Timeline of IBM
This is a timeline of IBM, attempting to describe important events in the history of the company.
- 1 Big picture
- 2 Full timeline
- 3 Numerical and visual data
- 4 Meta information on the timeline
- 5 See also
- 6 External links
- 7 References
|Time period||Development summary|
|1880s–1924||Origin of IBM. The three companies that would merge to create IBM are founded in this period: the Tabulating Machine Company (tabulating systems), the International Time Recording Company (mechanical time recorders), and the Computing Scale Company (commercial scales).|
|1920s||IBM asmumes its actual name.|
|1930s||IBM manages to grow during the Great Depression. The company adds a new product unit, the electric writing machine division.|
|1940s||All IBM facilities become at the disposal of the United States government during the Second World War. IBM products expand into bombsights, rifles and engine parts. During the war years, IBM makes its first steps into computing. The Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator is IBM's first large-scale digital calculating machine.|
|1950s||IBM focuses on solid-state electronics. The company releases the first large computer based on the vacuum tube.|
|1960s||IBM's transforms from maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters into the computer industry. In the 1960s, IBM leads the information technology industry, especially with the innovative IBM System/360 family. By the early decade, the company already has over 100,000 employees.|
|1980s–1990s||IBM’s profit margins suffer a steep decline, largely due to its lost position as a leader in technological development. Early in the 1980s, IBM announces the IBM Personal Computer. However, the company would suffer during the revolution of personal computers for focusing rather on business clients than PC use. In the 1990s, despite pressures to split IBM up, the CEO decides to keep it together and start focusing on client/server field.|
|Recent years||IBM operates in over 170 countries. The company is one of the world's largest employers, with nearly 380,300 employees (as of 2016). IBM now holds more than 40,000 active patents, generating considerable income from royalties.|
|1885||Technology||Julius E. Pitrap of Gallipolis, Ohio, patents his first computing scale. Pitrap's patents would be later acquired by a forerunner of IBM.|
|1886||Technology||American inventor Herman Hollerith conducts the first practical test of his tabulating system in recording and tabulating vital statistics for the Baltimore Department of Health.|
|1889||Organization||The International Time Recording Company (ITR) begins originally as the Bundy Manufacturing Company in Auburn, New York. ITR's main product line are mechanical time recorders invented and patented by Willard L. Bundy one year before.|
|1891||Organization||American businessmen Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, from Dayton, Ohio, purchase the patents for the newly invented computing scale and incorporate the Computing Scale Company for the production of commercial scales.|
|1895||Technology||The Computing Scale Company introduces the first automatic computing scale.|
|1896||Organization||Herman Hollerith forms the Tabulating Machine Company in Washington, D.C., the result of a successful capitalization of his invented punch card tabulating machine, which uses an electric current to sense holes in punched cards and keep a running total of data.|
|1900||Organization||George W. Fairchild establishes the International Time Recording Company as the selling agency of the Bundy Manufacturing Company, Willard and Frick Manufacturing Company, and Standard Time Stamp Company, which also manufactures a card recorder.|
|1911||June 16||Organization||IBM is originally incorporated as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, a merger of the International Time Recording Company, Computing Scale Company, and the Tabulating Machine Company.|
|1914||Directorate||American businessman Thomas J. Watson becomes the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company's general manager.|
|1920||Product||CTR introduces its first printer, a printer-lister that could print the data contained on cards as well as the results of tabulations.|
|1923||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires German firm Dehomag, which would serve as subsidiary of IBM with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II.|
|1924||IBM (standing for International Business Machines) assumes its present name.|
|1928||Product||IBM releases the Tabulator, which is able to do subtraction.|
|1928||Program||IBM implements its "Suggestion Plan" program, giving cash rewards to employees who contribute viable ideas on how to improve products and procedures. It's the beginning of IBM's investment in research and development.|
