.S. Advanced-Technology Industries: Cellular Communications"/>
+
| 1982 || Network technology || {{w|Ericsson}} constructs the first European cellular systems for use by service providers in {{w|Scandinavia}}.<ref name="Global Competitiveness of U.S. Advanced-Technology Industries: Cellular Communications"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 || Network launch || The {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) is officially introduced in {{w|North America}}.<ref name="Testing the First Cell Phone Network">{{cite web|author=AT&T Tech Channel |url=http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2011/6/13/AT&T-Archives-AMPS:-coming-of-age |title=AT&T Archives : Testing the First Public Cell Phone Network |publisher=Techchannel.att.com |date=2011-06-13 |accessdate=2013-09-28 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131029194138/http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2011/6/13/AT%26T-Archives-AMPS%3A-coming-of-age |archivedate=2013-10-29 }}</ref><ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/><ref name = "MilestonesPast">[http://www.milestonespast.com/exbringing.htm MilestonesPast].</ref> The system would further expand into {{w|Canada}} in 1985, later in {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Korea}}, {{w|Australia}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Laos}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, the {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}}, {{w|Vietnam}} and finally all {{w|Latin America}}n countries.<ref name="The Worldwide History of Telecommunications">{{cite book|last1=Huurdeman|first1=Anton A.|title=The Worldwide History of Telecommunications|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA524&lpg=PA524&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=qK9OeKa6Sb&sig=WvNgVd75Yw8B8llImI-gwLpE5vU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEITDAJ#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 1983 || Network technology || The {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) is officially introduced in {{w|North America}}.<ref name="Testing the First Cell Phone Network">{{cite web|author=AT&T Tech Channel |url=http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2011/6/13/AT&T-Archives-AMPS:-coming-of-age |title=AT&T Archives : Testing the First Public Cell Phone Network |publisher=Techchannel.att.com |date=2011-06-13 |accessdate=2013-09-28 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131029194138/http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2011/6/13/AT%26T-Archives-AMPS%3A-coming-of-age |archivedate=2013-10-29 }}</ref><ref name="Evolution and Standardization of Mobile Communications Technology"/><ref name = "MilestonesPast">[http://www.milestonespast.com/exbringing.htm MilestonesPast].</ref> The system would further expand into {{w|Canada}} in 1985, later in {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Korea}}, {{w|Australia}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Laos}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, the {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}}, {{w|Vietnam}} and finally all {{w|Latin America}}n countries.<ref name="The Worldwide History of Telecommunications">{{cite book|last1=Huurdeman|first1=Anton A.|title=The Worldwide History of Telecommunications|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA524&lpg=PA524&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=qK9OeKa6Sb&sig=WvNgVd75Yw8B8llImI-gwLpE5vU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEITDAJ#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 (March 6) || Product release || The [[w:Motorola DynaTAC|Motorola DynaTAC 8000X]] becomes the first mobile for sale in the United States. It costs US$ 4000 (equivalent to $9,894.75 in 2017). {{w|1G}} network launches in the country, with Chicago-based {{w|Ameritech}} using the {{w|Motorola DynaTAC}} mobile phone.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time">{{cite web|title=History of Mobile Cell Phones, The First Cell Phone To Present Time|url=https://bebusinessed.com/history/history-cell-phones/|website=bebusinessed.com|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> American engineer [[w:Martin Cooper (inventor)|Martin Cooper]] is credited with developing the device.<ref name="A Photographic History of the Cell Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1983 (March 6) || Handset release || The [[w:Motorola DynaTAC|Motorola DynaTAC 8000X]] becomes the first mobile for sale in the United States. It costs US$ 4000 (equivalent to $9,894.75 in 2017). {{w|1G}} network launches in the country, with Chicago-based {{w|Ameritech}} using the {{w|Motorola DynaTAC}} mobile phone.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time">{{cite web|title=History of Mobile Cell Phones, The First Cell Phone To Present Time|url=https://bebusinessed.com/history/history-cell-phones/|website=bebusinessed.com|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> American engineer [[w:Martin Cooper (inventor)|Martin Cooper]] is credited with developing the device.<ref name="A Photographic History of the Cell Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 || Network launch || The {{w|Total Access Communication System}} (TACS) ({{w|1G}}) is released in the {{w|United Kingdom}} as a variant of the {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS).<ref name="The Worldwide History of Telecommunications">{{cite book|last1=Huurdeman|first1=Anton A.|title=The Worldwide History of Telecommunications|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA524&lpg=PA524&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=qK9OeKa6Sb&sig=WvNgVd75Yw8B8llImI-gwLpE5vU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEITDAJ#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer">{{cite book|last1=O'Regan|first1=Gerard|title=Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6u16DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=jhOz9a9bEO&sig=nCxQ9zSMVhYT1S2heKDRmdcCdeM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEIQTAG#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1983 || Network technology || The {{w|Total Access Communication System}} (TACS) ({{w|1G}}) is released in the {{w|United Kingdom}} as a variant of the {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS).<ref name="The Worldwide History of Telecommunications">{{cite book|last1=Huurdeman|first1=Anton A.|title=The Worldwide History of Telecommunications|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA524&lpg=PA524&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=qK9OeKa6Sb&sig=WvNgVd75Yw8B8llImI-gwLpE5vU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEITDAJ#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer">{{cite book|last1=O'Regan|first1=Gerard|title=Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6u16DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=total+access+communication+system+(TACS)+%221983%22+united+kingdom&source=bl&ots=jhOz9a9bEO&sig=nCxQ9zSMVhYT1S2heKDRmdcCdeM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiChO3noafVAhVGj5AKHX0MDlYQ6AEIQTAG#v=onepage&q=total%20access%20communication%20system%20(TACS)%20%221983%22%20united%20kingdom&f=false|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 || Network launch || [[w:AMR radiotelephone network (Czechoslovakia)|AMR radiotelephone network]] (''Automatizovaný Městský Radiotelefon'' in {{w|Czech language}}) enters full mode as the very first analog {{w|mobile radio telephone}} in {{w|Czechoslovakia}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=First Czechoslovak radiotelephone networks: AMR|url=https://medium.com/@tangero/first-czechoslovak-radiotelephone-networks-amr-c00df4acf8d8|website=medium.com|accessdate=19 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Czechoslovakia}}
+
| 1983 || Network technology || [[w:AMR radiotelephone network (Czechoslovakia)|AMR radiotelephone network]] (''Automatizovaný Městský Radiotelefon'' in {{w|Czech language}}) enters full mode as the very first analog {{w|mobile radio telephone}} in {{w|Czechoslovakia}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=First Czechoslovak radiotelephone networks: AMR|url=https://medium.com/@tangero/first-czechoslovak-radiotelephone-networks-amr-c00df4acf8d8|website=medium.com|accessdate=19 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Czechoslovakia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || Network launch || Airborne cellular systems: The {{w|North American terrestrial system}} (NATS) is introduced in the United States by [[w:GTE|GTE Corporation]].<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||  {{w|United States}}
+
| 1984 || Network technology || Airborne cellular systems: The {{w|North American terrestrial system}} (NATS) is introduced in the United States by [[w:GTE|GTE Corporation]].<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||  {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985 || Coverage || The {{w|Nordic Mobile Telephone}} grows to 110,000 subscribers in {{w|Scandinavia}} and {{w|Finland}}, 63,300 in {{w|Norway}} alone, which makes it the world's largest mobile network at the time.<ref>{{cite web|last=Nordsveen|first=Arve M|title=Mobiltelefonens historie i Norge|url=http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|publisher=Norsk Telemuseum|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070213045903/http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|archivedate=13 February 2007|language=Norwegian|date=28 November 2005}}</ref>
+
| 1985 || Network technology || The {{w|Nordic Mobile Telephone}} grows to 110,000 subscribers in {{w|Scandinavia}} and {{w|Finland}}, 63,300 in {{w|Norway}} alone, which makes it the world's largest mobile network at the time.<ref>{{cite web|last=Nordsveen|first=Arve M|title=Mobiltelefonens historie i Norge|url=http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|publisher=Norsk Telemuseum|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070213045903/http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/|archivedate=13 February 2007|language=Norwegian|date=28 November 2005}}</ref> || {{w|Scandinavia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985 || || The first mobile call in the {{w|United Kingdom}} is made.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1985 || Technology milestone || The first mobile call in the {{w|United Kingdom}} is made.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985 || Network launch || The [[w:C-Netz|Radio Telephone Network C]] (C-Netz), is introduced in {{w|Germany}} as a [[w:1G|first generation]] [[w:analog signal|analog]] {{w|cellular phone}} system.<ref>{{cite web|title=Das C Netz in der Mobilfunk Geschichte|url=http://www.mobilfunk-geschichte.de/c-netz.html|website=mobilfunk-geschichte.de|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1985 || Network technology || The [[w:C-Netz|Radio Telephone Network C]] (C-Netz), is introduced in {{w|Germany}} as a [[w:1G|first generation]] [[w:analog signal|analog]] {{w|cellular phone}} system.<ref>{{cite web|title=Das C Netz in der Mobilfunk Geschichte|url=http://www.mobilfunk-geschichte.de/c-netz.html|website=mobilfunk-geschichte.de|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1985 || Study || A study group of the Geneva-based {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} (ITU) begins to consider specifications for Future Public Land Mobile Telephone Systems (FPLMTS). These specifications would eventually become the basis for a set of “third-generation” ({{w|3G}}) cellular standards, known collectively as {{w|IMT-2000}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
| 1985 || Study || A study group of the Geneva-based {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} (ITU) begins to consider specifications for Future Public Land Mobile Telephone Systems (FPLMTS). These specifications would eventually become the basis for a set of “third-generation” ({{w|3G}}) cellular standards, known collectively as {{w|IMT-2000}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1987 || Network technology || The Technical specifications for the {{w|Global System for Mobile Communications}} (GSM) standard are approved. Based on digital technology, it focuses on interoperability across national boundaries and consequent different frequency bands, call quality and low costs.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1988 || Program launch || A group of government-owned public telephone bodies within the European Community announce the creation of a digital [[w:GSM|Global System for Mobile Communications]] (originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), referred to as GSM, the first such system that would permit any cellular user in one European country to operate in another European country with the same equipment. GSM would soon become ubiquitous throughout the continent.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
| 1988 || Program launch || A group of government-owned public telephone bodies within the European Community announce the creation of a digital [[w:GSM|Global System for Mobile Communications]] (originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), referred to as GSM, the first such system that would permit any cellular user in one European country to operate in another European country with the same equipment. GSM would soon become ubiquitous throughout the continent.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 || Product || [[w:Motorola MicroTAC|Motorola MicroTAC 9800X]] is released. It becomes the first phone to feature a flip–down, and also the smallest and lightest phone available at the time.<ref>[http://articles.latimes.com/1989-04-26/business/fi-1843_1_cellular-service-tac-personal-telephone-pocket-size-cellular-phone Motorola Has a Pocket-Size Cellular Phone] Los Angeles, April 26, 1989</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 1989 || Handset release || [[w:Motorola MicroTAC|Motorola MicroTAC 9800X]] is released. It becomes the first phone to feature a flip–down, and also the smallest and lightest phone available at the time.<ref>[http://articles.latimes.com/1989-04-26/business/fi-1843_1_cellular-service-tac-personal-telephone-pocket-size-cellular-phone Motorola Has a Pocket-Size Cellular Phone] Los Angeles, April 26, 1989</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || Technology || The old [[w:Advanced Mobile Phone System|AMPS]] networks are replaced by {{w|Digital AMPS}} (D-AMPS).<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||   
+
| 1990 || Network technology || The old [[w:Advanced Mobile Phone System|AMPS]] networks are replaced by {{w|Digital AMPS}} (D-AMPS).<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || Technology || Second-generation ({{w|2G}}) cellular telecom networks are commercially launched on the {{w|GSM}} standard in {{w|Finland}} by {{w|Radiolinja}} (now part of {{w|Elisa Oyj}}).<ref name="Radiolinja's History">{{cite web|url=http://www.elisa.com/english/index.cfm?t=6&o=6532.50 |title=Radiolinja's History |date=20 April 2004 |accessdate=23 December 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061023212724/http://www.elisa.com/english/index.cfm?t=6 |archivedate=23 October 2006 }}</ref> The first wireless Internet access becomes available as part of this generation.<ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets"/>. Developed to serve voice communication, {{w|2G}} is first digital transmission system in mobile communication in history.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> Also, the first GSM call is made by the Finnish prime minister in the country.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|Finland}}
+
| 1990 || Expansion || There are 12.5 millions subscriptions to mobile telephony worldwide.<ref name="L’Histoire du Wi-Fi">{{cite web |title=L’Histoire du Wi-Fi |url=https://www.ucopia.com/fr/actualites/lhistoire-du-wi-fi/ |website=ucopia.com |accessdate=30 May 2018}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1992 (December 3) || Technology || Software architect {{w|Neil Papworth}} sends the first text message saying "Merry Christmas" to Richard Jarvis, a director at {{w|Vodafone}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=The First Text Message Ever Was Sent 21 Years Ago Today|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/the-first-text-message-ever-2013-12|website=businessinsider.com|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1991 || Network technology || Second-generation ({{w|2G}}) cellular telecom networks are commercially launched on the {{w|GSM}} standard in {{w|Finland}} by {{w|Radiolinja}} (now part of {{w|Elisa Oyj}}).<ref name="Radiolinja's History">{{cite web|url=http://www.elisa.com/english/index.cfm?t=6&o=6532.50 |title=Radiolinja's History |date=20 April 2004 |accessdate=23 December 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061023212724/http://www.elisa.com/english/index.cfm?t=6 |archivedate=23 October 2006 }}</ref> The first wireless Internet access becomes available as part of this generation.<ref name="Tunable RF Components and Circuits: Applications in Mobile Handsets"/>. Developed to serve voice communication, {{w|2G}} is first digital transmission system in mobile communication in history.<ref name="Wireless communications first-to-second-generation-1g-to-2g"/> Also, the first GSM call is made by the Finnish prime minister in the country.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> || {{w|Finland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1992 || Network launch || The {{w|European Telecommunications Standards Institute}} (ETSI) adopts a terrestrial Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC) system known as the terrestrial flight telephone system (TFTS).<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
+
| 1992 || Handset release || The {{w|Nokia 1011}} launches. It is the world’s first mass produced phone using the new GSM digital standard. It includes a monochrome {{w|LCD}} screen, extendable antenna and a memory capable of storing 99 phone numbers.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1992 (December 3) || Technology milestone || Software architect {{w|Neil Papworth}} sends the first text message saying "Merry Christmas" to Richard Jarvis, a director at {{w|Vodafone}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=The First Text Message Ever Was Sent 21 Years Ago Today|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/the-first-text-message-ever-2013-12|website=businessinsider.com|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1992 || Network technology || The {{w|European Telecommunications Standards Institute}} (ETSI) adopts a terrestrial Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC) system known as the terrestrial flight telephone system (TFTS).<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1992 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Andorra}}, {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Finland}}, {{w|France}}, {{w|Gabon}}, {{w|Germany}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Portugal}}, {{w|Sweden}}, and the {{w|United Kingdom}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?">{{cite web|title=Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?|url=https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/84651/1/rp2004-13.pdf|website=econstor.eu|accessdate=27 October 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Andorra}}, {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Finland}}, {{w|France}}, {{w|Gabon}}, {{w|Germany}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Portugal}}, {{w|Sweden}}, {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1992 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Andorra}}, {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Finland}}, {{w|France}}, {{w|Gabon}}, {{w|Germany}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Portugal}}, {{w|Sweden}}, and the {{w|United Kingdom}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?">{{cite web|title=Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?|url=https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/84651/1/rp2004-13.pdf|website=econstor.eu|accessdate=27 October 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Andorra}}, {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Finland}}, {{w|France}}, {{w|Gabon}}, {{w|Germany}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Portugal}}, {{w|Sweden}}, {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Technology || The first {{w|SMS}} text message is sent in Finland.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|Finland}}
+
| 1993 || Technology milestone || An early {{w|SMS}} text message is sent in Finland.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || {{w|Finland}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1993 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Australia}}, {{w|Austria}}, {{w|Greece}}. {{w|Ireland}}, {{w|Italy}}, {{w|Japan}}, {{w|Luxembourg}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Norway}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Switzerland}}, {{w|United States}} and {{w|Nicaragua}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Australia}}, {{w|Austria}}, {{w|Greece}}. {{w|Ireland}}, {{w|Italy}}, {{w|Japan}}, {{w|Luxembourg}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Norway}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Switzerland}}, {{w|United States}}, {{w|Nicaragua}}
 
