Timeline of vegetarianism and veganism
This is a timeline vegetarianism and veganism, both practices of abstaining from the consumption of meat.
- 1 Sample questions
- 2 Big picture
- 3 Visual data
- 4 Full timeline
- 5 Meta information on the timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- What are some significant events related to the development of the concepts of vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
- What are some notable historical personalities advocating vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "advocacy".
- You will see mostly ancient historical personalities advocating meat abstention.
- What are some notable publications on the topics of vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
- You will see some notable book (Literature (book)) and magazine releases (Literature (magazine)).
- What are some notable organizations promoting vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
- You will read some notable names, like pioneering organizations (Vegetarian Society and The Vegan Society), as well as others.
- What are some indicators of trend growth in vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Trend growth".
- You will see numbers indicating the evolution of both vegetarianism and veganism in popularity.
- What are some notable vegan and vegetarian festivals?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Festival".
- You will read names like Veggie Pride and Vegfest, among other festivals.
- What are some significant studies concerning the effect of vegetarianism and veganism?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (nutrition)".
- You will see a number of studies addressing the nutritional effect of the practice of vegetarianism and veganism.
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (environment)".
- You will see a number of studies addressing the noticeable environmental effect produced by massive meat abstention.
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|3300 BCE onward||Earliest historical record||The earliest recorded practice of vegetarianism is identified in the Indus Valley Civilization. Early vegetarians include Indian philosophers, as well as Greek and Roman intellectuals.|
|1840s onward||Modern vegetarian organizations||This period begins with the establishment of the Vegetarian Society in Britain. A number of vegetarian oganizations follows, especially in Europe. The word 'vegetarian' is also first known to have been used in print in 1842.|
|1944 onward||Vegan movement||This period encompasses the new concept of veganism, as well as the emergence of the first vegan organization, both created in 1944.|
Summary by century
|Time period||Development summary|
|19th century||Vegetarianism establishes itself as a movement in Europe and the United States.|
|20th century||Vegetarianism becomes a forceful movement. In this century, there is an increased awareness of the relationship between animals and humans. The vegan movement is born.|
|21st century||The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream, especially in the last years.|
The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (topic), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.
The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (search term), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.
The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for veganism for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.
The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for vegetarianism for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.
|3300 BC–1300 BC||Vegetarianism||The practice of vegetarianism is already identified in the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent particularly in northern and western ancient India.||India|
|877 BC–777 BC||Activism||Early Jain called Parshvanatha teaches followers about ahimsa (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.||India|
|520 BC||Vegetarianism||Policy||Persian emperor Cyrus the Great is born. A vegetarian himself, Cyrus would order his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet.|
|500 BC||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Greek philosopher Pythagoras advocates the idea that all animals have immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. Pythagoras promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.||Greece|
|484BC–425BC||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Greek historian Herodotus lives. He condemns the killing and eating of animals.||Greece|
|206 BC–220 AD||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Han Dynasty. Vegetarianism is introduced by buddhist missionaries from India.||China|
|106BC–423BC||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Roman statesman Cicero states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."|
|5 BC–65 AD||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca lives. An ardent vegetarian, Seneca creates a vegetarian cult in the Court.|
|40 AD–120 AD||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Greek philosopher Plutarch lives. His essay on flesh eating contains ethical arguments for vegetarianism.|
|520||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Buddhist monk Boddhidharma introduces Zen in China. Boddhidharma teaches vegetarianism.||India|
|973–1057||Veganism||Adoption||Arab poet al-Maʿarri is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.|
|1398||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Indian mystic poet Kabir calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.||India|
|1806||Veganism||Concept development||The earliest concepts of veganism start to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.|
|1809||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Bible Christian Church, a Christian vegetarian sect, is founded by William Cowherd.||United Kingdom|
|1813||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".||United Kingdom|