|1930||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires The Automatic Accounting Scale Company, a maker of automatic counting scales.|
|1932||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires the National Counting Scale Company.|
|1933||Acquisition||IBM purchases Electromatic Typewriters, Inc., entering the field of electric typewriters, in which it would eventually become an industry leader.|
|1933||Policy||IBM introduces the 40-hour week for both manufacturing and office locations.|
|1934||Policy||IBM becomes the first company to start group life insurance. The plan is created for all employees with at least one year of service.|
|1934||Policy||IBM's factory employees are placed on salary, eliminating piece-work and providing employees and their families with an added degree of economic stability.|
|1934||Product||IBM introduces the IBM 801 Bank Proof machine to clear bank checks.|
|1937||Policy||IBM starts offering paid vacations to its employees.|
|1937||Product||The IBM 805 test scoring machine is launched commercially.|
|1938||Facility||IBM establishes new world headquarters on 590 Madison Avenue, New York city.|
|c.1939||Production||IBM manufactures five to ten million punched cards each day, having thirty-two presses functioning within its branch in Endicott, New York.|
|1941||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Munitions Manufacturing Corporation.|
|1942||Team||IBM launches a program to train and employ disabled people.|
|1943||Facility||IBM establishes a facility in San Jose, California, to take advantage of a growing hive of electronics research in the area that would much later be called "Silicon Valley." Four years later, the hard disk drive would be invented in this facility.|
|1943||Directorate||American businesswoman Ruth Leach Amonette becomes IBM’s first female vice president.|
|1945||Facility||IBM Research (IBM's research and development division) begins with the opening of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in Manhattan.|
|1945–1946||Technology||IBM provides a translation system for the Nuremberg trials.|
|1946||Product||IBM introduces an electric Chinese ideographic character typewriter, allowing experienced users to type at a rate of 40 to 45 Chinese words a minute.|
|1946||Team||IBM hires Thomas Laster, the company's first African American salesman, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964.|
|1948||The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) is announced to the public.|
|1952||Directorate||Thomas Watson, Jr. (Thomas J. Watson son) becomes president of IBM.|
|1953||Thomas Watson Jr. reorganizes IBM in a fashion that represents modern management structure today, allowing him better visibility into the company. IBM transitions from medium-sized maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters to a computer company, with research and development boosted to 9 percent of the budget.|
|1954||Product||IBM delivers the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) for the United States Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. NORC is likely the most powerful computer at the time.|
|1954||IBM starts working in real-time computing with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.|
|1956||Faiclity||IBM Research – Zurich opens in Rüschlikon, near Zurich, Switzerland.|
|1956||September 14||Product||The IBM 305 RAMAC is released. It is the first commercial computer using a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.|
|1956||Facility||IBM Rochester is established in Rochester, Minnesota.|
|1957||Product||IBM releases Fortran, a general-purpose, imperative programming language.|
|1958||IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin|
|1958||Facility||IBM Hursley is established as a research and development laboratory in Hursley House in Hampshire, England.|
|1960||Personnel||By this time, IBM employs 100,000 people. During this period, IBM makes and sells massive computers to large governments and corporations.|
|1961||Facility||The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is established. It is the headquarters for IBM Research.|
|1961||Supercomputer||The IBM 7030 Stretch becomes the first IBM's first transistorized supercomputer. The first example is delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory.|
|1961||IBM international chess tournament|
|1962||Supercomputer||The IBM 7950 Harvest is delivered.|
|1962||The IBM Fellows program is founded by Thomas J. Watson Jr. as a way to promote creativity among the company's "most exceptional" technical professionals and is granted in recognition of outstanding and sustained technical achievements and leadership in engineering, programming, services, science, design and technology.|
|1963||Facility||The IBM Building opens in Seattle.|
