Timeline of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

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This is a timeline of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, attempting to describe major events concerning the development of the partnership.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
1970s–1980s After the Expanded Programme on Immunization is launched by the World Health Assembly in 1974 (when the immunization rate was 5%), almost 3 million lives are calculated to be saved each year, and 750 000 children would be saved saved from disability. Since the 1980s, considerable progress in immunization would be achieved to prevent mortality in young children.[1]
1990s Worldwide average vaccination coverage of children under five falls along the decade (from 80% in 1990 to 74% in 1999).[1]
2000s < GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance is founded. Since its inception, GAVI would help immunize more than 580 million children, averting more than 8 million deaths.[2]


Year/period Month and date Type of event Event Location
1974 Antecedent The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is launched by the World Health Organization, with the purpose of delivering basic vaccines to developing countries. Global immunization rates register 5% at the time.[3]
1990 Antecedent The Children's Vaccine Initiative is launched.[1]
1998 March Antecedent World Bank Group president James Wolfensohn calls for a summit of WHO, UNICEF, academics, health ministers, international agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, in order to discuss the future of vaccination efforts. Their agenda: how to start getting vaccines to children who need them most.[3]
1999 March Antecedent A second summit is organized. Instead of setting up a new international organization, the existing major players in global immunization (UN agencies, vaccine industry, aid agencies and major foundations) agree to work through a new partnership: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation.[3] Italy (Bellagio)
1999 November Antecedent The William H. Gates Foundation pledges US$ 750 million over five years to the future partnership.[3]
2000 January Foundation GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance is formally launched at the World Economic Forum, with aims at 'bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries'.[4][3] Switzerland (Davos)
2001 Donor contribution Denmark, one of the six original donors, starts contributing to GAVI. Until 2013, the country would contribute a total of USD 45.7 million to GAVI programmes.
2001 Assistance GAVI offers assistance in the introduction of Hib vaccine.[5]
2002 Assistance GAVI assists India in hepatitis B vaccination program in the public sector.[6] India
2002 Donor contribution Ireland becomes one of the first countries to donate to GAVI. The country would contribute by providing predictable multi-year funding as direct funding.[7]
2003 Donor contribution The European Commission start contributing to GAVI.[8]
2003 GAVI names rotavirus a top priority.[9]
2004 Assistance GAVI makes its first payment for performance verified by means of externally audited health data. Eight countries would receive US$ 15 million in performance–based payments for their achievements in increasing immunization rates to reach an additional 750,000 children.[10]
2005 September Donor contribution The United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Sweden commit nearly US$4 billion to support GAVI over the next decade. This long-term financial aid is commited to the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm).[11]
2005 Initiative GAVI establishes the Hib Initiative in the form of consortium based at the Johns Hopkins University, and includes the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WHO and CDC.[5]
2006 Expansion Australia becomes a donor to GAVI and starts contributing through both direct contributions and IFFIm. Between 2006 and 2010, Australia’s total direct contribution to GAVI would reach AUD 34 million. For the 2011-2015 period, Australia would contribute a total of AUD 250 million in direct contributions.[12] Australia
2007 September GAVI's new fundraising initiative, Fund’s Immunize Every Child Campaign, announces commitment to raise $30 million for pneumococcal vaccine.[13]
2008 March GAVI contracts JSI Research & Training Institute (JSI) to evaluate its injection safety support (INS) window. The evaluation would focus on the experience of 58 countries that were awarded INS support during the GAVI's first three years: 15 countries in 2002, 22 countries in 2003, and 21 countries in 2004.[14]
2008 Donor contribution La Caixa Banking Foundation starts contributing to GAVI.[15]
2009 June The World Bank, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, GAVI partners, five national governments (Italy, United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, Norway) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launch the first Advance Market Commitment (AMC) designed to accelerate access to vaccines against pneumococcal disease. The AMC mechanism would ensure that children in the world's poorest countries receive life-saving vaccines 15-20 years before they might otherwise have been available and at prices their governments can afford.[16][17] Italy (Lecce