| 1993 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Australia}}, {{w|Austria}}, {{w|Greece}}. {{w|Ireland}}, {{w|Italy}}, {{w|Japan}}, {{w|Luxembourg}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Norway}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Switzerland}}, {{w|United States}} and {{w|Nicaragua}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Australia}}, {{w|Austria}}, {{w|Greece}}. {{w|Ireland}}, {{w|Italy}}, {{w|Japan}}, {{w|Luxembourg}}, {{w|New Zealand}}, {{w|Norway}}, {{w|Singapore}}, {{w|Switzerland}}, {{w|United States}}, {{w|Nicaragua}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 (August 16) || Product release || The {{w|IBM Simon}} is released, featuring a {{w|touchscreen}} and is the first phone to feature [[w:mobile app|apps]]. It costs US$ 899.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> The IBM Simon is considered by many to be the world’s first smartphone.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/>|| {{w|United States}}
+
| 1994 (August 16) || Handset release || The {{w|IBM Simon}} is released, featuring a {{w|touchscreen}} and is the first phone to feature [[w:mobile app|apps]]. It costs US$ 899.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> The IBM Simon is considered by many to be the world’s first smartphone.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/>|| {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Belgium}}, the {{w|Channel Islands}}, {{w|Hungary}}, {{w|Iceland}}, {{w|Israel}}, {{w|Kuwait}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Qatar}}, {{w|South Africa}}, {{w|Turkey}}, {{w|United Arab Emirates}}, {{w|Cameroon}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Fiji}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Iran}}, {{w|Madagascar}}, {{w|Morocco}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Russia}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}} and {{w|Vietnam}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Belgium}}, the {{w|Channel Islands}}, {{w|Hungary}}, {{w|Iceland}}, {{w|Israel}}, {{w|Kuwait}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Qatar}}, {{w|South Africa}}, {{w|Turkey}}, {{w|United Arab Emirates}}, {{w|Cameroon}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Fiji}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Iran}}, {{w|Madagascar}}, {{w|Morocco}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Russia}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}}, {{w|Vietnam}}   
 
| 1994 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Belgium}}, the {{w|Channel Islands}}, {{w|Hungary}}, {{w|Iceland}}, {{w|Israel}}, {{w|Kuwait}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Qatar}}, {{w|South Africa}}, {{w|Turkey}}, {{w|United Arab Emirates}}, {{w|Cameroon}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Fiji}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Iran}}, {{w|Madagascar}}, {{w|Morocco}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Russia}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}} and {{w|Vietnam}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Belgium}}, the {{w|Channel Islands}}, {{w|Hungary}}, {{w|Iceland}}, {{w|Israel}}, {{w|Kuwait}}, {{w|Malaysia}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Qatar}}, {{w|South Africa}}, {{w|Turkey}}, {{w|United Arab Emirates}}, {{w|Cameroon}}, {{w|China}}, {{w|Fiji}}, {{w|Indonesia}}, {{w|Iran}}, {{w|Madagascar}}, {{w|Morocco}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Philippines}}, {{w|Russia}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Thailand}}, {{w|Vietnam}}   
 +
|-
 +
| 1994 (November) || Mobile phone service || A patent for prepaid mobile phones (Patent Number 5826185) is filed in the {{w|United States}}.<ref name=Wise>{{cite web|last=Wise|first=Andrew|title=Prepaid Cellular Patent|url=http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/5826185|work=5826185|publisher=USPTO|accessdate=January 24, 2012}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || Mobile phone service || Fax, data, and SMS messaging services are launched commercially.<ref name="Building a Dedicated GSM"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1995 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Bahrain}}, {{w|Canada}}, {{w|Costa Rica}}, {{w|Croatia}}, {{w|Cyprus}}, {{w|Estonia}}, {{w|French Polynesia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Macao}}, {{w|New Caledonia}}, {{w|Puerto Rico}}, {{w|Seychelles}}, {{w|Spain}}, {{w|Bulgaria}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Georgia}}, {{w|Gibraltar}}, {{w|India}}, {{w|Jordan}}, {{w|Kyrgyzistan}}, {{w|Lao}}, {{w|Latvia}}, {{w|Lithuania}}, {{w|Malawi}}, {{w|Myanmar}}, {{w|Namibia}}, {{w|Reunion}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Suriname}}, {{w|Tanzania}}, {{w|Tonga}}, {{w|Uganda}} and {{w|Uzbekistan}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Bahrain}}, {{w|Canada}}, {{w|Costa Rica}}, {{w|Croatia}}, {{w|Cyprus}}, {{w|Estonia}}, {{w|French Polynesia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Macao}}, {{w|New Caledonia}}, {{w|Puerto Rico}}, {{w|Seychelles}}, {{w|Spain}}, {{w|Bulgaria}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Georgia}}, {{w|Gibraltar}}, {{w|India}}, {{w|Jordan}}, {{w|Kyrgyzistan}}, {{w|Lao}}, {{w|Latvia}}, {{w|Lithuania}}, {{w|Malawi}}, {{w|Myanmar}}, {{w|Namibia}}, {{w|Reunion}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Suriname}}, {{w|Tanzania}}, {{w|Tonga}}, {{w|Uganda}}, {{w|Uzbekistan}}
 
| 1995 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Bahrain}}, {{w|Canada}}, {{w|Costa Rica}}, {{w|Croatia}}, {{w|Cyprus}}, {{w|Estonia}}, {{w|French Polynesia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Macao}}, {{w|New Caledonia}}, {{w|Puerto Rico}}, {{w|Seychelles}}, {{w|Spain}}, {{w|Bulgaria}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Georgia}}, {{w|Gibraltar}}, {{w|India}}, {{w|Jordan}}, {{w|Kyrgyzistan}}, {{w|Lao}}, {{w|Latvia}}, {{w|Lithuania}}, {{w|Malawi}}, {{w|Myanmar}}, {{w|Namibia}}, {{w|Reunion}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Suriname}}, {{w|Tanzania}}, {{w|Tonga}}, {{w|Uganda}} and {{w|Uzbekistan}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Bahrain}}, {{w|Canada}}, {{w|Costa Rica}}, {{w|Croatia}}, {{w|Cyprus}}, {{w|Estonia}}, {{w|French Polynesia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Macao}}, {{w|New Caledonia}}, {{w|Puerto Rico}}, {{w|Seychelles}}, {{w|Spain}}, {{w|Bulgaria}}, {{w|Colombia}}, {{w|Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Georgia}}, {{w|Gibraltar}}, {{w|India}}, {{w|Jordan}}, {{w|Kyrgyzistan}}, {{w|Lao}}, {{w|Latvia}}, {{w|Lithuania}}, {{w|Malawi}}, {{w|Myanmar}}, {{w|Namibia}}, {{w|Reunion}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Suriname}}, {{w|Tanzania}}, {{w|Tonga}}, {{w|Uganda}}, {{w|Uzbekistan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Product release || The {{w|Nokia Communicator}}is released. It is the first mobile phone to enable [[w:internet access|internet connectivity]] and wireless {{w|email}} creating a new category of multi-use devices called {{w|smartphone}}s.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nokia 9000 Communicator|url=http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/5779/Nokia-9000-Communicator/|website=computinghistory.org.uk|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 1995–1999 || Network technology || Europe and Asia become the first regions to deploy mobile connectivity in their underground assets.<ref name="Internet connectivity in underground rail systems">{{cite web |title=Internet connectivity in underground rail systems |url=https://www.uitp.org/sites/default/files/documents/Publications/internet_in_metros_2014.pdf |website=uitp.org |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}, {{w|Asia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || Handset release || The {{w|Nokia Communicator}}is released. It is the first mobile phone to enable [[w:internet access|internet connectivity]] and wireless {{w|email}} creating a new category of multi-use devices called {{w|smartphone}}s.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nokia 9000 Communicator|url=http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/5779/Nokia-9000-Communicator/|website=computinghistory.org.uk|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Product release || {{w|Palm OS}} is launched as a discontinued {{w|mobile operating system}}, designed for ease of use with a {{w|touchscreen}}-based {{w|graphical user interface}}. ||
+
| 1996 || Mobile operating system || {{w|Palm OS}} is launched as a discontinued {{w|mobile operating system}}, designed for ease of use with a {{w|touchscreen}}-based {{w|graphical user interface}}. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 (January) || Product release || The {{w|Motorola StarTAC}} is release as a [[w:Flip (form)|clamshell]] {{w|mobile phone}}. Manufactured by {{w|Motorola}} is the first ever clamshell/flip mobile phone.<ref name = "fifty">{{cite news | last = Tynan | first = Dan | title = The 50 Greatest Gadgets of the Past 50 Years | work = [[w:PC World (magazine)|PC World]] | page = 2 | date = 2005-12-24 | url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123950-page,2/article.html | accessdate = 25 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || United States
+
| 1996 (January) || Handset release || The {{w|Motorola StarTAC}} is released as a [[w:Flip (form)|clamshell]] {{w|mobile phone}}. Manufactured by {{w|Motorola}} is the first ever clamshell/flip mobile phone.<ref name = "fifty">{{cite news | last = Tynan | first = Dan | title = The 50 Greatest Gadgets of the Past 50 Years | work = [[w:PC World (magazine)|PC World]] | page = 2 | date = 2005-12-24 | url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123950-page,2/article.html | accessdate = 25 July 2017}}</ref><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Product release || The {{w|Nokia 8110}} is launched. Its distinctive styling is the first example of a 'slider' [[w:Mobile_phone_form_factors|form factor]].<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 1996 || Handset release || The {{w|Nokia 8110}} is launched. Its distinctive styling is the first example of a 'slider' [[w:Mobile_phone_form_factors|form factor]].<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1996 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Argentina}}, {{w|Brazil}}, {{w|Brunei}}, {{w|Czechia}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Guam}}, {{w|South Korea}}, {{w|Libya}}, {{w|Mauritius}}, {{w|Oman}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Poland}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Slovenia}}, {{w|Venezuela}}, {{w|Albania}}, {{w|Armenia}}, {{w|Azerbaijan}}, {{w|Bosnia Herzegovina}}, {{w|Burkina Faso}}, {{w|Cambodia}}, {{w|Cote D'Ivoire}}, {{w|Ecuador}}, {{w|Egypt}}, {{w|Ghana}}, {{w|Guadalupe}}, {{w|Guernsey}}, {{w|Kenya}}, {{w|Lesotho}}, {{w|Macedonia}}, {{w|Mongolia}}, {{w|Senegal}}, {{w|Sudan}}, {{w|Ukraine}}, {{w|Yugoslavia}}, and {{w|Zimbabwe}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Argentina}}, {{w|Brazil}}, {{w|Brunei}}, {{w|Czechia}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Guam}}, {{w|South Korea}}, {{w|Libya}}, {{w|Mauritius}}, {{w|Oman}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Poland}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Slovenia}}, {{w|Venezuela}}, {{w|Albania}}, {{w|Armenia}}, {{w|Azerbaijan}}, {{w|Bosnia Herzegovina}}, {{w|Burkina Faso}}, {{w|Cambodia}}, {{w|Cote D'Ivoire}}, {{w|Ecuador}}, {{w|Egypt}}, {{w|Ghana}}, {{w|Guadalupe}}, {{w|Guernsey}}, {{w|Kenya}}, {{w|Lesotho}}, {{w|Macedonia}}, {{w|Mongolia}}, {{w|Senegal}}, {{w|Sudan}}, {{w|Ukraine}}, {{w|Yugoslavia}}, {{w|Zimbabwe}},  
 