|1964||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Science Research Associates, a Chicago publisher of education, test and guidance materials.|
|1964||IBM computers are used in the Project Gemini.|
|1964||February||Facility||The IBM Cambridge Scientific Center is established in Cambridge, Massachusetts.|
|1964||April 7||The IBM System/360, a family of mainframe computer systems, is announced. The System/360 is the first major family of computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment.|
|1966||The IBM Information Management System is released.|
|1966||Product||The Dynamic random-access memory DRAM is developed by Robert Dennard at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.|
|1966||Marketing||IBM's initial logo is released.|
|1967||Scientific development||Polish-born mathematician and IBM researcher Benoît Mandelbrot publishes the initial findings of what he would later describe as “fractal geometry".|
|1967||Facility||The IBM Toronto Software Lab is established.|
|1969||The Apollo 11 mission takes place, supported by four thousand IBM employees who built the computers and wrote many of the complex software programs that launched the Apollo missions.|
|1969||IBM stops bundling hardware, services and software in packages and starts selling individually. This so-called "unbundling" would give birth to multibillion-dollar software and services industries.|
|1971||Product||Floppy discs become commercially available as a component of IBM products.|
|1972||Marketing||The current IBM logo is made available.|
|1972||Facility||The IBM Haifa Research Laboratory opens in Haifa, Israel.|
|1973||March||Product||The IBM 3340 hard disk unit, known as the Winchester, is introduced.|
|1973||Product (hardware)||IBM 3890 is released.|
|1973||Facility||The IBM Plaza opens in Chicago. It is designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.|
|1973||Technology||IBM develops a supermarket checkout station using glass prisms, lenses and a laser to read product prices.|
|1974||January 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Satellite Business Systems, a provider of private professional satellite communications.|
|1974||Technology||IBM announces Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems.|
|1975||September||Product||IBM introduces the IBM 5100, its first "portable" computer.|
|1975||Product||The IBM 3350 Direct Access Storage Facility, code-named Madrid, is introduced for use with IBM System/370.|
|1976||Product||IBM introduces the first laser printer.|
|1976||Facility||The IBM Building, Johannesburg is completed.|
|1978||February||Product||IBM begins working on its first microcomputer, a machine called System/23 Datamaster.|
|1978||Product||IBM announces the IBM 5110, the successor of the IBM 5100 Portable Computer.|
|1978||Facility||The IBM Rome Software Lab is established in Rome, Italy.|
|1979||November 1||Product||The IBM 5520 is released as an administrative system able to support the creation, storage, retrieval and editing of documents ranging from single-page memos to multi-page manuals. Available in four models, it includes disk storage capacity up to 130 megabytes, and is able to accommodate from three to 12 printers.|
|1980||Product (experimental minicomputer)||The first prototype computer employing Reduced instruction set computer architecture is produced and dubbed IBM 801 for the number of the building in which it was developed.|
|1980||February||Product||The IBM 5120 is introduced. This computer system is the lowest-priced IBM computer to date. It includes a main storage capacity of 32,768 characters of information, a 120 character-per-second printer and the BASIC programming language.|
|1981||July||Product||The IBM System/23 Datamaster is released, combining word processing and data processing in a machine with the purpose to give small businesses access to information processing. It includes viewing screen, keyboard and diskette drives packaged in a single desktop console, and has the capacity to include two computer workstations.|
|1981||August 12||Product||The IBM Personal Computer (model number 5150) is introduced. It first includes the IBM BASIC programming language.|
|1981||Scientific development||IBM scientists Rangaswamy Srinivasan, James J. Wynne and Samuel E. Blum discover how the newly invented excimer laser could remove specific human tissue without harming the surrounding area and do so on an extremely minute scale. Such process become the foundation for LASIK and PRK surgery.|
|1981||Scientific development||IBM researchers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level that would revolutionize the ability to manipulate solid surfaces the size of atoms.|
|1982||May||Microsoft releases MS-DOS 1.1 for the IBM PC.|
|1982||June||Competition||Columbia Data Products releases the first IBM PC clone. |