2009 December GAVI completes a reorganization of its legal and governance structure. This results in GAVI’s financial reporting entity changing from the GAVI Fund (a United States based entity) to the GAVI Alliance (a Swiss entity).[18]
2011 GAVI announces that it would offer HPV vaccine procurement and implementation support to qualified countries.[19]
2011 UNICEF Supply Division procures on behalf of GAVI 296 million doses of vaccine, to value of US$750 million, delivered to 64 countries, as well as 570 million pieces of safe injection supplies, to a value of US$15 million.[20]
2011 June Donor contribution J.P. Morgan’s donates £1.5 million to GAVI in matching fund for immunization.[21]
2011 June GAVI makes commitment to mobilize additional resources for women's and children's health. During a pledging conference, US$ 4.3 billion are raised. These funds would enable GAVI to accelerate the introduction of new vaccines, pneumococcal and rotavirus, that protect against the major causes of under five deaths, and to open a funding window for vaccines that directly benefit the health of women –human papillomavirus (HPV), against cervical cancer and rubella.[22]
2011 Donor contribution GAVI receives commitments totaling US$ 4.3 billion in a four–hour pledging meeting.[23]
2012 GAVI invites eligible countries to apply for support to introduce HPV vaccines into their routine immunization programs.[24]
2012 Donor contribution The Children's Investment Fund Foundation pledges US$ 6.5 million through Gavi’s matching fund.[25]
2012 Initiative As part of its commitment to the ‘Born Too Soon’ report, GAVI makes a commitment to accelerate the reach of vaccines that directly benefit the health of mothers, newborns and children in the poorest countries and to advance the control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome.[22]
2012 Donor contribution LDS Charities of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints starts contributing to GAVI.[26]
2012 Donor contribution OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) becomes a donor of Gavi. The institution would commit US$ 1.1 million for 2013 through direct funding to support programs in Yemen.[27]
2012 December Report The World Health Organization estimates that GAVI’s support to over 70 countries has prevented more than 5.5 million future deaths since 2000. More than 370 million additional children would receive one or more GAVI-supported vaccines by the end of 2012. [22]
2013 February Donor contribution GAVI is awarded € 2.5 million from Dutch Nationale Postcode Loterij under matching fund.[28]
2013 March Rwanda becomes the first sub-Saharan African country to provide measles-rubella (MR) vaccine nationwide with GAVI support.[22] Rwanda
2013 July Donor contribution Lions Clubs International (LCIF) committs to a new partnership with GAVI to assist tens of millions of children against measles. The agreement would consist of USD 7.5 million per year between 2014-2017.[29]
2013 July Donor contribution UNICEF signs two supply agreements with GAVI in order to meet demand for the Pneumo Vaccine under the Advance Market Commitment in Gavi-eligible countries.[17]
2014 January Donor contribution India commits to contribute US$ 4 million to GAVI Alliance vaccine programs.[30]
2014 August GAVI rebrands itself to increase awareness of its work, by changing its name from "GAVI Alliance" to "GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance", and introducing a new logo.[31]
2014 Donor contribution ELMA Vaccines and Immunization Foundation pledges USD 2 million to GAVI in order to support urgent supply chain needs at country level to quickly overcome roadblocks in delivering temperature-sensitive vaccines to remote areas.[32]
2015 January Donors and partners gather in Berlin for GAVI’s pledging conference. The United States pledge to contribute US$ 1 billion to GAVI over four years (2015 to 2018).[33][2] Germany
2015 GAVI plans supporting HPV vaccination of one million girls in more than 20 countries, with the ultimate goal of more than 30 million girls vaccinated in over 40 countries by 2020.[34]
2015 Donor contribution British charity Comic Relief launches the Red Nose Day Fund, a United States based charity program that raises awareness and money to help alleviate child poverty around the world. The same year, Red Nose Day-USA would provide USD 1.2 million to GAVI through a direct contribution. Over the next year, Red Nose Day Fund would provide USD 2.5 million. United States
2015 September Donor contribution China signs agreement to provide US$ 5 million to help GAVI, in order to support the immunization of children.[35]
2016 January GAVI signs an agreement with Merck & Co. to purchase 300,000 doses of vaccine for use in future ebola outbreaks.[36]
2016 May Donor contribution The Government of Japan agrees to contribute to GAVI with US$ 76 million to support childhood immunization in developing countries.[37]
2016 December The Government of Italy confirms additional contribution of € 100 million to help GAVI achieve goal of immunizing 300 million children by 2020.[38]