| 1996 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Argentina}}, {{w|Brazil}}, {{w|Brunei}}, {{w|Czechia}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Guam}}, {{w|South Korea}}, {{w|Libya}}, {{w|Mauritius}}, {{w|Oman}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Poland}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Slovenia}}, {{w|Venezuela}}, {{w|Albania}}, {{w|Armenia}}, {{w|Azerbaijan}}, {{w|Bosnia Herzegovina}}, {{w|Burkina Faso}}, {{w|Cambodia}}, {{w|Cote D'Ivoire}}, {{w|Ecuador}}, {{w|Egypt}}, {{w|Ghana}}, {{w|Guadalupe}}, {{w|Guernsey}}, {{w|Kenya}}, {{w|Lesotho}}, {{w|Macedonia}}, {{w|Mongolia}}, {{w|Senegal}}, {{w|Sudan}}, {{w|Ukraine}}, {{w|Yugoslavia}}, and {{w|Zimbabwe}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Argentina}}, {{w|Brazil}}, {{w|Brunei}}, {{w|Czechia}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Guam}}, {{w|South Korea}}, {{w|Libya}}, {{w|Mauritius}}, {{w|Oman}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Poland}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Slovenia}}, {{w|Venezuela}}, {{w|Albania}}, {{w|Armenia}}, {{w|Azerbaijan}}, {{w|Bosnia Herzegovina}}, {{w|Burkina Faso}}, {{w|Cambodia}}, {{w|Cote D'Ivoire}}, {{w|Ecuador}}, {{w|Egypt}}, {{w|Ghana}}, {{w|Guadalupe}}, {{w|Guernsey}}, {{w|Kenya}}, {{w|Lesotho}}, {{w|Macedonia}}, {{w|Mongolia}}, {{w|Senegal}}, {{w|Sudan}}, {{w|Ukraine}}, {{w|Yugoslavia}}, {{w|Zimbabwe}},  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || Product release || Dutch technology company {{w|Philips}} introduces "The Synergy", an early attempt at a digital {{w|smartphone}}. The unit provides wireless access to {{w|e-mail}}, {{w|internet}} and {{w|fax}}es.<ref name="A Photographic History of the Cell Phone"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone">{{cite web|title=Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone|url=https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/week-3-timeline-of-the-cell-phone|website=timetoast.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1996 || Mobile phone service || [[w:MTN Group|MTN]] becomes the first mobile operator to introduce a prepaid cellular service in {{w|Africa}}, popularizing “pay as you go” in emerging markets.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.mtn-investor.com/mtn_ar08/book1/ocv_chair.html|title=MTN Group - Annual Report 2008 - Chairman’s statement|website=www.mtn-investor.com|access-date=24 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Africa}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 (September) || Mobile phone service || The first Prepaid card is called "Mimo", launched by TMN, the mobile phone operator of {{w|Portugal Telecom}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Portugal Telecom FAQ|url=http://www.telecom.pt/InternetResource/PTSite/UK/Canais/Investidores/FAQS/Gerais/#Answer_1|accessdate=25 October 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150203064243/http://www.telecom.pt/InternetResource/PTSite/UK/Canais/Investidores/FAQS/Gerais/#Answer_1|archive-date=February 3, 2015|dead-url=yes|df=mdy-all}}</ref> || {{w|Portugal}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || Mobile phone service || [[w:MTN Group|MTN]] becomes the first mobile operator to introduce a Prepaid cellular service in Africa, popularizing “pay as you go” in emerging markets.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.mtn-investor.com/mtn_ar08/book1/ocv_chair.html|title=MTN Group - Annual Report 2008 - Chairman’s statement|website=www.mtn-investor.com|access-date=6 November 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 (December) || Product release || {{w|Nokia 6110}} is launched. Hugely popular, It is the first phone from Nokia to have the popular [[w:Snake (video game)|Snake]] game pre-installed. <ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
+
| 1997 || Handset release || Dutch technology company {{w|Philips}} introduces "The Synergy", an early attempt at a digital {{w|smartphone}}. The unit provides wireless access to {{w|e-mail}}, {{w|internet}} and {{w|fax}}es.<ref name="A Photographic History of the Cell Phone"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone">{{cite web|title=Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone|url=https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/week-3-timeline-of-the-cell-phone|website=timetoast.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || Handset release || Little known German-made {{w|Hagenuk GlobalHandy}} becomes the first phone that has no visible external antenna.<ref name="physicslover"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Hagenuk GlobalHandy |url=https://www.mobilephonehistory.co.uk/other/hagenuk_globalhandy.php |website=mobilephonehistory.co.uk |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || Mobile payment || {{w|Coca Cola}} first introduces mobile purchasing, setting up vending machines that allow their customers to purchase drinks via text message.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Martins |first1=Flavio |title=The History of the Mobile Payment Experience |url=http://winthecustomer.com/technology-changing-the-mobile-payment-customer-experience/ |website=winthecustomer.com |accessdate=24 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 (October) || Mobile phone service || {{w|Vodafone UK}} launches 'Pay as you Talk', packaging a {{w|GSM}} phone with a prepay tariff. || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 (December) || Handset release || {{w|Nokia 6110}} is launched. Hugely popular, It is the first phone from Nokia to have the popular [[w:Snake (video game)|Snake]] game pre-installed. <ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1997 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Barbados}}, {{w|Bermuda}}, {{w|Chile}}, {{w|Malta}}, {{w|Slovakia}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Virgin Islands}}, {{w|Bangladesh}}, {{w|Bolivia}}, {{w|Cape Verde}}, {{w|Guinea}}, {{w|Martinique}}, {{w|Mozambique}}, {{w|Romania}}, {{w|Togo}} and {{w|Zambia}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Barbados}}, {{w|Bermuda}}, {{w|Chile}}, {{w|Malta}}, {{w|Slovakia}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Virgin Islands}}, {{w|Bangladesh}}, {{w|Bolivia}}, {{w|Cape Verde}}, {{w|Guinea}}, {{w|Martinique}}, {{w|Mozambique}}, {{w|Romania}}, {{w|Togo}}, {{w|Zambia}}
 
| 1997 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Barbados}}, {{w|Bermuda}}, {{w|Chile}}, {{w|Malta}}, {{w|Slovakia}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Virgin Islands}}, {{w|Bangladesh}}, {{w|Bolivia}}, {{w|Cape Verde}}, {{w|Guinea}}, {{w|Martinique}}, {{w|Mozambique}}, {{w|Romania}}, {{w|Togo}} and {{w|Zambia}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Barbados}}, {{w|Bermuda}}, {{w|Chile}}, {{w|Malta}}, {{w|Slovakia}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Virgin Islands}}, {{w|Bangladesh}}, {{w|Bolivia}}, {{w|Cape Verde}}, {{w|Guinea}}, {{w|Martinique}}, {{w|Mozambique}}, {{w|Romania}}, {{w|Togo}}, {{w|Zambia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997–1998 || Network launch || The [[w:Iridium satellite constellation|Iridium system]] is introduced as the first LEO system intended for commercial service. It is designed by {{w|Motorola}}, and owned by [[w:Iridium Communications|Iridium LLC]]. The Iridium concept employs a constellation of 66 satellites orbiting in six planes around Earth, and are launched from May 1997 to May 1998. Commercial service begins in November 1998.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
+
| 1997–1998 || Network technology || The [[w:Iridium satellite constellation|Iridium system]] is introduced as the first LEO system intended for commercial service. It is designed by {{w|Motorola}}, and owned by [[w:Iridium Communications|Iridium LLC]]. The Iridium concept employs a constellation of 66 satellites orbiting in six planes around Earth, and are launched from May 1997 to May 1998. Commercial service begins in November 1998.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || || Mobile payments are trialled in {{w|Finland}} and {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone">{{cite book|last1=Agar|first1=Jon|title=Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sBNfZNqcOzoC&oi=fnd&pg=PT6&dq=history+of+mobile+payments&ots=oZ_vuTNp6E&sig=EsGo7Hy49p5TN8HEeIJwYcWdP2I&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}, {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 1998 || Mobile payment || Mobile payments are trialled in {{w|Finland}} and {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone">{{cite book|last1=Agar|first1=Jon|title=Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sBNfZNqcOzoC&oi=fnd&pg=PT6&dq=history+of+mobile+payments&ots=oZ_vuTNp6E&sig=EsGo7Hy49p5TN8HEeIJwYcWdP2I&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}, {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Bahamas}}, {{w|Botswana}}, {{w|Cayman Islands}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Faroe Islands}}, {{w|Greenland}}, {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Trinidad and Tobago}}, {{w|Dominican Republic}}, {{w|El Salvador}}, {{w|French Guiana}}, {{w|Guyana}}, {{w|Moldova}}, {{w|Paraguay}}, {{w|Peru}}, {{w|Rwanda}}, {{w|Swaziland}} and {{w|Tunisia}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Bahamas}}, {{w|Botswana}}, {{w|Cayman Islands}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Faroe Islands}}, {{w|Greenland}}, {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Trinidad and Tobago}}, {{w|Dominican Republic}}, {{w|El Salvador}}, {{w|French Guiana}}, {{w|Guyana}}, {{w|Moldova}}, {{w|Paraguay}}, {{w|Peru}}, {{w|Rwanda}}, {{w|Swaziland}}, {{w|Tunisia}}
 