|1815||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||London physician William Lambe claims that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne.||United Kingdom|
|1839||Vegetarianism||Concept development||The term "vegetarian" at this time refers to what is described as a vegetable regimen or diet.|
|1847||Vegetarianism||Organization||The UK Vegetarian Society is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1850||Vegetarianism||Organization||The American Vegetarian Association in founded in New York.||United States|
|1882||Vegetarianism||Organization||The French Vegetarian Society is founded. Its aim is to "propagate vegetarianism and assert the benefits of any order it presents."||France|
|1883||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||English humanitarian Howard Williams publishes The Ethics of Diet, which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.|
|1884||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.||Hungary|
|1894||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.||Netherlands|
|1896||Vegetarianism||Organization||A Vegetarian Society is formed in Stockholm.||Sweden|
|1899||Vegetarianism||Organization||A Vegetarian Society is established in Milan.||Italy|
|1901||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.||Russia|
|1905||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.||Spain|
|1906||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.||Greece|
|1908||Vegetarianism||Organization||The International Vegetarian Union is launched at the first International Vegetarian Congress in Dresden, Germany.||Germany|
|1908||Vegetarianism||Organization||The World Esperantist Vegetarian Association is founded.|
|1918||Veganism||Trend growth||The world's first raw vegan restaurant is opened in Los Angeles, California by John and Vera Richter.||United States|
|1925||Veganism||Literature (book)||Vera Richter publishes Mrs. Richter's Cook-Less Book, the first raw vegan cookbook.||United States|
|1935||Vegetarianism||Concept development||The Vegetarian Society states: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."|
|1938||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Jewish vegetarianism. The first Jewish-vegetarian cookbook is compiled by Fania Lewando and is first published in Vilnius.||Lithuania|
|1943||Vegetarianism||Organization||The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.||New Zeland|
|1944||Veganism||Organization||The Vegan Society is founded. It is the oldest vegan society in the world.||United Kingdom|
|1944||Veganism||Concept development||The Vegan Society co-founder Donald Watson coins the term "vegan" using it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian".|
|1945||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Toronto Vegetarian Association is founded.||Canada|
|1945||Veganism||Concept development||Vegans explicitly abstain from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese".|
|1951||Veganism||Concept development||The Vegan Society defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".|
|1952||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.||Italy|
|1960||Veganism||Organization||The American Vegan Society is founded.||United States|
|1974||Vegetarianism||Organization||Hare Krishna Food for Life is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".||India|
|1974||Vegetarianism||Literature (magazine)||American magazine Vegetarian Times launches.||United States|
|1975||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Jewish Vegetarian Society of America is founded.|
|1978||Veganism||Organization||The Dutch Society for Veganism is founded.||Netherlands|
|1982||Vegetarianism||Meat substitute||The veggie burger may have been created in London in this year by Gregory Sams, who calls it the 'VegeBurger'. A Carrefour hypermarket in Southampton sells 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch.||United Kingdom|
|1984||Veganism||Organization||The Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) is founded. It promotes veganism.||United Kingdom|
|1984||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Daniel Dombrowski publishes The Philosophy of Vegetarianism.|
|1984||Veganism||Literature (book)||Brenda Davis publishes diet book Vegetariana. It is considered a classic in its field.|
|1986||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Boston Vegetarian Society is founded.||United States|
|1987||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Rudolph Ballentine publishes Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step.|
|1988||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study concludes that vegans tend to have less taurine in their bodies.|
|1988||Vegetarianism||Organization||The European Vegetarian Union is founded.||Netherlands|
|1989||Veganism||Literature (magazine)||Arkangel is first published. It promotes vegan lifestyle.||United Kingdom|
|1989||Veganism||Literature (magazine)||No Compromise launches as a bi-annual animal rights magazine. It promotes a vegan lifestyle.||United States|
|1990||Veganism||Trend growth||The Vegan Trademark scheme is launched. It is used on labels worldwide as the authentic standard for products free from animal ingredients and animal testing.|
|1993||Veganism||Organization||Vegan Outreach is founded. It is a 501c3 nonprofit organization working to end violence towards animals.||United States|
|1993||Vegetarianism||Organization||Swissveg is founded. It is the biggest community in Switzerland for vegetarians and vegans.||Switzerland|
|1994||Veganism||Organization||Vegan Prisoners Support Group is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1994||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study concludes that vegans are particularly prone to iron deficiency, because the form that’s most readily absorbed by the body is “haem iron”, which is only found in animal proteins.|
|1994||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Association Végétarienne de France is founded.||France|