2016 GAVI support of immunization efforts in 76 low- and middle-income countries accumulates to US$ 10 billion.[39]
2017 March Assistance GAVI delivers 953,000 doses of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Somalia to protect over 450,000 people from the disease.[40] Somalia
2017 May The United States government approves US$ 275 million for GAVI in fiscal year 2017 budget.[33] United States

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)". who.int. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "U.S. approves US$ 275 million for GAVI in fiscal year 2017 budget". reliefweb.int. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "History of GAVI". GAVI.org. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  4. "About GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Protecting the World's Children: Immunisation policies and Practices (Sidsel Roalkvam, Desmond McNeill, Stuart Blume ed.). Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  6. Gupta, Indrani; Trivedi, Mayur; Kandamuthan, Subodh. Adoption of Health Technologies in India: Implications for the AIDS Vaccine. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  7. "Proceeds to GAVI from donor contributions & pledges (2016-2020) as of 31 March 2017". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  8. "European Commission". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  9. "Market Injection". technologyreview.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  10. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson, David B. Evans, Prabhat Jha, Anne Mills, Philip Musgrove ed.). Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  11. "Key European Nations join UK and France to commit nearly US$4 billion to expand child immunisation in developing countries". ffim.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  12. "Australia". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  13. "Statements, pre-2008". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  14. "Injection safety support evaluation". GAVI.org. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  15. ""la Caixa" Banking Foundation". Gavi.org. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  16. "GAVI partners fulfill promise to fight pneumococcal disease". gavi.org. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "AMC for Pneumococcal". unicef.org. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  18. "Financial reports". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  19. "A case study of GAVI'S human papillomavirus vaccine support programme". thejhs.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  20. "GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance". unicef.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  21. "GAVI welcomes J.P. Morgan's £1.5 million donation to new matching fund for immunisation". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 "The GAVI Alliance report to the independent Expert R eview Group on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health" (PDF). who.int. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  23. International Development: Ideas, Experience, and Prospects (Bruce Currie-Alder, Ravi Kanbur, David M. Malone, Rohinton Medhora ed.). Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  24. "GAVI New Application Round: 2015". iccp-portal.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  25. "The Children's Investment Fund Foundation (UK)". Gavi.org. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  26. "LDS Charities". Gavi.org. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  27. "OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)". Gavi.org. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  28. "GAVI receives € 2.5 million from Dutch Postcode Lottery under Matching Fund". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  29. "Lions Club International Foundation (LCIF)". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  30. "India commits US$ 4 million to GAVI Alliance vaccine programmes". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  31. Ravelo, Jenny Lei. "The evolution of global health's 'best-kept secret'". Devex. Retrieved May 31, 2017. 
  32. "ELMA Vaccines and Immunization Foundation". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 "U.S. approves US$ 275 million for GAVI in fiscal year 2017 budget". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  34. "GAVI to roll out a record-low price for HPV vaccines". uicc.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  35. "China seals commitment to support immunisation in developing countries". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  36. Check Hayden, Erika. "Unusual deal ensures Ebola vaccine supply". Nature. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  37. "GAVI welcomes contribution of US$ 76 million from Government of Japan". GAVI.org. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  38. "GAVI welcomes Italy contribution". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  39. "The U.S. & GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance". kff.org. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  40. "Cholera vaccination campaign begins in Somalia". GAVI.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017.