| 1998 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Bahamas}}, {{w|Botswana}}, {{w|Cayman Islands}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Faroe Islands}}, {{w|Greenland}}, {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Trinidad and Tobago}}, {{w|Dominican Republic}}, {{w|El Salvador}}, {{w|French Guiana}}, {{w|Guyana}}, {{w|Moldova}}, {{w|Paraguay}}, {{w|Peru}}, {{w|Rwanda}}, {{w|Swaziland}} and {{w|Tunisia}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Bahamas}}, {{w|Botswana}}, {{w|Cayman Islands}}, {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Faroe Islands}}, {{w|Greenland}}, {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|Trinidad and Tobago}}, {{w|Dominican Republic}}, {{w|El Salvador}}, {{w|French Guiana}}, {{w|Guyana}}, {{w|Moldova}}, {{w|Paraguay}}, {{w|Peru}}, {{w|Rwanda}}, {{w|Swaziland}}, {{w|Tunisia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || {{w|Wireless Application Protocol}} (WAP) {{w|technical standard}} is made available for mobile devices.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||  
+
| 1998 || || The first downloadable mobile {{w|ringtone}} service is created and delivered in {{w|Finland}} when {{w|Radiolinja}} starts their service called Harmonium, invented by Vesa-Matti Pananen.<ref name="physicslover"/><ref>[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,901040816-678568,00.html Time Magazine Europe: The Sweet Sound Of Success]</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1998 || Handset  release || The {{w|Siemens S10}} is launched as the first mobile phone with a colour screen.<ref name="physicslover"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1998 || Handset  release || The {{w|Nokia 5110}} is released. It becomes an instant success and kickstarted the vogue for customising your handset."<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Network technology || {{w|Wireless Application Protocol}} (WAP) {{w|technical standard}} is made available for mobile devices.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Mobile operating system || {{w|Nokia}} {{w|Series 40}} {{w|mobile operating system}} is introduced with the release of {{w|Nokia 7110}} device.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nokia Series 40: over 1.5 billion served|url=https://www.engadget.com/2012/01/25/nokia-s40-sales-reach-1-5-billion/|website=engadget.com|accessdate=19 August 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Algeria}}, {{w|Angola}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Central African Republic}}, {{w|Democratic Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Cuba}}, {{w|Ethiopia}}, {{w|Guatemala}}, {{w|Haiti}}, {{w|Jamaica}}, {{w|Kazakhstan}}, {{w|Maldives}}, {{w|Nepal}}, {{w|Syria}}, {{w|West Bank}} and {{w|Gaza}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Algeria}}, {{w|Angola}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Central African Republic}}, {{w|Democratic Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Cuba}}, Ethiopia}}, {{w|Guatemala}}, {{w|Haiti}}, {{w|Jamaica}}, {{w|Kazakhstan}}, {{w|Maldives}}, {{w|Nepal}}, {{w|Syria}}, {{w|West Bank}}, {{w|Gaza}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || || {{w|Shigetaka Kurita}} in Japan invents the {{w|emojis}}.<ref name="physicslover"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Handset  release || The BlackBerry 850 launches as the first BlackBerry phone. It would become famous for its super-easy email service.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Handset  release || The {{w|Motorola Timeport}} is released. It is the first tri-band GSM phone, meaning it works "everywhere around the world".<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || {{w|Mobile payment}} || Movie tickets become available for purchase through {{w|mobile payment}}.<ref name="The History of Mobile Pay">{{cite web |title=The History of Mobile Pay |url=https://emspayments.com/history-of-mobile-pay/ |website=emspayments.com |accessdate=24 July 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999–2002 || Network technology || {{w|Globalstar}} is released as a LEO system, consisting in 48 satellites that are launched about the same time as the Iridium constellation. Globalstar begins offering service in October 1999, though it would go into bankruptcy in 2002. A further reorganized Globalstar LP would continue to provide service thereafter.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || {{w|Mobile payment}} || The first mobile commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards is launched in the Philippines, simultaneously by mobile operators {{w|Globe Telecom}} and {{w|Smart Communications}}.<ref name="cellular phone prezi">{{cite web|title=cellular phone|url=https://prezi.com/nfutwp_lsz5h/cellular-phone/|website=prezi.com|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Product release || {{w|Nokia}} {{w|Series 40}} {{w|mobile operating system}} is introduced with the release of {{w|Nokia 7110}} device.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nokia Series 40: over 1.5 billion served|url=https://www.engadget.com/2012/01/25/nokia-s40-sales-reach-1-5-billion/|website=engadget.com|accessdate=19 August 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 2000 || Network technology || {{w|Global System for Mobile Communications}} (GSM) networks evolve into {{w|General Packet Radio Service}} (GPRS) (2.5G) and become available. The first GPRS-compatible handsets become available for sale.<ref name="Building a Dedicated GSM">{{cite book |last1=El Khoury |first1=Franjieh |last2=Zgheib |first2=Antoine |title=Building a Dedicated GSM GPS Module Tracking System for Fleet Management: Hardware and Software |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Es5JDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA2030&lpg=PA2030&dq=In+2000+the+first+commercial+GPRS+services+were+launched&source=bl&ots=9azzvOlB73&sig=ACfU3U3ia2MWT52M7tZKpCPixNdJlH3I1g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjQl7XEt9DjAhXxK7kGHdiOAg4Q6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=In%202000%20the%20first%20commercial%20GPRS%20services%20were%20launched&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Algeria}}, {{w|Angola}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Central African Republic}}, {{w|Democratic Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Cuba}}, Ethiopia}}, {{w|Guatemala}}, {{w|Haiti}}, {{w|Jamaica}}, {{w|Kazakhstan}}, {{w|Maldives}}, {{w|Nepal}}, {{w|Syria}}, {{w|West Bank}} and {{w|Gaza}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Algeria}}, {{w|Angola}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Central African Republic}}, {{w|Democratic Republic of Congo}}, {{w|Cuba}}, Ethiopia}}, {{w|Guatemala}}, {{w|Haiti}}, {{w|Jamaica}}, {{w|Kazakhstan}}, {{w|Maldives}}, {{w|Nepal}}, {{w|Syria}}, {{w|West Bank}}, {{w|Gaza}}
+
| 2000 || Handset  release || The {{w|Nokia 9210 Communicator}} is launched as the first serious attempt at an internet-enabled mobile phone.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999–2002 || || {{w|Globalstar}} is released as a LEO system, consisting in 48 satellites that are launched about the same time as the Iridium constellation. Globalstar begins offering service in October 1999, though it would go into bankruptcy in 2002. A further reorganized Globalstar LP would continue to provide service thereafter.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
+
| 2000 (June) || Handset  release || South Korean [[w:Multinational corporation|multinational]] [[w:Conglomerate (company)|conglomerate]] {{w|Samsung}}  releases {{w|SCH-V200}}, which integrates {{w|digital camera}} and {{w|mobile phone}} in a unit that can take up to 20 pictures at 640 x 480 (350,000 {{w|pixel}} [[w:Charge-coupled device|CCD]], 1 MB internal storage).<ref name="">{{cite web|title=Samsung integrate digital camera and phone|url=https://www.dpreview.com/articles/1013905500/samsungdigiphone|website=dpreview.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Korea}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || The first mobile commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards is launched in the Philippines, simultaneously by mobile operators {{w|Globe Telecom}} and {{w|Smart Communications}}.<ref name="cellular phone prezi">{{cite web|title=cellular phone|url=https://prezi.com/nfutwp_lsz5h/cellular-phone/|website=prezi.com|accessdate=25 July 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 2000 (November) || Handset  release || Japanese multinational {{w|Sharp Corporation}} releases the {{w|J-SH04}} mobile phone, the first ever phone with a built-in [[w:camera phone|camera]] (110,000-pixel CMOS) and [[w:color|color display]] (256-color display).<ref>{{cite web|title=Sharp J-SH04: World’s First Ever Phone With Integrated Camera|url=http://gadgetizor.com/sharp-j-sh04-worlds-first-ever-phone-with-integrated-camera-pictures-2001/5482/|publisher=Digitizor Media & Web, Inc.|accessdate=26 August 2012}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Network launch || {{w|Global System for Mobile Communications}} (GSM) networks evolve into {{w|General Packet Radio Service}} (GPRS) (2.5G) and become available.<ref name="Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer"/> ||
+
| 2000 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Grenada}}, {{w|Santa Lucia}}, {{w|Anguilla}}, {{w|Benin}}, {{w|Burundi}}, {{w|Chad}}, {{w|Equatorial Guinea}}, {{w|Honduras}}, {{w|Mali}}, {{w|Marshall Islands}}, {{w|Mauritania}}, {{w|Sierra Leone}}, {{w|Tajikistan}} and {{w|Turkmenistan}}.<ref name="Diffusion of Digital Mobile Telephony: Are Developing Countries Different?"/> || {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Grenada}}, {{w|Santa Lucia}}, {{w|Anguilla}}, {{w|Benin}}, {{w|Burundi}}, {{w|Chad}}, {{w|Equatorial Guinea}}, {{w|Honduras}}, {{w|Mali}}, {{w|Marshall Islands}}, {{w|Mauritania}}, {{w|Sierra Leone}}, {{w|Tajikistan}}, {{w|Turkmenistan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 (June) || Product release || South Korean [[w:Multinational corporation|multinational]] [[w:Conglomerate (company)|conglomerate]] {{w|Samsung}}  releases {{w|SCH-V200}}, which integrates {{w|digital camera}} and {{w|mobile phone}} in a unit that can take up to 20 pictures at 640 x 480 (350,000 {{w|pixel}} [[w:Charge-coupled device|CCD]], 1 MB internal storage).<ref name="">{{cite web|title=Samsung integrate digital camera and phone|url=https://www.dpreview.com/articles/1013905500/samsungdigiphone|website=dpreview.com|accessdate=27 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Korea}}
+
| 2000 || {{w|Mobile phones on aircraft}} || A study by the [[w:Civil Aviation Authority (United Kingdom)|British Civil Aviation Authority]] finds that a mobile phone, when used near the cockpit or other avionics equipment location, will exceed safety levels for older equipment (compliant with 1984 standards). Such equipment is still in use, even in new aircraft. Therefore, the report concludes, the current policy, which restricts the use of mobile phones on all aircraft while the engines are running, should remain in force.<ref>{{cite web |title=Interference Levels In Aircraft at  Radio Frequencies used by Portable Telephones |website=web.archive.org |accessdate=19 October 2019 |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070616083454/http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/389/srg_acp_00021-01-030303.pdf}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 (November) || Product release || Japanese multinational {{w|Sharp Corporation}} releases the {{w|J-SH04}} mobile phone, the first ever phone with a built-in [[w:camera phone|camera]] (110,000-pixel CMOS) and [[w:color|color display]] (256-color display).<ref>{{cite web|title=Sharp J-SH04: World’s First Ever Phone With Integrated Camera|url=http://gadgetizor.com/sharp-j-sh04-worlds-first-ever-phone-with-integrated-camera-pictures-2001/5482/|publisher=Digitizor Media & Web, Inc.|accessdate=26 August 2012}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2001 (October) || Handset  release || {{w|Nokia 5510}} is released, featuring a full {{w|QWERTY}} {{w|keyboard}}.<ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Digital mobile telephony introduction || Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Grenada}}, {{w|Santa Lucia}}, {{w|Anguilla}}, {{w|Benin}}, {{w|Burundi}}, {{w|Chad}}, {{w|Equatorial Guinea}}, {{w|Honduras}}, {{w|Mali}}, {{w|Marshall Islands}}, {{w|Mauritania}}, {{w|Sierra Leone}}, {{w|Tajikistan}} and {{w|Turkmenistan}}. || {{w|Dominica}}, {{w|Grenada}}, {{w|Santa Lucia}}, {{w|Anguilla}}, {{w|Benin}}, {{w|Burundi}}, {{w|Chad}}, {{w|Equatorial Guinea}}, {{w|Honduras}}, {{w|Mali}}, {{w|Marshall Islands}}, {{w|Mauritania}}, {{w|Sierra Leone}}, {{w|Tajikistan}}, {{w|Turkmenistan}}
+
| 2001 (October)|| Network technology || The third generation of {{w|wireless}} mobile telecommunications technology {{w|3G}} ({{w|FOMA}} [[w:WCDMA|W-CDMA]] services on the 2GHz) is launched in Japan, with a system offered by {{w|NTT DoCoMo}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/>  For the first time, mobile devices are fast enough to support {{w|online video}} and music streaming.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> Developed to serve data communication, 3G can send 10 times more data than {{w|2G}}.<ref name="Third generation system. wireless-communications">{{cite web|title=Third generation system. wireless-communications|url=https://www.coursera.org/learn/wireless-communications/lecture/llFM4/1-3-third-generation-system-3g|website=coursera.org|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 (October) || Product release || {{w|Nokia 5510}} is released, featuring a full {{w|QWERTY}} {{w|keyboard}}.<ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> ||
+
| 2001 || Mobile payment || Mobile commerce reaches $2.4 billion worldwide.<ref name="The History of Mobile Pay"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 (October)|| Network launch || The third generation of {{w|wireless}} mobile telecommunications technology {{w|3G}} ({{w|FOMA}} [[w:WCDMA|W-CDMA]] services on the 2GHz) is launched in Japan, with a system offered by {{w|NTT DoCoMo}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/>  For the first time, mobile devices are fast enough to support {{w|online video}} and music streaming.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> Developed to serve data communication, 3G can send 10 times more data than {{w|2G}}.<ref name="Third generation system. wireless-communications">{{cite web|title=Third generation system. wireless-communications|url=https://www.coursera.org/learn/wireless-communications/lecture/llFM4/1-3-third-generation-system-3g|website=coursera.org|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2001 || Technology || The popularity of {{w|voice over IP}} grows with startlingly rapid progress, with the number of installed voice-over-IP networks, the number of players in the voice-over-IP arena, the dollars spent on voice-over-IP products, the number of channels shipped and even the capacity of voice-over-IP products, all having doubled within a year.<ref>{{cite book |title=Network World 29 Jan 2001 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=dBsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=%22Voice+over+IP%22+%22in+1970..2015%22&source=bl&ots=GNFd6MjzMu&sig=ACfU3U1B-0AvlbBUFxrFpmlwWV5-A3GUGw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjC49aw587jAhUJpFkKHczuB_oQ6AEwCXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Voice%20over%20IP%22%20%22in%201970..2015%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Product release || The first {{w|smart phone}} is invented.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> ||
+
| 2002 || Handset  release || The {{w|Handspring (company)|Handspring]]'s {{w|Treo 180}} is released. It is the first smartphone that fully integrates the {{w|Palm OS}} on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built into the OS. The 180 model has a thumb-type keyboard and the [[w:Treo 180g|180g]] version has a [[w:Graffiti (Palm OS)|Graffiti]] handwriting recognition area, instead.<ref>{{cite web|title=Handspring Treo Communicator 180 |publisher=mobiletechreview.com |accessdate=2016-02-01 |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160617023521/http://www.mobiletechreview.com/handspring_treo.htm |archive-date=June 17, 2016 |url-status=dead |df=mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="Week 3- Timeline of the cell-phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002 (June) || Organization || The {{w|Open Mobile Alliance}} (OMA) is formed as a {{w|standards body}} with aims at developing {{w|open standard}}s for the {{w|mobile phone}} industry.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Open Mobile Alliance: Delivering Service Enablers for Next-Generation Applications|url=http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1817021|website=acm.org|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 2002 (June) || Organization || The {{w|Open Mobile Alliance}} (OMA) is formed as a {{w|standards body}} with aims at developing {{w|open standard}}s for the {{w|mobile phone}} industry.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Open Mobile Alliance: Delivering Service Enablers for Next-Generation Applications|url=http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1817021|website=acm.org|accessdate=30 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Product release || The {{w|Sanyo SCP–5300}} is released. It allows users to view photos on a screen for the first time, instead of plugging it into a computer.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2002 || Handset  release || The {{w|Sanyo SCP–5300}} is released. It allows users to view photos on a screen for the first time, instead of plugging it into a computer.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002 || Research || Finnish scientists claim that the electromagnetic radiation affect brain tissue.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
| 2002 || Research || Finnish scientists claim that the electromagnetic radiation affect brain tissue.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Product release || The {{w|Nokia 1100}} is released. It would become the biggest–selling phone of all time.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2002 || Mobile payment || Mobile payment is introduced in {{w|China}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=To Pay or Not to Pay: The Dilemmas of an Emerging Business Ecosystem – The Case of Mobile Payments |url=http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/127342/guo_jie.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y |website=doria.fi |accessdate=24 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || Handset  release || The {{w|Nokia 1100}} is released. It would become the biggest–selling phone of all time.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || Handset  release || A Blackberry phone, integrating a phone with fully functioning email, web browsing and the Blackberry Messenger, is launched.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || Mobile payment || An estimated 95 million users worldwide make purchases with their mobile phones.<ref name="The History of Mobile Pay"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2003–2007 || Expansion || Mobile phone users surpass those using {{w|landline}} telephone in the United States.<ref name="L’Histoire du Wi-Fi"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2004 || Research || German–led European laboratory study using mouse models announces that mobile radiation could cause genetic damage.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
| 2004 || Research || German–led European laboratory study using mouse models announces that mobile radiation could cause genetic damage.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || Product release || The {{w|Casio GZ'One}} is released as the first waterproof phone.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2004 || Handset  release || The {{w|Motorola Razr V3}} is released. It would be the last great flip phone. Very thin at only 14mm.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || {{w|Mobile operating system}} [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] is acquired by {{w|Google}}. This step shows that Google is serious about developing mobile technology.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2005 || Handset  release || The {{w|Casio GZ'One}} is released as the first waterproof phone.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || {{w|Mobile operating system}} || [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] is acquired by {{w|Google}}. This step shows that Google is serious about developing mobile technology.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2005 || Policy || The Cell Phone Recycle Act is passed in {{w|California}}.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2005 || Policy || The Cell Phone Recycle Act is passed in {{w|California}}.<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2005 || Policy || The Finnish government decides that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters is the mobile phone network.<ref name="Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness">{{cite book|last1=Beer|first1=Tom|title=Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3zL__qAVI8cC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=%222005%22+%22finnish%22+%22disasters%22+%22mobile+phone%22&source=bl&ots=YXO-R62Axh&sig=ypvZuOOzCYD98utPFopAkHP4wMI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinlqfq5azVAhULG5AKHeR9CfgQ6AEIKDAB#v=onepage&q=%222005%22%20%22finnish%22%20%22disasters%22%20%22mobile%20phone%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
 
