Timeline of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance
This is a timeline of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, attempting to describe major events concerning the development of the partnership.
|1970s–1980s||After the Expanded Programme on Immunization is launched by the World Health Assembly in 1974 (when the immunization rate was 5%), almost 3 million lives are calculated to be saved each year, and 750 000 children would be saved saved from disability. Since the 1980s, considerable progress in immunization would be achieved to prevent mortality in young children.|
|1990s||Worldwide average vaccination coverage of children under five falls along the decade (from 80% in 1990 to 74% in 1999).|
|2000s <||GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance is founded. Since its inception, GAVI would help immunize more than 580 million children, averting more than 8 million deaths.|
|Year/period||Month and date||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1974||Antecedent||The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is launched by the World Health Organization, with the purpose of delivering basic vaccines to developing countries. Global immunization rates register 5% at the time.|
|1990||Antecedent||The Children's Vaccine Initiative is launched.|
|1998||March||Antecedent||World Bank Group president James Wolfensohn calls for a summit of WHO, UNICEF, academics, health ministers, international agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, in order to discuss the future of vaccination efforts. Their agenda: how to start getting vaccines to children who need them most.|
|1999||March||Antecedent||A second summit is organized. Instead of setting up a new international organization, the existing major players in global immunization (UN agencies, vaccine industry, aid agencies and major foundations) agree to work through a new partnership: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation.||Italy (Bellagio)|
|1999||November||Antecedent||The William H. Gates Foundation pledges US$ 750 million over five years to the future partnership.|
|2000||January||Foundation||GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance is formally launched at the World Economic Forum, with aims at 'bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries'.||Switzerland (Davos)|
|2001||Donor contribution||Denmark, one of the six original donors, starts contributing to GAVI. Until 2013, the country would contribute a total of USD 45.7 million to GAVI programmes.|
|2001||Assistance||GAVI offers assistance in the introduction of Hib vaccine.|
|2002||Assistance||GAVI assists India in hepatitis B vaccination program in the public sector.||India|
|2002||Donor contribution||Ireland becomes one of the first countries to donate to GAVI. The country would contribute by providing predictable multi-year funding as direct funding.|
|2003||Donor contribution||The European Commission start contributing to GAVI.|
|2003||GAVI names rotavirus a top priority.|
|2004||Assistance||GAVI makes its first payment for performance verified by means of externally audited health data. Eight countries would receive US$ 15 million in performance–based payments for their achievements in increasing immunization rates to reach an additional 750,000 children.|
|2005||September||Donor contribution||The United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Sweden commit nearly US$4 billion to support GAVI over the next decade. This long-term financial aid is commited to the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm).|
|2005||Initiative||GAVI establishes the Hib Initiative in the form of consortium based at the Johns Hopkins University, and includes the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WHO and CDC.|
|2006||Expansion||Australia becomes a donor to GAVI and starts contributing through both direct contributions and IFFIm. Between 2006 and 2010, Australia’s total direct contribution to GAVI would reach AUD 34 million. For the 2011-2015 period, Australia would contribute a total of AUD 250 million in direct contributions.||Australia|
|2007||September||GAVI's new fundraising initiative, Fund’s Immunize Every Child Campaign, announces commitment to raise $30 million for pneumococcal vaccine.|
|2008||March||GAVI contracts JSI Research & Training Institute (JSI) to evaluate its injection safety support (INS) window. The evaluation would focus on the experience of 58 countries that were awarded INS support during the GAVI's first three years: 15 countries in 2002, 22 countries in 2003, and 21 countries in 2004.|
|2008||Donor contribution||La Caixa Banking Foundation starts contributing to GAVI.|
|2009||June||The World Bank, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, GAVI partners, five national governments (Italy, United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, Norway) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launch the first Advance Market Commitment (AMC) designed to accelerate access to vaccines against pneumococcal disease. The AMC mechanism would ensure that children in the world's poorest countries receive life-saving vaccines 15-20 years before they might otherwise have been available and at prices their governments can afford.||Italy (Lecce|
|2009||December||GAVI completes a reorganization of its legal and governance structure. This results in GAVI’s financial reporting entity changing from the GAVI Fund (a United States based entity) to the GAVI Alliance (a Swiss entity).|