|1994||Veganism||Advocacy||The World Vegan Day is first celebrated on November 1st. It would evolve into World Vegan Week and later World Vegan Month; where vegans and veganism is celebrated in workplaces, shops, restaurants and in homes all over the world.|
|1995||Veganism||Organization||Vegan Awareness Foundation is founded. It works "to eliminate animal suffering, reduce environmental impacts, and improve human health through a vegan diet".||United States|
|1998||Veganism||Literature (book)||Erik Marcus publishes Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating.|
|1998||Vegetarianism||Concept development||A Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is created by Oldways Preservation Trust with scientific research from Cornell and Harvard University and specific reference to the healthy patterns of eating demonstrated by the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.||United States|
|1999||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Vegetarian Society (Singapore) is established.||Singapore|
|1999||Vegetarianism||Organization||The Christian Vegetarian Association is founded.||United States|
|1999||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Richard A. Young publishes Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights.|
|1999||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer.|
|1999||General||Online community||HappyCow launches as an online service that lists sources of vegan, vegetarian and healthy food.||United States|
|2000||Vegetarianism||Organization||Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.||Belgium|
|2000||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Colin Spencer publishes Vegetarianism: A History. The book explores the psychology of abstention from flesh.|
|2000||Veganism||Literature (magazine)||American magazine VegNews launches. It publishes content about and relating to veganism.||United States|
|2000||General||Online community||VeggieBoards launches. It is one of the largest and most active internet forums for vegetarians and vegans.|
|2001||General||Festival||Veggie Pride is first held in Paris. It brings together vegetarians and vegans who want "to show their pride at refusing to eat animals, and to denounce the discrimination which they suffer, both personally and in terms of expressing their ideas".||France|
|2001||Veganism||Broadcasting||Talk radio program Go Vegan debuts.||United States|
|2002||Vegetarianism||Activism||Meet Your Meat is released. This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture.|
|2003||Vegetarianism||Organization||Meatless Monday launches. It is an international campaign that encourages people to not eat meat on Mondays to improve their health and address the Environmental effects of meat production.|
|2003||Veganism||Festival||Vegfest (UK) starts in Bristol. Vegfest is one of the biggest Vegan/Vegetarian festivals in the world.||United Kingdom|
|2003||Vegetarianism||Study (nutrition)||Study conducted on 555 Kenyan schoolchildren, who were fed one of three different types of soup – one with meat, one with milk, and one with oil – or no soup at all, finds that the children who were given the soup containing meat each day outperformed all the other children on a test for non-verbal reasoning by the end of the study.||Kenya|
|2004||Vegetarianism||Festival||Vegfest Brasil launches.||Brazil|
|2004||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||German study finds that 40% of the vegans they looked at were consuming less than the recommended daily amount of iron.|
|2004–2018||Veganism||Trend growth||Search data from Google Trends shows a profound worldwide increase in the interest in veganism in this period. Top regions include Israel, Australia, Canada, Austria, and New Zealand.||Worldwide|
|2005||Veganism||Literature (book)||The China Study is published by T. Colin Campbell. It examines the link between the consumption of animal products (including dairy) and chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and bowel cancer.||United States|
|2005||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study correlates the amount of Vitamin B12 in blood with IQ, implying that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment.|
|2005–2018||Vegetarianism||Trend growth||The number of vegetarians grows from 1% of the population in Germany to 7% in this period.||Germany|
|2006||Vegetarianism||Festival||The Vegetarian Festival in Tokyo starts.||Japan|
|2007–2014||General||Statistics||An estimated 400 million fewer animals are killed in the United States in 2014 compared to 2007 because of decreased consumption of animal products.||United States|
|2008||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||One study finds that in the elderly the brains of those with lower vitamin B12 are six times more likely to be shrinking.|
|2009||Veganism||Organization||Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland is founded as a non-profit. It promotes veganism and animal rights.||Ireland|
|2009||Veganism||Nutrition||A study of bone density finds the bone density of vegans is 94 percent that of omnivores, but deems the difference clinically insignificant.|
|2009||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Lierre Keith publishes The Vegetarian Myth. "Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculturecausing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoiland asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities"||United States|
|2009||General||Literature (book)||Amy Shand publishes That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things, a non-fiction book for children.|
|2010||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||British study finds that half of the vegans in their sample are vitamin B12 deficient.|
|2010||Vegetarianism||Study (environment)|| Environmental vegetarianism. A report from the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management states:
Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.