| 2005 || Policy || The Finnish government decides that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters is the mobile phone network.<ref name="Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness">{{cite book|last1=Beer|first1=Tom|title=Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3zL__qAVI8cC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=%222005%22+%22finnish%22+%22disasters%22+%22mobile+phone%22&source=bl&ots=YXO-R62Axh&sig=ypvZuOOzCYD98utPFopAkHP4wMI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinlqfq5azVAhULG5AKHeR9CfgQ6AEIKDAB#v=onepage&q=%222005%22%20%22finnish%22%20%22disasters%22%20%22mobile%20phone%22&f=false|accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || Handset release || {{w|Nokia}} launches the first {{w|Near-field communication}} (NFC)-enabled phone.<ref name="The History of Mobile Pay"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| Mid-2000s || Network technology || Underground systems in the Americas start deploying mobile connectivity in their underground assets.<ref name="Internet connectivity in underground rail systems"/> || {{w|Americas}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2006 || Study || British researcher at the {{w|University of Staffordshire}} links mental wellbeing issues, such as [[w:Stress (biology)|stress]], to mobile use.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 2006 || Study || British researcher at the {{w|University of Staffordshire}} links mental wellbeing issues, such as [[w:Stress (biology)|stress]], to mobile use.<ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 (June) || Network launch || The world's first commercial {{w|mobile WiMAX}} service is opened by [[w:KT (telecommunication company)|KT]] in {{w|Seoul}}. <ref name="kt">{{cite web |url=http://www.biztechreport.com/story/1619-super-fast-4g-wireless-service-launching-south-korea |title=Super-Fast 4G Wireless Service Launching in South Korea |last=Shukla |first=Anuradha |date=October 10, 2011 |work=Asia-Pacific Business and Technology Report |accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Korea}}
+
| 2006 (June) || Network technology || The world's first commercial {{w|mobile WiMAX}} service is opened by [[w:KT (telecommunication company)|KT]] in {{w|Seoul}}. <ref name="kt">{{cite web |url=http://www.biztechreport.com/story/1619-super-fast-4g-wireless-service-launching-south-korea |title=Super-Fast 4G Wireless Service Launching in South Korea |last=Shukla |first=Anuradha |date=October 10, 2011 |work=Asia-Pacific Business and Technology Report |accessdate=28 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Korea}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || Product release || {{w|Steve Jobs}} unveils the Apple {{w|Iphone}}, which is released. It has finger–input touchscreen, no keyboard, intuitive interface and apps<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2006 (August) || {{w|Mobile phones on aircraft}} || Irish airline {{w|Ryanair}} announces that it would introduce a facility to allow passengers to use their mobile phones in-flight.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rte.ie/news/2006/0830/ryanair-business.html |title=RTÉ Business: Ryanair signs OnAir deal for in-flight mobiles |publisher=Rte.ie |date=2006-08-30 |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || Mobile payment || {{w|Mobile payment}} is introduced in India.<ref>{{cite web |title=Globsyn Management lobsyn Management lobsyn Management Conference 2018 |url=https://www.globsyn.edu.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/3rd%20Globsyn%20Management%20Conference.pdf |website=globsyn.edu.in |accessdate=24 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || Handset  release || {{w|Steve Jobs}} unveils the Apple {{w|Iphone}}, which is released. It has finger–input touchscreen, no keyboard, intuitive interface and apps<ref name="cell phone Timeline"/><ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref name="Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2007 || Policy || {{w|Google}} opens [[w:Android (operating system)|Android operating system]] for free development and use, making its own services default for search, video and email.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||  
 
| 2007 || Policy || {{w|Google}} opens [[w:Android (operating system)|Android operating system]] for free development and use, making its own services default for search, video and email.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || Network launch || The first {{w|4G}} network is launched in {{w|South Korea}}.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|South Korea}}
+
| 2007 || Network technology || The first {{w|4G}} network is launched in {{w|South Korea}}.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|South Korea}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || Technology || {{w|T-Mobile US}} rolls out a service, T-Mobile HotSpot@Home, that allows a single handset to switch seamlessly from cellular to Wi-Fi access in the home and at the 8,900 T-Mobile Hotspot locations in the United States.<ref>{{cite book |title=Plunkett's Telecommunications Industry Almanac 2009 |edition=Jack W. Plunkett |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6PUiN5cE7-QC&pg=PT49&lpg=PT49&dq=%22mobile+hotspot%22+%22in+1990..2010%22&source=bl&ots=V03D_VFM35&sig=ACfU3U3QW8mAEihjO-TvCm_bonlTRfs50w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipkKHmleDjAhWFA9QKHcdrCQAQ6AEwAXoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22mobile%20hotspot%22%20%22in%201990..2010%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 (June 29) || Handset/{{w|mobile operating system}} release || {{w|Apple Inc.}} launches the [[w:iPhone (1st generation)|first-generation iPhone]], along with its mobile operating system {{w|iOS}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=June 29, 2007: Apple Introduces the iPhone (First Apple Cell Phone) |url=https://www.historyandheadlines.com/june-29-2007-apple-introduces-iphone-first-apple-cell-phone/ |website=historyandheadlines.com |accessdate=19 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2007 || Coverage || The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world is estimated at 3.3 billion, equivalent of over half the planet's population.<ref name="Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness"/> 295 million {{w|3G}} users are estimated around the world. This number accounts for 9% of the total worldwide number of mobile users.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||  
 
| 2007 || Coverage || The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world is estimated at 3.3 billion, equivalent of over half the planet's population.<ref name="Geophysical Hazards: Minimizing Risk, Maximizing Awareness"/> 295 million {{w|3G}} users are estimated around the world. This number accounts for 9% of the total worldwide number of mobile users.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||  
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || Network technology || {{w|Hong Kong}} and {{w|Buenos Aires}} become the first cities to install {{w|Wi-Fi}} in their subway systems.<ref>{{cite web |title=Why It's So Damn Hard to Put Internet in the Subway |url=https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/a17020/subway-internet-installation/ |website=popularmechanics.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Argentina}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || Policy || The {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} (ITU) sets forward a list of requirements for what it calls {{w|IMT Advanced}}, or {{w|4G}}. These requirements include data rates of 1 gigabit per second for a stationary user and 100 megabits per second for a moving user.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
| 2008 || Policy || The {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} (ITU) sets forward a list of requirements for what it calls {{w|IMT Advanced}}, or {{w|4G}}. These requirements include data rates of 1 gigabit per second for a stationary user and 100 megabits per second for a moving user.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 (March) || {{w|Mobile phones on aircraft}} || [[w:Emirates (airline)|Emirates]] airline flights begin allowing in-flight voice calls on some commercial airline flights.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.emirates.com/bh/English/flying/our_fleet/emirates_a380/news_and_events/emirates-offers-first-mobile-phone-service-onboard-a380-aircraft.aspx|title= Emirates offers first mobile phone service onboard A380 Aircraft|date=October 4, 2012|accessdate=23 July 2019|publisher=Emirates}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || Network shutdown || The whole {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) service is shut down across {{w|North America}}. This would be considered the end of an era.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
| 2008 || Network shutdown || The whole {{w|Advanced Mobile Phone System}} (AMPS) service is shut down across {{w|North America}}. This would be considered the end of an era.<ref name="History of Mobile Cell Phones | The First Cell Phone To Present Time"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || Product release || {{w|HTC}} corporation releases the {{w|HTC Dream}} the first commercially released device to use the {{w|Linux}}-based [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] operating system.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2008 || Handset  release || {{w|HTC}} corporation releases the {{w|HTC Dream}} the first commercially released device to use the {{w|Linux}}-based [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] operating system.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 (july 10) || Product release || The {{w|App Store (iOS)}} is launched, featuring 552 apps, 135 of which are free.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
+
| 2008 (july 10) || Handset  release || The {{w|App Store (iOS)}} is launched, featuring 552 apps, 135 of which are free.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || Product shutdown || {{w|Microsoft}} deprecates {{w|windows mobile}}, saying that it can't compete with {{w|iPhone}} and [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]]. The development of {{w|Windows Phone}} begins.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2008 || Product shutdown || {{w|Microsoft}} deprecates {{w|windows mobile}}, saying that it can't compete with {{w|iPhone}} and [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]]. The development of {{w|Windows Phone}} begins.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 (January) || Product launch || {{w|Whatsapp}} is launched.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Whatsapp Success Story|url=https://successstory.com/products/whatsapp|website=successstory.com|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 2008 || Technology || Several mobile phone providers in the {{w|United States}} start to include {{w|IPv6}} capabilities in their phones.<ref>{{cite web |title=IPv6 on Your Mobile Phone |url=https://www.networkworld.com/article/2233853/cisco-subnet-ipv6-on-your-mobile-phone.html |website=networkworld.com |accessdate=6 August 2019}}</ref> IPv6 is the most recent version of the {{w|Internet Protocol}} (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the {{w|Internet}}. || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (January) || Mobile application || {{w|Whatsapp}} is launched.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Whatsapp Success Story|url=https://successstory.com/products/whatsapp|website=successstory.com|accessdate=26 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || Network technology || Swedish telephone company [[w:Telia Company|TeliaSonera]] introduces the first {{w|4G}} [[w:LTE (telecommunication)|LTE]] network in {{w|Stockholm}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || Mobile payment || The mobile payment market reaches US$69 billion in sales.<ref name="The History of Mobile Pay"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || Handset  release || {{w|Samsung Galaxy S}} smartphone is launched. Usurping former [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] giant {{w|HTC}}, the Samsung Galaxy S range is still the most popular Android brand.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Network launch || Swedish telephone company [[w:Telia Company|TeliaSonera]] introduces the first {{w|4G}} [[w:LTE (telecommunication)|LTE]] network in {{w|Stockholm}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 2010 (June 7) || Technology || Apple announces {{w|FaceTime}} in conjunction with {{w|iPhone 4}}. A {{w|videotelephony product}}, FaceTime uses the device's front-facing camera to show the caller to the receiver, and vice versa. FaceTime works anywhere there is Wi-Fi.<ref>{{cite web |title=Apple Presents iPhone 4 |url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FaceTime |website=apple.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2010 || || {{w|Samsung}}, {{w|Nokia}}, {{w|LG Electronics}}, [[w:ZTE|ZTE Corporation]] and {{w|Apple Inc.}} altogether control more than 70% of the world mobile phone market.<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise"/> ||
 