|1982||November||Product||Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable PC, the first 100% IBM PC compatible system.|
|1982||Facility||IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory is established as the Japan Science Institute (JSI) in Tokyo, Japan.|
|1983||Steve Jobs offers IBM's Philip Don Estridge (known as the "father of the IBM PC") the position of president of Apple Computer, for US$1 million per year, US$1 million signing bonus, and US$2 million to buy a house. However, Estridge turns it down.|
|1983||March 8||Product||The IBM Personal Computer XT is announced in New York city.|
|1983||March 15||Product||The IBM 5550 is released in Japan.|
|1983||March||Operating system||IBM releases the IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System v2.00 (PC-DOS), with BASIC v2.00, at a price of US$60.|
|1983||Product||IBM Planning Analytics is released.|
|1983||August 1||Facility||IBM establishes the Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida.|
|1983||October||Product||The IBM 3270 PC is released.|
|1983||December 31||Statistics||IBM cumulates one million shipped PC computers.|
|1983||Microsoft shows IBM a raw version of Windows. However, IBM is not interested as they are already developing what later would be called TopView.|
|1984||January||Legal||IBM sues American PC company Corona Data Systems for copyright violation of the IBM PC's BIOS. Corona agrees to cease its infringement.|
|1984||January 12||IBM announces the Personal Computer Interactive Executive operating system.|
|1984||February||Product||The IBM Portable Personal Computer is released.|
|1984||February 21||Legal||IBM files a lawsuit against microcomputer manufacturer Eagle Computer for copyright infringement of the BIOS used in the IBM PC. Eagle agrees on the same day to cease shipments of the infringing computers.|
|1984||March 9||Agreement||American technology company Intel and IBM announce a licensing agreement for IBM to manufacture, for its own use, processors based on Intel designs.|
|1984||March||Product||The IBM PCjr is released.|
|1984||August 14||Product||The IBM Personal Computer/AT is released.|
|1984||September 26||Acquisition||IBM acquires the ROLM Corporation, a tech company focused on hardware and software related to the telecommunications industry.|
|1984||October||Product||The IBM JX is introduced.|
|1985||Facility||The IBM Yamato Facility is completed in Yamato, Kanagawa, Japan.|
|1985||Technology||IBM introduces a token-ring local area network, allowing personal computer users to exchange information and share printers and files within a building or complex.|
|1986||April 3||Product||The IBM PC Convertible (a laptop that could be converted into a main desktop in seconds) is released. It is the first laptop computer released by IBM.|
|1986||Facility||IBM Almaden Research Center opens in Almaden Valley, San Jose, California.|
|1987||April||Product||The IBM Personal System/2 is released.|
|1987||October||Award||IBM researchers Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials".|
|1987||Facility||The One Atlantic Center (also known as IBM Tower) is completed in Midtown Atlanta.|
|1988||Partnership||IBM partners with the University of Michigan and MCI Communications to create the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet).|
|1989||Facility||The IBM Hakozaki Facility is completed in Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.|
|1989||Organization||The IBM Academy of Technology is founded.|
|1989||October||Facility||The IBM Somers Office Complex is completed in Somers, New York.|
|1990||Product||The IBM System/390 is released.|
|1992||April||Product||IBM announces the first Thinkpad tablet computer.|
|1992||Facility||1250 René-Lévesque (also known as the IBM-Marathon Tower) is completed is Montreal, Canada.|
|1993||Revenue||IBM's annual net losses reach record US$8 billion. The loss is attributed to the company being more focused on business clients than personal computer use.|
|1994||Product||IBM releases the IBM Personal Dictation System (IPDS), the first wave of speech recognition products for the personal computer.|
|1994||August||Acquisition||IBM acquires Transarc, a Pittsburg–based company focused on computer software.|
|1995||July 6||Acquisition||IBM acquires Lotus Development Corporation, the developer of Lotus Software.|
|1995||October||Facility||The IBM Austin Research Laboratory is established in Austin, Texas.|
|1995||Facility||The IBM China Research Laboratory is established in Beijing.|
|1996||February 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Tivoli Systems, a developer of systems management software and services.|
|1996||IBM Cloud and Smarter Infrastructure|
|1996||February 10||Achievement||IBM's Deep Blue chess-playing computer wins its first game against world champion Garry Kasparov.|