|2010||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study finds that, in the winter months, when the sun is weaker, omnivores living in the United Kingdom have nearly 40% more vitamin D3 in their blood than vegans.||United Kingdom|
|2011||Veganism||Organization||Veganz is founded. It is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.||Germany|
|2011||Veganism||Documentary film||Vegucated is released. It explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet.||United States|
|2012||Veganism||Literature (maganize)||Naked Food launches. It is a quarterly magazine focusing on whole-food plant-based nutrition.||United States|
|2012||Veganism||Organization||Vegan Australia is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.||Australia|
|2013||Veganism||Festival||Hong Kong Vegfest is held for the first time. It is a yearly volunteer-run festival organized by a collaboration of major organizations and institutions with the aim of promoting veganism in Hong Kong.||Hong Kong|
|2013||Vegetarianism||Literature (book)||Adam D. Shprintzen publishes The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921.||United States|
|2013||Veganism||Literature (book)||Amy Shand publishes V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind.|
|2014–2018||Veganism||Trend growth||Vegan facial skincare launches almost triple in this period, rising from 13% of all launches in 2014 to 28% in 2018.|
|2014||Veganism||Statistics||According to a report by research firm GlobalData, about 1% of consumers in the United States claim to be vegan.||United States|
|2014||Organization||Peepal Farm is founded.||India|
|2014||Veganism||Literature (book)||Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina publish diet book Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition.|
|2014||Veganism||Organization||Veganuary launches. It is a British nonprofit organization that promotes and educates about veganism by encouraging people to follow a vegan lifestyle for the month of January.||United Kingdom|
|2014–2017||Veganism||Trend growth||The number of vegans in the United States grows by 600% from nearly 4 million in 2014 to 19.6 million in 2017.||United States|
|2015||Vegetarianism||Study (nutrition)||Study finds that the average vegetarian gets well below the adequate amount of choline.|
|2016||Veganism||Statistics||German companies launch more vegan food products than in any other country.||Germany|
|2016||Vegetarianism||Program launch||The Chinese health ministry releases dietary guidelines in that encourage their population of more than 1.3 billion people to reduce their meat consumption by 50%.||China|
|2016||Veganism||Statistics||The global plant milk market was worth over US$8 billion in the year.||Worldwide|
|2016–2019||Veganism||Trend growth||The number of vegan food and drink businesses launched in Europe increases 93%, from 6,041 in 2016 to 11,655 in 2019.||Europe|
|2016||Veganism||Statistics||Europe stands as the largest market for meat substitutes to date, accounting for 39% of global sales.||Europe|
|2016||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||The German Society for Nutrition states that – for children, pregnant or nursing women, and adolescents – vegan diets are not recommended.||Germany|
|2017||Veganism||Trend growth||The percentage of vegans in the United States reaches 6% of consumers.||United States|
|2017||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study shows that vegans have extremely low levels of choline, since people who eat eggs tend to have almost double the choline levels of those who don’t.|
|2017||Veganism||Organization||ProVeg International is founded. Its mission is to help reduce the global consumption of animal products by 50% by the year 2040, by making plant-based lifestyles more attractive and accessible.||Germany|
|2017||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Environmental vegetarianism. 15,364 world scientists sign a Warning to Humanity calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.|
|2017||Veganism||Literature (book)||Tobias Leenaert publishes How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach. Leenaert follows an utilitarian approach in his advocacy, stating that the vegan movement need be more pragmatic.|
|2017||Veganism||Trend growth||British food delivery service Just Eat sees a 94% increase in vegan food orders in Ireland in the year.||Ireland|
|2017||Veganism||Trend growth||Demand for meat-free food in the United Kingdom increases by 987% in the year.||United Kingdom|
|2017||Vegetarianism||Trend growth||According to the Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden sees its largest decrease in meat consumption for 30 years with a 2.6% drop in people eating meat in the year.||Sweden|