| 2010 || || {{w|Samsung}}, {{w|Nokia}}, {{w|LG Electronics}}, [[w:ZTE|ZTE Corporation]] and {{w|Apple Inc.}} altogether control more than 70% of the world mobile phone market.<ref name="Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2010 || Policy || The {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} decides that two technologies, {{w|LTE-Advanced}} (Long Term Evolution; LTE) and WirelessMan-Advanced (also called {{w|WiMAX}}), meet the requirements for a {{w|4G}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 
| 2010 || Policy || The {{w|International Telecommunication Union}} decides that two technologies, {{w|LTE-Advanced}} (Long Term Evolution; LTE) and WirelessMan-Advanced (also called {{w|WiMAX}}), meet the requirements for a {{w|4G}}.<ref name="Mobile telephone britannica"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || Health || The [[w:International Agency for Research on Cancer|International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)]], an agency of the {{w|World Health Organization}}, classifies wireless radiation as [[w:List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens|Group 2B]] – possibly carcinogenic. This means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of wireless devices needs to be conducted.<ref name="WHO_IARC_110531">{{cite press release|url= http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf |title= IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans|work= World Health Organization press release N° 208|publisher= International Agency for Research on Cancer|date= 2011-05-31|accessdate= 29 July 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || Mobile as a modem || The Verizon iPhone is released. It includes the 'Personal Hotspot" feature which allows a user to use the iPhone as a wireless [[w:hotspot (Wi-Fi)|hotspot]], with up to five devices connecting at one time.<ref name="vsw verizon iP4 record 1">{{cite press release|title=Verizon Wireless Has Record Sales On First Day Of iPhone 4|url=http://news.vzw.com/news/2011/02/pr2011-02-04.html|publisher={{w|Verizon Wireless}}|accessdate=February 4, 2011|date=February 4, 2011}}</ref><ref name="wp verizon iP4 release 1">{{cite news|url=http://voices.washingtonpost.com/fasterforward/2011/01/liveblog_the_verizon_iphone.html|work=The Washington Post|title=Liveblog: The Verizon iPhone|date=|accessdate=}}</ref><ref name="npr verizon iP4 release 1">{{cite web|last=Memmott|first=Mark|url=https://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/01/11/132833078/its-official-verizon-has-iphone-4|title=It's Official: Verizon Has The iPhone 4: The Two-Way|publisher=NPR|date=January 11, 2011|accessdate=31 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="wsj verizon iP4 release 1">{{cite news|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703791904576075681886276172|work=The Wall Street Journal|first=Shayndi|last=Raice|title=Verizon Unwraps iPhone|date=January 12, 2011}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || Network technology || As of date, 90% of the world's population live in areas with {{w|2G}} coverage, while 45% live in areas with {{w|2G}} and {{w|3G}} coverage, and 5% live in areas with {{w|4G}} coverage. By 2017 more than 90% of the world's population is expected to have 2G coverage, 85% is expected to have 3G coverage, and 50% will have 4G coverage.<ref name=ITU-ITCFacts>[http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2011.pdf "The World in 2011: ITC Facts and Figures"], International Telecommunications Unions (ITU), Geneva, 2011</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2012 || Organization || The British Government announces the establishment of a {{w|5G}} Innovation Centre at the {{w|University of Surrey}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.surrey.ac.uk/ccsr/business/5GIC/|title=5G Innovation Centre|work=University of Surrey - Guildford|accessdate= 29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 2012 || Organization || The British Government announces the establishment of a {{w|5G}} Innovation Centre at the {{w|University of Surrey}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.surrey.ac.uk/ccsr/business/5GIC/|title=5G Innovation Centre|work=University of Surrey - Guildford|accessdate= 29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || Health || A study of low-frequency radiation on humans finds "no evidence for acute effects of short-term mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow".<ref name=nci>[https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/radiation/cell-phones-fact-sheet#q4 What has research shown about the possible cancer-causing effects of radiofrequency energy?], United States National Cancer Institute</ref><ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Kwon MS, Vorobyev V, Kännälä S, etal | year = 2012 | title = No effects of short-term GSM mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow measured using positron emission tomography | url = | journal = Bioelectromagnetics | volume = 33 | issue = 3| pages = 247–56 | doi=10.1002/bem.20702| pmid = 21932437 }}</ref> However, several animal studies demonstrate damage to the blood-brain barrier from phone radiation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Nittby|first=Henrietta|last2=Brun|first2=Arne|last3=Eberhardt|first3=Jacob|last4=Malmgren|first4=Lars|last5=Persson|first5=Bertil R. R.|last6=Salford|first6=Leif G.|date=August 2009|title=Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone|journal=Pathophysiology: The Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology|volume=16|issue=2–3|pages=103–112|doi=10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.001|issn=0928-4680|pmid=19345073}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Tang|first=Jun|last2=Zhang|first2=Yuan|last3=Yang|first3=Liming|last4=Chen|first4=Qianwei|last5=Tan|first5=Liang|last6=Zuo|first6=Shilun|last7=Feng|first7=Hua|last8=Chen|first8=Zhi|last9=Zhu|first9=Gang|date=2015-03-19|title=Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats|journal=Brain Research|volume=1601|pages=92–101|doi=10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.019|issn=1872-6240|pmid=25598203}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || Statistics || At the end of the year there are roughly 1.5 billion mobile broadband subscriptions, growing at a 50% year-on-year rate.<ref name=Ericsson-Feb2013>[http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2013/ericsson-mobility-report-february-2013.pdf ''Ericsson Mobility Report: Interim Update''], Ericsson, February 2013</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || Technology || [[w:Apple Inc.|Apple]] introduces {{w|FaceTime}} Audio. A version of {{w|FaceTime}} simply featuring audio-only, so only the user's voice is transmitted in the call.<ref name="FaceTime: What It Is & How to Use It">{{cite web |title=FaceTime: What It Is & How to Use It |url=https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-facetime-2000237 |website=lifewire.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2014 || Acquisition || American corporation {{w|Facebook}} acquires {{w|Whatsapp}} for US$ 19 billion.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2014 || Acquisition || American corporation {{w|Facebook}} acquires {{w|Whatsapp}} for US$ 19 billion.<ref name="1876 to 2015 – the History of the Mobile Phone"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 (September) || Program launch || {{w|Verizon Communications}} announces a roadmap to begin testing {{w|5G}} in field trials in the United States in 2016.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.verizon.com/about/news/verizon-sets-roadmap-5g-technology-us-field-trials-start-2016 | title=Verizon sets roadmap to 5G technology in U.S.; Field trials to start in 2016 | publisher=Verizon | date=8 September 2015 | accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref>
+
| 2014 (June) || Technology || Apple announces WiFi calling for {{w|iPhone}} users with {{w|iOS 8}}. The new feature allows users to make and receive calls as well as send messages through a WiFi connection rather than using their voice or data plan.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Kahn |first1=Jordan |title=T-Mobile confirms WiFi calling arriving for iPhone users with iOS 8 |url=https://9to5mac.com/2014/06/02/t-mobile-confirms-wifi-calling-arriving-for-iphone-users-with-ios-8/ |website=9to5mac.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (April) || Technology || WhatsApp Call is introduced for {{w|Android}} and {{w|iOS}} as a new voice calling service, enabling users to make phone calls over the {{w|Internet}}.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Patkar |first1=Mihir |title=WhatsApp Voice Call: Everything You Need to Know |url=https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/whatsapp-voice-call-everything-you-need-to-know/ |website=makeuseof.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref>  ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (August) || Technology || {{w|Deutsche Telekom}} starts to roll out {{w|IPv6}} (dual stack) in their mobile network.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Telekom-startet-IPv6-Einfuehrung-im-Mobilfunknetz-2741029.html|title=Telekom startet IPv6-Einführung im Mobilfunknetz|date=2015-07-08|access-date=2019-01-27|last=Zivadinovic|first=Dusan|work=Heise Online|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190127225202/https://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Telekom-startet-IPv6-Einfuehrung-im-Mobilfunknetz-2741029.html|archive-date=2019-01-27|dead-url=no|language=de}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (September) || Program launch || {{w|Verizon Communications}} announces a roadmap to begin testing {{w|5G}} in field trials in the United States in 2016.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.verizon.com/about/news/verizon-sets-roadmap-5g-technology-us-field-trials-start-2016 | title=Verizon sets roadmap to 5G technology in U.S.; Field trials to start in 2016 | publisher=Verizon | date=8 September 2015 | accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (October) || Technology || {{w|AT&T}} first introduces Wi-Fi calling, a feature that allows customers to place calls over {{w|Wi-Fi}} in instances where a cellular connection is poor.<ref>{{cite web |title=AT&T Expands Wi-Fi Calling to Cover International Calls to U.S. When Traveling |url=https://www.macrumors.com/2016/03/22/att-international-wi-fi-calling/|website=macrumors.com |accessdate=23 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}, {{w|Puerto Rico}}, {{w|Virgin Islands}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || Mobile payment || {{w|Samsung Pay}} launches in {{w|South Korea}} as a mobile payment and digital wallet service that lets users make payments using compatible phones and other {{w|Samsung}}-produced devices.<ref>{{cite web |title=Samsung Pay Now Available in Six Continents, Accelerating Global Expansion |url=https://news.samsung.com/global/samsung-pay-now-available-in-six-continents-accelerating-global-expansion |website=news.samsung.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="The History of Mobile Pay"/> || {{w|South Korea}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (September 11) || Mobile payment || {{w|Android Pay}} is released as a {{w|digital wallet}} platform and online payment system developed by Google to power in-app and tap-to-pay purchases on mobile devices.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google officially launches new NFC payment service Android Pay |url=https://www.extremetech.com/mobile/214039-google-officially-launches-new-nfc-payment-service-android-pay |website=extremetech.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 (February) || || {{w|NTT DoCoMo}} and {{w|Ericsson}} succeed in World's first trial to achieve a cumulative 20Gbit/s with two simultaneously connected mobile devices in {{w|5G}} outdoor trial.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/info/media_center/pr/2016/0222_03.html|title=DOCOMO and Ericsson Succeed in World's first trial to achieve a cumulative 20Gbps with two simultaneously connected mobile devices in 5G Outdoor Trial|work={{w|NTT DoCoMo}}|date=February 22, 2016|accessdate=July 14, 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 || Mobile application || The {{w|Pokemon Go}} app launches worldwide, using a free augmented reality game by means of the smartphone camera and location to show Pokemon characters in the real world. The game is massively adopted worldwide.<ref name="physicslover"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 (April) || Network technology || {{w|Huawei}} announces having jointly with {{w|Telenor}} conducted successful {{w|5G}} tests with speeds up to 70 Gbit/s in a controlled lab environment in {{w|Norway}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Telenor and Huawei Jointly Announce First 5G Demo in Norway|url=http://www.huawei.com/en/news/2017/3/Huawei-Telenor-First-5G-Demo-Norway|website=huawei.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Norway}}
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|-
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| 2017 (April) || Technology || All {{w|Regional Internet Registries}} confirm that {{w|IPv4}} addresses are exhausted and cannot be allocated any more, implying all new organizations requesting a block of Internet addresses would be allocated {{w|IPv6}} addresses.<ref>{{cite web |title=IPv6 Is A Failure - Time To Move On |url=https://www.i-programmer.info/news/81-web-general/12160-ipv6-is-a-failure-time-to-move-on.html |website=i-programmer.info |accessdate=19 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
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| 2017 (July) || Network technology || {{w|Telecom Italia Mobile}} signs a memorandum of understanding with the government of {{w|San Marino}} to upgrade its {{w|4G}} network to {{w|5G}}. It would be the first nationwide 5G network in the world.<ref>{{cite web|title=San Marino set to get Europe's first super-fast 5G mobile network|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/17/reuters-america-san-marino-set-to-get-europes-first-super-fast-5g-mobile-network.html|website=cnbc.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}, {{w|San Marino}}
 
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| 2016 (February) || || {{w|NTT DoCoMo}} and {{w|Ericsson}} succeed in World's first trial to achieve a cumulative 20Gbit/s with two simultaneously connected mobile devices in {{w|5G}} outdoor trial.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/info/media_center/pr/2016/0222_03.html|title=DOCOMO and Ericsson Succeed in World's first trial to achieve a cumulative 20Gbps with two simultaneously connected mobile devices in 5G Outdoor Trial|work=[[NTT DoCoMo]]|date=February 22, 2016|accessdate=July 14, 2017}}</ref> ||
+
| 2017 || Mobile operating system || {{w|KaiOS}} launches as a Mobile operating system based on {{w|Linux}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet The Devices That Are Powered by KaiOS |url=https://www.kaiostech.com/meet-the-devices-that-are-powered-by-kaios/ |website=kaiostech.com |accessdate=19 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 (April) || || {{w|Huawei}} announces having jointly with {{w|Telenor}} conducted successful {{w|5G}} tests with speeds up to 70 Gbit/s in a controlled lab environment in {{w|Norway}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Telenor and Huawei Jointly Announce First 5G Demo in Norway|url=http://www.huawei.com/en/news/2017/3/Huawei-Telenor-First-5G-Demo-Norway|website=huawei.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Norway}}
+
| 2017 || Network technology || As of date, more than 90% of the world's population is expected to have {{w|2G}} coverage, 85% is expected to have {{w|3G}} coverage, and 50% {{w|4G}} coverage.<ref name=Ericsson-Nov2012>[http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/ericsson-mobility-report-november-2012.pdf ''Ericsson Mobility Report''], Ericsson, November 2012</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 (July) || || {{w|Telecom Italia Mobile}} signs a memorandum of understanding with the government of {{w|San Marino}} to upgrade its {{w|4G}} network to {{w|5G}}. It would be the first nationwide 5G network in the world.<ref>{{cite web|title=San Marino set to get Europe's first super-fast 5G mobile network|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/17/reuters-america-san-marino-set-to-get-europes-first-super-fast-5g-mobile-network.html|website=cnbc.com|accessdate=29 July 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}, {{w|San Marino}}
+
| 2020 (March) || Network technology || The {{w|London Underground}} is expected to get {{w|4G}} access in its tunnels and stations by this time.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Porter |first1=Jon |title=4G is coming to the London Underground’s tunnels next year |url=https://www.theverge.com/2019/7/19/20700451/london-underground-4g-tunnels-cellular-reception-mobile-phones |website=theverge.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=4G on Jubilee line tunnel section from March 2020 |url=https://tfl.gov.uk/info-for/media/press-releases/2019/july/4g-on-jubilee-line-tunnel-section-from-march-2020 |website=tfl.gov.uk |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}  
 
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==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of WhatsApp]]
 +
* [[Timeline of Wi-Fi]]
 +
* [[Timeline of Xiaomi]]
 +
* [[Timeline of money transfer]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Revision as of 13:54, 19 October 2019