|2011||GAVI announces that it would offer HPV vaccine procurement and implementation support to qualified countries.|
|2011||UNICEF Supply Division procures on behalf of GAVI 296 million doses of vaccine, to value of US$750 million, delivered to 64 countries, as well as 570 million pieces of safe injection supplies, to a value of US$15 million.|
|2011||June||Donor contribution||J.P. Morgan’s donates £1.5 million to GAVI in matching fund for immunization.|
|2011||June||GAVI makes commitment to mobilize additional resources for women's and children's health. During a pledging conference, US$ 4.3 billion are raised. These funds would enable GAVI to accelerate the introduction of new vaccines, pneumococcal and rotavirus, that protect against the major causes of under five deaths, and to open a funding window for vaccines that directly benefit the health of women –human papillomavirus (HPV), against cervical cancer and rubella.|
|2011||Donor contribution||GAVI receives commitments totaling US$ 4.3 billion in a four–hour pledging meeting.|
|2012||GAVI invites eligible countries to apply for support to introduce HPV vaccines into their routine immunization programs.|
|2012||Donor contribution||The Children's Investment Fund Foundation pledges US$ 6.5 million through Gavi’s matching fund.|
|2012||Initiative||As part of its commitment to the ‘Born Too Soon’ report, GAVI makes a commitment to accelerate the reach of vaccines that directly benefit the health of mothers, newborns and children in the poorest countries and to advance the control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome.|
|2012||Donor contribution||LDS Charities of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints starts contributing to GAVI.|
|2012||Donor contribution||OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) becomes a donor of Gavi. The institution would commit US$ 1.1 million for 2013 through direct funding to support programs in Yemen.|
|2012||December||Report||The World Health Organization estimates that GAVI’s support to over 70 countries has prevented more than 5.5 million future deaths since 2000. More than 370 million additional children would receive one or more GAVI-supported vaccines by the end of 2012. |
|2013||February||Donor contribution||GAVI is awarded € 2.5 million from Dutch Nationale Postcode Loterij under matching fund.|
|2013||March||Rwanda becomes the first sub-Saharan African country to provide measles-rubella (MR) vaccine nationwide with GAVI support.||Rwanda|
|2013||July||Donor contribution||Lions Clubs International (LCIF) committs to a new partnership with GAVI to assist tens of millions of children against measles. The agreement would consist of USD 7.5 million per year between 2014-2017.|
|2013||July||Donor contribution||UNICEF signs two supply agreements with GAVI in order to meet demand for the Pneumo Vaccine under the Advance Market Commitment in Gavi-eligible countries.|
|2014||January||Donor contribution||India commits to contribute US$ 4 million to GAVI Alliance vaccine programs.|
|2014||August||GAVI rebrands itself to increase awareness of its work, by changing its name from "GAVI Alliance" to "GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance", and introducing a new logo.|
|2014||Donor contribution||ELMA Vaccines and Immunization Foundation pledges USD 2 million to GAVI in order to support urgent supply chain needs at country level to quickly overcome roadblocks in delivering temperature-sensitive vaccines to remote areas.|
|2015||January||Donors and partners gather in Berlin for GAVI’s pledging conference. The United States pledge to contribute US$ 1 billion to GAVI over four years (2015 to 2018).||Germany|
|2015||GAVI plans supporting HPV vaccination of one million girls in more than 20 countries, with the ultimate goal of more than 30 million girls vaccinated in over 40 countries by 2020.|
|2015||Donor contribution||British charity Comic Relief launches the Red Nose Day Fund, a United States based charity program that raises awareness and money to help alleviate child poverty around the world. The same year, Red Nose Day-USA would provide USD 1.2 million to GAVI through a direct contribution. Over the next year, Red Nose Day Fund would provide USD 2.5 million.||United States|
|2015||September||Donor contribution||China signs agreement to provide US$ 5 million to help GAVI, in order to support the immunization of children.|
|2016||January||GAVI signs an agreement with Merck & Co. to purchase 300,000 doses of vaccine for use in future ebola outbreaks.|
|2016||May||Donor contribution||The Government of Japan agrees to contribute to GAVI with US$ 76 million to support childhood immunization in developing countries.|
|2016||December||The Government of Italy confirms additional contribution of € 100 million to help GAVI achieve goal of immunizing 300 million children by 2020.|
|2016||GAVI support of immunization efforts in 76 low- and middle-income countries accumulates to US$ 10 billion.|
|2017||March||Assistance||GAVI delivers 953,000 doses of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Somalia to protect over 450,000 people from the disease.||Somalia|
|2017||May||The United States government approves US$ 275 million for GAVI in fiscal year 2017 budget.||United States|
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