|2017–2018||Veganism||Statistics||Germany, a global leaders when it comes to vegan product development and launches, accounts for 15% of global vegan introductions between July 2017 and June 2018.||Germany|
|2018||Veganism||Trend growth||There are as many people searching for vegan Thanksgiving recipes as there are people searching for turkey Thanksgiving recipes in the United States.||United States|
|2018||Vegetarianism||Trend growth||Around 60% of Poles say they plan to cut back on their meat consumption at this time.||Poland|
|2018||Veganism||Trend growth||The size of the global vegan food market is calculated to be worth US$12.69 billion.|
|2018||Veganism||Trend growth||The United Kingdom launches more vegan products than any nation.||United Kingdom|
|2018||Vegetarianism||Trend growth||The total market for plant-based meat alternative products is around US$4.6 billion in the year.|
|2018||Veganism||Study (environment)||A study by Oxford University finds that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce the impact of an individual on Earth, as animal farming provides just 18% of calories but takes up 83% of our farmland.||United Kingdom|
|2018||Veganism||Trend growth||The worldwide funding of novel vegan meat replacement companies reaches US$900 million.||Worldwide|
|2018||Veganism||Study (environment)||A Greenpeace report finds that “global meat and dairy production and consumption must be cut in half by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change and keep the Paris Agreement on track. "If left unchecked, agriculture is projected to produce 52% of global greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, 70% of which will come from meat and dairy."|
|2018–2019||Veganism||Trend growth||British book retailer Waterstones have 9,030 book titles with the word 'vegan' in them available for sale (as of December 2019) compared to 944 in August 2018.||United Kingdom|
|2018–2019||Veganism||Trend growth||Iceland tops the worldwide rankings for popularity of veganism in the period comprised between June 2018 and June 2019.||Iceland|
|2018–2019||Veganism||Trend growth||Retail sales of plant-based foods in the United States increase 11 percent from 2018 to 2019, hitting a plant-based market value to US$4.5 billion.||United States|
|2019||Veganism||Trend growth||The packaged vegan food market in Australia is worth almost US$200 million.||Australia|
|2019||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Nutritionist claims that vegan diets can stunt brain development, arguing that animal products are the best sources of choline, an essential nutrient for brain and liver health.||United Kingdom|
|2019||Veganism||Study (nutrition)||Study on risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke suggests that vegans tend to have healthier hearts.|
|2019||Vegetarianism||Advocacy||Environmental vegetarianism. A significant reduction in meat consumption is advocated by, among others, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their special report.|
|2019||Veganism||Study (environment)||A Harvard University report proves that if everyone in the United Kingdom went vegan, the population would still have enough food for everyone to eat. If the country returned meat, dairy and egg farms back to forest and grew health-promoting crops for human consumption, it would be able to sustain human calorie and protein needs in place of feed currently grown for animals.||United Kingdom|
|2019||Veganism||Trend growth||According to Google Trends, the United Kingdom is the most popular country for veganism, followed by the Australia and New Zealand.||United Kingdom|
|2019||Veganism||Trend growth||Plant milks make up 13% of the entire milk category in the United States. Their sale grow by 6% in the year, while cow's milk sales decline by 3%.||United States|
|2019||Veganism||Policy||The Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium decides a vegan diet is “unsuitable” for children, implying the possibility to imprison parents who enforce a vegan diet on their children.||Belgium|
|2040||Vegetarianism||Prediction||It is predicted that by this year, only 40% of the global population will be consuming meat, with 35% consuming clean (lab) meat and 25% vegan meat replacements.|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
Timeline update strategy
- Timeline of Vegan Outreach
- Timeline of animal welfare and rights
- Timeline of food and nutrition in India
- Timeline of food and nutrition in China
- ↑ Davis, John. "The Origins of the 'Vegetarians'". ivu.org. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ James Gregory, Of Victorians and Vegetarians, I. B. Tauris, 2007.