This is a timeline of mobile telephony, attempting to describe the evolution of mobile phone networks, as well as crucial mobile device releases in relation to novel functionality.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1900s Radio transmission is achieved by creating bursts of sparks generated by electrical voltages.[1]
1930s The idea of a cell phone begins.[2]
1940s Communication by mobile radios becomes more common. Most government agencies, as well as the rich people, own mobile radios.[3] AT&T and Bell Labs introduce cellular technology. However, mobile phones would not develop widespread use at the time.[4] US Signal Corps communicate via radio in field during World War 2.[5]
1960s Researchers develop the technology systems (like frequency reuse and handoff) that would lead to modern cellular networks.[4] In the United States, Bell Labs prepares a detailed plan for implementing the cellular system.[6] Soviet engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich develops very small mobile phones.
1970s 1G is developed by AT&T and Bell Labs early in the decade.[7] Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) in Japan and Ericsson in Sweden begin testing cellular technology and start designing equipment that would facilitate commercial service provision in their respective home markets.[8] The first mobile call is made.[9]
1980s 1G is deployed.[7][6] Mobile phone technology starts to be released commercially.[10] Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices begins.
1990s Mobile telephony revolutionizes telecommunications during the decade.[11] 2G Second–generation wireless telephone technology becomes available, [12] bringing the first digital systems to be deployed.[10][7] Mobile phone operators start offering prepay mobile phones. European and American networks start to split apart and compete against one another.[4] The IBM Simon is introduced, being possibly the world’s first smartphone.[13]
2000s Apple introduces the iPhone. Android operating system launches. 3G technology starts deployment.[7] Between 2000 and 2003, the mobile phone experiences two of the biggest changes in its physical configuration: The introduction of QWERTY keyboard by BlackBerry as a popular standard, and the arrival of LCD touchscreens.[14]
2010s A massive development in smartphone technology takes place. 4G technology starts deployment.[7] Mobile telephony keeps extending into developing and least developed countries. 5G technology is still in development phase as no standard for its deployment has been concreted.[15]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details
1876 (March 10) Prelude Scottish-born Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone, makes the first phone call.[9] United States
1894 Prelude Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi transmits signals over the distance of 2 kms.[16]
1906 Prelude Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden manages to broadcast music through radio.[16] United States
1908 Prelude A man claims to have invented a wireless telephone. Being considered so crazy for this time, he is accused of fraud. The charges are later dropped.[4]
1921 Prelude The Detroit Police Department introduce mobile radios in their police cars, giving rise to the car–to–car radios. However, the system doesn't work very well at the time.[3][17] United States
1924 Network technology Wireless phones are tested on trains running between Berlin and Hamburg.[18] Germany
1926 The first successful mobile telephony service is offered to first class passengers in trains of the Deutsche Reichsbahn on the route between Berlin and Hamburg.[19] Germany
1940 Technology Second World War: Hand-held radio receivers become widely available, opening up communications in battlefields around the world.[4]
1945 Network technology The first service created just for mobile phones launches in Saint Louis, but the service doesn't work well and it does not last.[3][17] United States
1946 (June) Network technology American company Bell Labs begins to offer mobile telephone services on vehicles in Saint Louis. A few weeks later, AT&T matches Bell Labs, offering its Mobile Telephone Service (0G equivalent), at the time a wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services with limited coverage areas and a small number of available channels.[4] United States
1946 Network technology Interconnection of mobile transmitters and receivers with the Public switched telephone network (PSTN) begins in the United States, with the introduction of Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.[20] United States
1947 Technology Engineers at Bell Labs seek ways to implement cell service in vehicles, theorizing that hexagonal cells would work best for them. The first car phone service is attempted. A car phone service opens between Boston and New York, but this service soon fails.[3] The same year, base stations for mobile phones come into being when engineers from Bell Labs develop the first stations.[4] United States
1947 Network technology Bell Labs is the first company to propose a cellular radio telephone network.[1][6] United States
1948 Service coverage The Mobile Telephone Service, initially only available in Saint Louis, becomes now available in about 100 towns in the United States. Using this service, an estimated 5,000 customers place approximately 30,000 calls each week. Each call has to be manually connected by an operator. The system also functions similar to a Walkie-Talkie: a button must be pushed down talk, then released to listen. The Mobile Telephone Service requires about 36kg of equipment in the vehicle. Expensive, it costs approximately US$ 15 per month (same buying power as $154.76 in 2017) plus an additional $0.30 to $0.40 per local call. [4] United States
1952 Network technology A-Netz network is launched as a Mobile Radio Network in West Germany.[4][21] West Germany
1956 Service launch The first ever partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), is introduced in Sweden. [22][23][3] Sweden
1957–1961 Product development Soviet engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich develops a number of mobile phones that look surprisingly similar to modern mobile devices. One of these devices weighs just 70 grams and can fit into the palm of the hand.[4]
1959 Network technology The Post Office Radiophone Service is launched in Manchester. The system requires callers to connect through an operator. However, that operator could connect users to any subscriber across all of Great Britain.[4] United Kingdom
1960 Network technology Ericsson Company releases the first fully automated mobile telephone. Introduced in Sweden, the system, known in Swedish as Mobiltelefonisystem A (MTA), allows for automated connection from a rotary handset (that’s the circular dialing knob to me and you) mounted within a car, but requires an operator to forward calls.[16][24][24] Sweden
1962 Network technology AT&T develops a prototype for the first generation cellular mobile communications technology.[25] United States
1962 Network technology Swedish Mobiltelefonisystem A (MTA) is replaced by Mobiltelefonisystem B (MTB), which uses transistorized mobile sets. This system would last until 1983.[24] Sweden
1963 Network technology Altai mobile telephone system (системы "Алтай") is introduced as a pre-cellular 0G radiotelephone service in the Soviet Union.[26] Soviet Union
1964 Pre-cellular VHF/UHF radio system launch Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) is introduced by AT&T as a replacement to Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) and improved on most MTS systems by offering direct-dial rather than connections through a live operator.[20]
1965 Network technology AT&T introduces the first major improvement to mobile telephony, creating the Improved Mobile Telephone Service, which allows more simultaneous calls in a given geographic area, introducing customer dialing, and reducing the size and weight of the equipment.[13]
1968 Network technology Bell Labs starts developing the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) standard.[6] United States
1969 Network technology Penn Central Railroad equips commuter trains along the New York-Washington route with special pay phones that allow passengers to place telephone calls while the train is moving.[27] United States
1969 Organization The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) Group is established in Scandinavia and Finland with the purpose to develop a mobile phone system that, unlike the systems being introduced in the United States, focuses on accessibility.[18] Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland
1969 PNetwork technology Engineers from the Nordic countries meet and set up the first mobile phone system international standard, the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT).[28] Scandinavia
1971 Terminology The term cell comes into play when AT&T proposes splitting phone service into different areas across the cities. These areas are called cells.[3][17] United States
1971 Network technology Autoradiopuhelin (ARP) network is launched in Finland. It is one of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks.[25] Finland
1972 Network technology B-Netz mobile radio network is launched in West Germany.[4] Germany
1973 Technology milestone 10 years before a cell phone is first released onto the market, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, makes the first analog mobile phone call using a heavy prototype model. The communication is carried out between Cooper and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.[29][4][9] United States
1973 Handset release Motorola becomes the first company to mass produce the the first handheld mobile phone.[19]
1973 Mobile phone service A cellular telephone switching plan is described by Fluhr and Nussbaum.[30]
1977 Network technology A cellular telephone data signaling system is described by Hachenburg et al.[31]
1979 (December) Network technology 1G, the first generation of wireless telephone technology, is launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT). It becomes the world's first mobile phone network to be launched.[9] Initially deployed in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, within five years, the NTT network expand to cover the whole population of Japan and becomes the first nationwide 1G network.[20][12][4][8] Japan
1981–1986 Network technology The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system opens in Sweden and Norway. NMT is the first mobile phone network to feature international roaming. The system is introduced in Denmark and Finland in 1982, and in Iceland in 1986.[32][9][20][25] Scandinavia, Finland
1981 Network technology The Saudi mobile phone network becomes operational.[6] Saudi Arabia
1982 Policy The European standard for protorypes is established.[28]
1982 Network technology Ericsson constructs the first European cellular systems for use by service providers in Scandinavia.[8]
1983 Network technology The Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is officially introduced in North America.[33][25][34] The system would further expand into Canada in 1985, later in Mexico, Colombia, Korea, Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and finally all Latin American countries.[35]
1983 (March 6) Handset release The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X becomes the first mobile for sale in the United States. It costs US$ 4000 (equivalent to $9,894.75 in 2017). 1G network launches in the country, with Chicago-based Ameritech using the Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone.[9][20][4] American engineer Martin Cooper is credited with developing the device.[5] United States
1983 Network technology The Total Access Communication System (TACS) (1G) is released in the United Kingdom as a variant of the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS).[35][20][6] United Kingdom
1983 Network technology AMR radiotelephone network (Automatizovaný Městský Radiotelefon in Czech language) enters full mode as the very first analog mobile radio telephone in Czechoslovakia.[36] Czechoslovakia
1984 Network technology Airborne cellular systems: The North American terrestrial system (NATS) is introduced in the United States by GTE Corporation.[20] United States
1985 Network technology The Nordic Mobile Telephone grows to 110,000 subscribers in Scandinavia and Finland, 63,300 in Norway alone, which makes it the world's largest mobile network at the time.[37] Scandinavia
1985 Technology milestone The first mobile call in the United Kingdom is made.[9] United Kingdom
1985 Network technology The Radio Telephone Network C (C-Netz), is introduced in Germany as a first generation analog cellular phone system.[38] Germany
1985 Study A study group of the Geneva-based International Telecommunication Union (ITU) begins to consider specifications for Future Public Land Mobile Telephone Systems (FPLMTS). These specifications would eventually become the basis for a set of “third-generation” (3G) cellular standards, known collectively as IMT-2000.[20]
1987 Network technology The Technical specifications for the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard are approved. Based on digital technology, it focuses on interoperability across national boundaries and consequent different frequency bands, call quality and low costs.[18]
1988 Program launch A group of government-owned public telephone bodies within the European Community announce the creation of a digital Global System for Mobile Communications (originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), referred to as GSM, the first such system that would permit any cellular user in one European country to operate in another European country with the same equipment. GSM would soon become ubiquitous throughout the continent.[20]
1989 Handset release Motorola MicroTAC 9800X is released. It becomes the first phone to feature a flip–down, and also the smallest and lightest phone available at the time.[39][9]
1990 Network technology The old AMPS networks are replaced by Digital AMPS (D-AMPS).[4]
1990 Expansion There are 12.5 millions subscriptions to mobile telephony worldwide.[40]
1991 Network technology Second-generation (2G) cellular telecom networks are commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj).[41] The first wireless Internet access becomes available as part of this generation.[12]. Developed to serve voice communication, 2G is first digital transmission system in mobile communication in history.[7] Also, the first GSM call is made by the Finnish prime minister in the country.[6] Finland
1992 Handset release The Nokia 1011 launches. It is the world’s first mass produced phone using the new GSM digital standard. It includes a monochrome LCD screen, extendable antenna and a memory capable of storing 99 phone numbers.[18]
1992 (December 3) Technology milestone Software architect Neil Papworth sends the first text message saying "Merry Christmas" to Richard Jarvis, a director at Vodafone.[42][9][17] United Kingdom
1992 Network technology The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) adopts a terrestrial Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC) system known as the terrestrial flight telephone system (TFTS).[20]
1992 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Andorra, Denmark, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Hong Kong, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.[43] Andorra, Denmark, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Hong Kong, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom
1993 Technology milestone An early SMS text message is sent in Finland.[4] Finland
1993 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Australia, Austria, Greece. Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, United States and Nicaragua.[43] Australia, Austria, Greece. Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, United States, Nicaragua
1994 (August 16) Handset release The IBM Simon is released, featuring a touchscreen and is the first phone to feature apps. It costs US$ 899.[9] The IBM Simon is considered by many to be the world’s first smartphone.[4] United States
1994 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Belgium, the Channel Islands, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Kuwait, Malaysia, Netherlands, Qatar, South Africa, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Cameroon, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Iran, Madagascar, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.[43] Belgium, the Channel Islands, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Kuwait, Malaysia, Netherlands, Qatar, South Africa, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Cameroon, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Iran, Madagascar, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
1994 (November) Mobile phone service A patent for prepaid mobile phones (Patent Number 5826185) is filed in the United States.[44] United States
1995 Mobile phone service Fax, data, and SMS messaging services are launched commercially.[45]
1995 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Bahrain, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, French Polynesia, Lebanon, Macao, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Spain, Bulgaria, Colombia, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Gibraltar, India, Jordan, Kyrgyzistan, Lao, Latvia, Lithuania, Malawi, Myanmar, Namibia, Reunion, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda and Uzbekistan.[43] Bahrain, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, French Polynesia, Lebanon, Macao, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Spain, Bulgaria, Colombia, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Gibraltar, India, Jordan, Kyrgyzistan, Lao, Latvia, Lithuania, Malawi, Myanmar, Namibia, Reunion, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, Uzbekistan
1995–1999 Network technology Europe and Asia become the first regions to deploy mobile connectivity in their underground assets.[46] Europe, Asia
1996 Handset release The Nokia Communicatoris released. It is the first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email creating a new category of multi-use devices called smartphones.[47]
1996 Mobile operating system Palm OS is launched as a discontinued mobile operating system, designed for ease of use with a touchscreen-based graphical user interface.
1996 (January) Handset release The Motorola StarTAC is released as a clamshell mobile phone. Manufactured by Motorola is the first ever clamshell/flip mobile phone.[48][9][4] United States
1996 Handset release The Nokia 8110 is launched. Its distinctive styling is the first example of a 'slider' form factor.[9]