- ↑ "No Missed Steak: Meat-free diets are taking over". georgiapoliticalreview.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream". CBS News. Associated Press. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Nijjar, Raman (4 June 2011). "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet". CBC News. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Molloy, Antonia (31 December 2013). "No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?". The Independent. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Tancock, Kat (13 January 2015). "Vegan cuisine moves into the mainstream – and it's actually delicious". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Nick Pendergrast, "Environmental Concerns and the Mainstreaming of Veganism", in T. Raphaely (ed.), Impact of Meat Consumption on Health and Environmental Sustainability, IGI Global, 2015, 106.
- ↑ Hancox, Dan (1 April 2018). "The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went mainstream". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- ↑ "Google Trends". trends.google.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Google Trends". trends.google.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Wikipedia Views veganism". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "Wikipedia Views Vegetarianism". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
- ↑ Spencer, Colin (1996). The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
- ↑ Tähtinen, Unto. Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition. London: , Rider and Company (1976).
- ↑ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 137. ISBN 9788131711200.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 "WHO WERE THE WORLD'S VERY EARLIEST VEGANS?". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 "VEGETARIANISM 8th CENTURY b.c. TO 5th CENTURY A.D.". ivu.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 "The Vegan Society". vegansociety.com. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 "China & Vegetarianism". ivu.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ↑ D. S. Margoliouth, "Abu‘l-'Alā al-Ma‘arrī's Correspondence on Vegetarianism", The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
- ↑ "Timeline of Vegetarian History - from 1400 to 1800". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "KABIR'S CALL TO COMPASSION". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ Julia Twigg (1981). "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union.
- ↑ "P B Shelley's A Vindication of the Natural Diet". bl.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ James C. Whorton, Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, 69–70: "Word of these cures of pimples, consumption, and virtually all ailments in between was widely distributed by his several publications ..."A Vindication of Natural Diet, London: F. Pitman, 1884 ; William Lambe, Joel Shew, Water and Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].
- ↑ Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008, 12.
- ↑ "The Vegetarian Society of the UK:". ivu.org. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Life on the Veg: Early Vegetarianism in America". blog.nyhistory.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ Lummel, Peter. Food and the City in Europe since 1800.
- ↑ "Société végétarienne de France". data.bnf.fr. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ↑ "History of the International Vegetarian Union". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of the HungarianVegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of Netherlands Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of the Swedish Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of Italian Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of the Russian Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of Spanish Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of the Greek Vegetarian Societies". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "History of the International Vegetarian Union". ivu.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ↑ "All the IVU World Vegfests - past and future". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "Welcome from World Vegetarian Leaders". ivu.org. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "World Esperantist Vegetarian Association". uia.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Meares, Hadley. "L.A. Has Been Eating Raw Vegan Food Since 1918, Thanks to This Communist, Feminist Angeleno". Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- ↑ Leneman 1999, 226.
- ↑ Lithuanian Jewish Community: A Jewish Culinary Legend Reborn: Fania Lewando’s Vilnius, consulted 14. July 2018
- ↑ "New Zealand Vegetarian Society". worldmeatfreeweek.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "UK Vegan Society formed". vegansociety.today. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "DONALD WATSON CREATED THE WORD "VEGAN" AND LATER FOUNDED THE UK VEGAN SOCIETY". vegansociety.today. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "We've come a long way!". vegansociety.com. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "Toronto Vegetarian Association". eventbrite.ca. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Stefano, Fabio. get fed at home.
- ↑ Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951.
- ↑ "Italian Vegetarian Society". ivu.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "American Vegan Society". americanvegan.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "ART-0703 Charity, Food for Life". iskconeducationalservices.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "Paul Obis Gave Up Meat, Founded Vegetarian Times and Later Had Second Thoughts". wsj.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Bring a Jewish Veg Speaker to Your Jewish Institution". jewishveg.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "Groningen home to first Vegan Student Association in the Netherlands". northerntimes.nl. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "The Vegeburger story". Chaos Works. Retrieved 2006-11-11.
- ↑ "And Here Comes the VegeBurger". The Observer. UK. Retrieved 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Miller, Ann. Life's Lessons: Working Together to Transform Education, Business and Government.
- ↑ "Movement for Compassionate Living". bookdepository.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "The philosophy of vegetarianism / Daniel A. Dombrowski.". trove.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "The 6 Top Myths About Plant-Based Diets by Nava Atlas". mainstreetvegan.net. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Boston Vegetarian Society". researchgate.net. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Transition to Vegetarianism; An Evolutionary Step". abebooks.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Laidlaw, S A; Shultz, T D; Cecchino, J T; Kopple, J D. "Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi:10.1093/ajcn/47.4.660.
- ↑ "EVU". euroveg.eu. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Arkangel". thetalonconspiracy.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "No Compromise (magazine)". plantbaseddiet4u.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 "Statistics". vegansociety.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "What is the Vegan Trademark?". vegansociety.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "What are they all about?". veganactivism.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "Swissveg-Team". swissveg.ch. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "What We Do". vpsg.org. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Alexander, D; Ball, MJ; Mann, J. "Nutrient intake and haematological status of vegetarians and age-sex matched omnivores.". PMID 7956998.
- ↑ Hughes, Jane. The Adventurous Vegetarian: Around the World in 30 Meals.
- ↑ "World Vegan Month". vegansociety.com. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- ↑ "Certified Vegan". animista.org. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegan Awareness Foundation". connectva.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating". books.google.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Oldways". oldwayspt.org.
- ↑ "Vegetarian Society (Singapore)". vegetarian-society.org. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- ↑ "CHRISTIAN VEGETARIAN ASSOCIATION (CVA)". yale.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Is God a Vegetarian?: Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights". books.google.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Ethical vegetarianism : from Pythagoras to Peter Singer / edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess.". trove.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegetarians in Paradise". vegparadise.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice (André Viljoen, Johannes S. C. Wiskerke ed.).
- ↑ "Vegetarianism: A History". books.google.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegetarianism: A History Paperback". amazon.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "V-dog named one of 2020's top plant-based products in VegNews Veggie Awards". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Fawnapp's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions". owler.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Veggie Pride". veggiepride.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "GoVegan". goveganradio.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Meet Your Meat (2002)". themoviedb.org. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- ↑ "Meatless Monday". researchgate.net. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- ↑ "VegfestUK". vegfest.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Our events". VegfestUK. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ Whaley, SE; Sigman, M; Neumann, C; Bwibo, N; Guthrie, D; Weiss, RE; Alber, S; Murphy, SP. "The impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children". doi:10.1093/jn/133.11.3965S.
- ↑ "Campos do Jordão – Vegfest Brasil". eventosveganos.com.br. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Waldmann, A.; Koschizke, J.W.; Leitzmann, C.; Hahn, A. "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". doi:10.1159/000077045.
- ↑ 104.0 104.1 104.2 104.3 "Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn't A Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats)". foodrevolution.org. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ↑ Sherwell, Philip (3 October 2010). "Bill Clinton's new diet: nothing but beans, vegetables and fruit to combat heart disease".
- ↑ Starr, J M; Pattie, A; Whiteman, M C; Deary, I J; Whalley, L J. "Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years". doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.046219.
- ↑ "YOUNG CONSUMERS ARE HUNGRY FOR MEAT ALTERNATIVES IN GERMANY". mintel.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Tokyo Vegefood Fiesta". Tokyo-vegefest.com. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "400 Million Fewer Animals Were Killed for Food in 2014 Because People Eat Less Meat". zmescience.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Vogiatzoglou, A; Refsum, H; Johnston, C; Smith, SM; Bradley, KM; de Jager, C; Budge, MM; Smith, AD. "Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly.". doi:10.1212/01. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegan Ireland". vegan.ie. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ↑ Ho-Pham, L. T; Nguyen, N. D; Nguyen, T. V (2009). "Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: A Bayesian meta-analysis". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 90 (4): 943–50. PMID 19571226. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27521.