1996 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Argentina, Brazil, Brunei, Czechia, Dominica, Guam, South Korea, Libya, Mauritius, Oman, Panama, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Venezuela, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cote D'Ivoire, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guadalupe, Guernsey, Kenya, Lesotho, Macedonia, Mongolia, Senegal, Sudan, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, and Zimbabwe.[43] Argentina, Brazil, Brunei, Czechia, Dominica, Guam, South Korea, Libya, Mauritius, Oman, Panama, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Venezuela, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cote D'Ivoire, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guadalupe, Guernsey, Kenya, Lesotho, Macedonia, Mongolia, Senegal, Sudan, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe,
1996 Mobile phone service MTN becomes the first mobile operator to introduce a prepaid cellular service in Africa, popularizing “pay as you go” in emerging markets.[49] Africa
1996 (September) Mobile phone service The first Prepaid card is called "Mimo", launched by TMN, the mobile phone operator of Portugal Telecom.[50] Portugal
1996 Mobile phone service MTN becomes the first mobile operator to introduce a Prepaid cellular service in Africa, popularizing “pay as you go” in emerging markets.[51] Africa
1997 Handset release Dutch technology company Philips introduces "The Synergy", an early attempt at a digital smartphone. The unit provides wireless access to e-mail, internet and faxes.[5][17]
1997 Handset release Little known German-made Hagenuk GlobalHandy becomes the first phone that has no visible external antenna.[18][52] Germany
1997 Mobile payment Coca Cola first introduces mobile purchasing, setting up vending machines that allow their customers to purchase drinks via text message.[53] United States
1997 (October) Mobile phone service Vodafone UK launches 'Pay as you Talk', packaging a GSM phone with a prepay tariff. United Kingdom
1997 (December) Handset release Nokia 6110 is launched. Hugely popular, It is the first phone from Nokia to have the popular Snake game pre-installed. [4]
1997 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Barbados, Bermuda, Chile, Malta, Slovakia, Uruguay, Virgin Islands, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Guinea, Martinique, Mozambique, Romania, Togo and Zambia.[43] Barbados, Bermuda, Chile, Malta, Slovakia, Uruguay, Virgin Islands, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Guinea, Martinique, Mozambique, Romania, Togo, Zambia
1997–1998 Network technology The Iridium system is introduced as the first LEO system intended for commercial service. It is designed by Motorola, and owned by Iridium LLC. The Iridium concept employs a constellation of 66 satellites orbiting in six planes around Earth, and are launched from May 1997 to May 1998. Commercial service begins in November 1998.[20]
1998 Mobile payment Mobile payments are trialled in Finland and Sweden.[1] Finland, Sweden
1998 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Bahamas, Botswana, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guyana, Moldova, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Swaziland and Tunisia.[43] Bahamas, Botswana, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guyana, Moldova, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tunisia
1998 The first downloadable mobile ringtone service is created and delivered in Finland when Radiolinja starts their service called Harmonium, invented by Vesa-Matti Pananen.[18][54] Finland
1998 Handset release The Siemens S10 is launched as the first mobile phone with a colour screen.[18] Germany
1998 Handset release The Nokia 5110 is released. It becomes an instant success and kickstarted the vogue for customising your handset."[18]
1999 Network technology Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technical standard is made available for mobile devices.[9]
1999 Mobile operating system Nokia Series 40 mobile operating system is introduced with the release of Nokia 7110 device.[55]
1999 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Algeria, Angola, Belarus, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cuba, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Syria, West Bank and Gaza.[43] Algeria, Angola, Belarus, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cuba, Ethiopia}}, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Syria, West Bank, Gaza
1999 Shigetaka Kurita in Japan invents the emojis.[18] Japan
1999 Handset release The BlackBerry 850 launches as the first BlackBerry phone. It would become famous for its super-easy email service.[18]
1999 Handset release The Motorola Timeport is released. It is the first tri-band GSM phone, meaning it works "everywhere around the world".[18]
1999 Mobile payment Movie tickets become available for purchase through mobile payment.[56]
1999–2002 Network technology Globalstar is released as a LEO system, consisting in 48 satellites that are launched about the same time as the Iridium constellation. Globalstar begins offering service in October 1999, though it would go into bankruptcy in 2002. A further reorganized Globalstar LP would continue to provide service thereafter.[20]
1999 Mobile payment The first mobile commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards is launched in the Philippines, simultaneously by mobile operators Globe Telecom and Smart Communications.[2]
2000 Network technology Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks evolve into General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) (2.5G) and become available. The first GPRS-compatible handsets become available for sale.[45][6]
2000 Handset release The Nokia 9210 Communicator is launched as the first serious attempt at an internet-enabled mobile phone.[18]
2000 (June) Handset release South Korean multinational conglomerate Samsung releases SCH-V200, which integrates digital camera and mobile phone in a unit that can take up to 20 pictures at 640 x 480 (350,000 pixel CCD, 1 MB internal storage).[57] South Korea
2000 (November) Handset release Japanese multinational Sharp Corporation releases the J-SH04 mobile phone, the first ever phone with a built-in camera (110,000-pixel CMOS) and color display (256-color display).[58] Japan
2000 Digital mobile telephony introduction Digital mobile telephony is commercially introduced in Dominica, Grenada, Santa Lucia, Anguilla, Benin, Burundi, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.[43] Dominica, Grenada, Santa Lucia, Anguilla, Benin, Burundi, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
2000 Mobile phones on aircraft A study by the British Civil Aviation Authority finds that a mobile phone, when used near the cockpit or other avionics equipment location, will exceed safety levels for older equipment (compliant with 1984 standards). Such equipment is still in use, even in new aircraft. Therefore, the report concludes, the current policy, which restricts the use of mobile phones on all aircraft while the engines are running, should remain in force.[59] United Kingdom
2001 (October) Handset release Nokia 5510 is released, featuring a full QWERTY keyboard.[17]
2001 (October) Network technology The third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology 3G (FOMA W-CDMA services on the 2GHz) is launched in Japan, with a system offered by NTT DoCoMo.[20] For the first time, mobile devices are fast enough to support online video and music streaming.[4] Developed to serve data communication, 3G can send 10 times more data than 2G.[60] Japan
2001 Mobile payment Mobile commerce reaches $2.4 billion worldwide.[56]
2001 Technology The popularity of voice over IP grows with startlingly rapid progress, with the number of installed voice-over-IP networks, the number of players in the voice-over-IP arena, the dollars spent on voice-over-IP products, the number of channels shipped and even the capacity of voice-over-IP products, all having doubled within a year.[61]
2002 Handset release Handspring (company)|Handspring]]'s Treo 180 is released. It is the first smartphone that fully integrates the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built into the OS. The 180 model has a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version has a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead.[62][3][17]
2002 (June) Organization The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is formed as a standards body with aims at developing open standards for the mobile phone industry.[63]
2002 Handset release The Sanyo SCP–5300 is released. It allows users to view photos on a screen for the first time, instead of plugging it into a computer.[3][9]
2002 Research Finnish scientists claim that the electromagnetic radiation affect brain tissue.[1]
2002 Mobile payment Mobile payment is introduced in China.[64] China
2003 Handset release The Nokia 1100 is released. It would become the biggest–selling phone of all time.[9]
2003 Handset release A Blackberry phone, integrating a phone with fully functioning email, web browsing and the Blackberry Messenger, is launched.[18]
2003 Mobile payment An estimated 95 million users worldwide make purchases with their mobile phones.[56]
2003–2007 Expansion Mobile phone users surpass those using landline telephone in the United States.[40] United States
2004 Research German–led European laboratory study using mouse models announces that mobile radiation could cause genetic damage.[1]
2004 Handset release The Motorola Razr V3 is released. It would be the last great flip phone. Very thin at only 14mm.[18]
2005 Handset release The Casio GZ'One is released as the first waterproof phone.[9]
2005 Mobile operating system Android is acquired by Google. This step shows that Google is serious about developing mobile technology.[9] United States
2005 Policy The Cell Phone Recycle Act is passed in California.[3] United States
2005 Policy The Finnish government decides that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters is the mobile phone network.[65] Finland
2005 Handset release Nokia launches the first Near-field communication (NFC)-enabled phone.[56]
Mid-2000s Network technology Underground systems in the Americas start deploying mobile connectivity in their underground assets.[46] Americas
2006 Study British researcher at the University of Staffordshire links mental wellbeing issues, such as stress, to mobile use.[1] United Kingdom
2006 (June) Network technology The world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service is opened by KT in Seoul. [66] South Korea
2006 (August) Mobile phones on aircraft Irish airline Ryanair announces that it would introduce a facility to allow passengers to use their mobile phones in-flight.[67]
2006 Mobile payment Mobile payment is introduced in India.[68] India
2007 Handset release Steve Jobs unveils the Apple Iphone, which is released. It has finger–input touchscreen, no keyboard, intuitive interface and apps[3][9][1]
2007 Policy Google opens Android operating system for free development and use, making its own services default for search, video and email.[9]
2007 Network technology The first 4G network is launched in South Korea.[9] South Korea
2007 Technology T-Mobile US rolls out a service, T-Mobile HotSpot@Home, that allows a single handset to switch seamlessly from cellular to Wi-Fi access in the home and at the 8,900 T-Mobile Hotspot locations in the United States.[69] United States
2007 (June 29) Handset/mobile operating system release Apple Inc. launches the first-generation iPhone, along with its mobile operating system iOS.[70]
2007 Coverage The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world is estimated at 3.3 billion, equivalent of over half the planet's population.[65] 295 million 3G users are estimated around the world. This number accounts for 9% of the total worldwide number of mobile users.[4]
2007 Network technology Hong Kong and Buenos Aires become the first cities to install Wi-Fi in their subway systems.[71] Hong Kong, Argentina
2008 Policy The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) sets forward a list of requirements for what it calls IMT Advanced, or 4G. These requirements include data rates of 1 gigabit per second for a stationary user and 100 megabits per second for a moving user.[20]
2008 (March) Mobile phones on aircraft Emirates airline flights begin allowing in-flight voice calls on some commercial airline flights.[72]
2008 Network shutdown The whole Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) service is shut down across North America. This would be considered the end of an era.[4]
2008 Handset release HTC corporation releases the HTC Dream the first commercially released device to use the Linux-based Android operating system.[9]
2008 (july 10) Handset release The App Store (iOS) is launched, featuring 552 apps, 135 of which are free.[9]
2008 Product shutdown Microsoft deprecates windows mobile, saying that it can't compete with iPhone and Android. The development of Windows Phone begins.[9] United States
2008 Technology Several mobile phone providers in the United States start to include IPv6 capabilities in their phones.[73] IPv6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. United States
2009 (January) Mobile application Whatsapp is launched.[9][74]
2009 Network technology Swedish telephone company TeliaSonera introduces the first 4G LTE network in Stockholm.[20] Sweden
2009 Mobile payment The mobile payment market reaches US$69 billion in sales.[56]
2010 Handset release Samsung Galaxy S smartphone is launched. Usurping former Android giant HTC, the Samsung Galaxy S range is still the most popular Android brand.[18]
2010 (June 7) Technology Apple announces FaceTime in conjunction with iPhone 4. A videotelephony product, FaceTime uses the device's front-facing camera to show the caller to the receiver, and vice versa. FaceTime works anywhere there is Wi-Fi.[75] United States
2010 Samsung, Nokia, LG Electronics, ZTE Corporation and Apple Inc. altogether control more than 70% of the world mobile phone market.[28]
2010 Policy The International Telecommunication Union decides that two technologies, LTE-Advanced (Long Term Evolution; LTE) and WirelessMan-Advanced (also called WiMAX), meet the requirements for a 4G.[20]
2011 Health The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), an agency of the World Health Organization, classifies wireless radiation as Group 2B – possibly carcinogenic. This means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of wireless devices needs to be conducted.[76]
2011 Mobile as a modem The Verizon iPhone is released. It includes the 'Personal Hotspot" feature which allows a user to use the iPhone as a wireless hotspot, with up to five devices connecting at one time.[77][78][79][80] United States
2011 Network technology As of date, 90% of the world's population live in areas with 2G coverage, while 45% live in areas with 2G and 3G coverage, and 5% live in areas with 4G coverage. By 2017 more than 90% of the world's population is expected to have 2G coverage, 85% is expected to have 3G coverage, and 50% will have 4G coverage.[81]
2012 Organization The British Government announces the establishment of a 5G Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey.[82] United Kingdom
2012 Health A study of low-frequency radiation on humans finds "no evidence for acute effects of short-term mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow".[83][84] However, several animal studies demonstrate damage to the blood-brain barrier from phone radiation.[85][86]
2012 Statistics At the end of the year there are roughly 1.5 billion mobile broadband subscriptions, growing at a 50% year-on-year rate.[87]
2013 Technology Apple introduces FaceTime Audio. A version of FaceTime simply featuring audio-only, so only the user's voice is transmitted in the call.[88] United States
2014 Acquisition American corporation Facebook acquires Whatsapp for US$ 19 billion.[9] United States
2014 (June) Technology Apple announces WiFi calling for iPhone users with iOS 8. The new feature allows users to make and receive calls as well as send messages through a WiFi connection rather than using their voice or data plan.[89]
2015 (April) Technology WhatsApp Call is introduced for Android and iOS as a new voice calling service, enabling users to make phone calls over the Internet.[90]
2015 (August) Technology Deutsche Telekom starts to roll out IPv6 (dual stack) in their mobile network.[91] Germany
2015 (September) Program launch Verizon Communications announces a roadmap to begin testing 5G in field trials in the United States in 2016.[92]
2015 (October) Technology AT&T first introduces Wi-Fi calling, a feature that allows customers to place calls over Wi-Fi in instances where a cellular connection is poor.[93] United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands
2015 Mobile payment Samsung Pay launches in South Korea as a mobile payment and digital wallet service that lets users make payments using compatible phones and other Samsung-produced devices.[94][56] South Korea
2015 (September 11) Mobile payment Android Pay is released as a digital wallet platform and online payment system developed by Google to power in-app and tap-to-pay purchases on mobile devices.[95] United States
2016 (February) NTT DoCoMo and Ericsson succeed in World's first trial to achieve a cumulative 20Gbit/s with two simultaneously connected mobile devices in 5G outdoor trial.[96]
2016 Mobile application The Pokemon Go app launches worldwide, using a free augmented reality game by means of the smartphone camera and location to show Pokemon characters in the real world. The game is massively adopted worldwide.[18]
2017 (April) Network technology Huawei announces having jointly with Telenor conducted successful 5G tests with speeds up to 70 Gbit/s in a controlled lab environment in Norway.[97] Norway
2017 (April) Technology All Regional Internet Registries confirm that IPv4 addresses are exhausted and cannot be allocated any more, implying all new organizations requesting a block of Internet addresses would be allocated IPv6 addresses.[98]
2017 (July) Network technology Telecom Italia Mobile signs a memorandum of understanding with the government of San Marino to upgrade its 4G network to 5G. It would be the first nationwide 5G network in the world.[99] Italy, San Marino
2017 Mobile operating system KaiOS launches as a Mobile operating system based on Linux.[100]
2017 Network technology As of date, more than 90% of the world's population is expected to have 2G coverage, 85% is expected to have 3G coverage, and 50% 4G coverage.[101]
2020 (March) Network technology The London Underground is expected to get 4G access in its tunnels and stations by this time.[102][103] United Kingdom

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

[1] [2]

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

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