- ↑ "The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability". goodreads.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things". books.google.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Gilsing, A M J; Crowe, F L; Lloyd-Wright, Z; Sanders, T A B; Appleby, P N; Allen, N E; Key, T J. "Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
- ↑ Carus, Felicity (2010-06-02). "UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N. "Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC–Oxford study". doi:10.1017/S1368980010002454.
- ↑ "Compassionate Consumption: How Veganism is Taking Over Mainstream Europe" (PDF). counterpoint.uk.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegucated". imdb.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "NAKED FOOD MAGAZINE". issuu.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegan Australia". veganaustralia.org.au. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ↑ "Vegfest". vegfest.hk. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Hong Kong Vegfest". greenqueen.com.hk. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "The vegetarian crusade: The rise of an American reform movement, 1817-1921". researchgate.net. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind". books.google.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Meet the people behind Peepal Farm, who tend to injured animals in Dharamshala". indiatoday.in. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- ↑ "Becoming Vegan: Comprehensive Edition: The Complete Reference on Plant-Based Nutrition". barnesandnoble.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "What is Veganuary? How to go vegan: Campaign asks people to try plant-based diet". today.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Top Trends in Prepared Foods 2017: Exploring trends in meat, fish and seafood; pasta, noodles and rice; prepared meals; savory deli food; soup; and meat substitutes". reportbuyer.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "CHOLINE IN FOODS, FUNCTIONAL FOODS, AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS" (PDF). drtaylorwallace.com. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- ↑ "China's plan to cut meat consumption by 50% cheered by climate campaigners". theguardian.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ 132.0 132.1 "Vegan and Plant-Based Diet Statistics". plantproteins.co. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "Industry Trends". gminsights.com. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ "Whopping costs: Why are we paying a price for being vegan?". msn.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Europe leads in innovation as meat-free demand grows". Europe leads in innovation as meat-free demand grows. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "How a vegan diet could affect your intelligence". bbc.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ Wallace, TC; Fulgoni, VL. "Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States.". doi:10.3390/nu9080839.
- ↑ "ProVeg International". glassdoor.com.hk. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF (13 November 2017). "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice". BioScience. 67 (12): 1026–1028. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix125.
- ↑ "How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach". goodreads.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach Paperback – July 5, 2017". amazon.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Veganism trend set to grow in popularity in 2018, according to Just Eat". independent.ie. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Sidan kunde inte hittas". jordbruksverket.se. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Germany Dominates Global Vegan Product Market, Says Report". plantbasednews.org. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Vegan and Keto Are This Year's Top Thanksgiving Trends". chefspencil.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Why people in rich countries are eating more vegan food". economist.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "The Age of Veganism: Vegan Statistics for 2020 (Infographic)". healthcareers.co. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ↑ 148.0 148.1 148.2 "How Will Cultured Meat Alternatives Disrupt the Agricultural and Food Industry" (PDF). kearney.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "New estimates of the environmental cost of food". ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Poore, J.; Nemecek, T. "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers" (PDF). josephpoore.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Greenpeace calls for decrease in meat and dairy production and consumption for a healthier planet". greenpeace.org. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Iceland tops worldwide rankings for veganism popularity". chefspencil.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Value of packaged vegan food in Australia from 2016 to 2020 (in million Australian dollars)*". statista.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ Landsverk, Gabby. "A nutritionist claims vegan diets can stunt brain development, but other health experts say plant-based eating is perfectly healthy". insider.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ↑ "Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study". doi:10.1136/bmj.l4897.
- ↑ Schiermeier, Quirin (August 8, 2019). "Eat less meat: UN climate change report calls for change to human diet". Nature. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ↑ "Eating away at climate change" (PDF). animal.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Veganism". trends.google.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "U.S. Plant-Based Retail Market Worth $4.5 Billion, Growing at 5X Total Food Sales". plantbasedfoods.org. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ↑ "Making your kids go vegan can mean jail time in Belgium". qz.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.