|1996||April||Product||The IBM NetVista Software Suite is introduced.|
|1996||Competition||Microsoft's market value passes that of IBM, as personal computing explodes, largely led by IBM's competitors like Dell and Compaq running Microsoft Windows.|
|1997||March||Product||The IBM IntelliStation is announced.|
|1997||October||Product||The IBM ThinkPad 770 starts production.|
|1998||Facility||The IBM India Research Laboratory is established in Delhi, India.|
|1999||Linux Technology Center|
|1999||July 12||Acquisition||IBM acquires the Sequent Computer Systems, a designer and manufacturer of multiprocessing computer systems.|
|1999||Employees of IBM Europe form a European Works Council, a set of information and consultation bodies representing employees in European multinational companies.|
|1999||July 27||Acquisition||IBM acquires Mylex, a leading provider of RAID storage subsystems.|
|1999||September 22||Acquisition||IBM acquires security software firm Dascom.|
|2000||February||Scientific development||IBM researchers discover a way to transport information on the atomic scale that uses the wave nature of electrons instead of conventional wiring. The new phenomenon, called the "quantum mirage" effect, may enable data transfer within future nanoscale electronic circuits too small to use wires.|
|2000||September||Product||IBM announces the ThinkPad X Series, a line of notebook computers and convertible tablets.|
|2001||May||Common Public License|
|2001||June 7||Acquisition||IBM acquires Mainspring, a designer and developer of digital business strategies.|
|2001||Achievement||IBM becomes the first company to generate more than 3,000 patents in one year.|
|2002||January 14||Acquisition||IBM acquires CrossWorlds Software, a provider of business integration software that unites and extends business processes.|
|2002||March||Team||Samuel J. Palmisano is promoted to IBM's chief executive officer.|
|2002||June 25||Acquisition||IBM acquires Metamerge, which specializes in directory integration software.|
|2002||August 29||Acquisition||IBM acquires TrelliSoft, a provider of storage resources.|
|2002||September 3||Acquisition||IBM acquires Access360, a provider of solutions for tackling Resource Provisioning Management (RPM).|
|2002||September 12||Acquisition||IBM acquires El-Segundo, California–based HOLOSOFX, which works in the field of Business Process Management (BPM).|
|2002||October 2||IBM acquires PwC Consulting, a subsidiary of PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network.|
|2002||October 7||Acquisition||IBM acquires EADS Matra Datavision, a developer of software applications.|
|2002||November 4||Acquisition||IBM acquires Tarian Software, the developer of the Tarian eRecordsEngine, an embedded electronic recordkeeping technology for business application software.|
|2002||Acquisition||IBM sells its magnetic hard drive business to the Japanese electronics firm of Hitachi, for US$2.05 billion. Under the terms of the sale, IBM agreeds to continue the production of hard drives with Hitachi for three years in a joint venture known as Hitachi Global Storage Technologies.|
|2003||February 20||Acquisition||IBM acquires Rational Software Corporation, a provider of integrated solutions that automate the software development process.|
|2003||May 14||Acquisition||IBM acquires Think Dynamics, a developer of software that introduces true Utility Computing into environments that support multiple e-Business Internet.|
|2003||July 15||Acquisition||IBM acquires Aptrix, a privately-held, Australia-based provider of web content management software.|
|2003||October 14||Acquisition||IBM acquires CrossAccess Corporation, a provider of data integration infrastructure software.|
|2003||November 13||Acquisition||IBM acquires Productivity Solutions, a Jacksonville, Florida-based vendor of retail self-checkout systems.|
|2003||December 17||Acquisiton||IBM acquires Green Pasture Software, a provider of document management software.|
|2004||March 9||Acquisition||IBM acquires Trigo Technologies, which develops product information management solutions for global manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.|
|2004||April 7||Acquisition||IBM acquires Daksh Infosoft, a business process outsourcing company in India.|
|2004||June 7||Acquisition||IBM acquires El Segundo, California-based Candle Corporation, which offers solutions to help customers develop, deploy and manage their enterprise infrastructure.|
|2004||July 14||Acquisition||IBM acquires Mountain View, California-based AlphaBlox, a maker of software that embeds analytics into existing business processes.|
|2004||July 29||Acquisition||IBM acquires software company Cyanea Systems, which develops software used by businesses to monitor the performance of their enterprise applications.|
|2004||August 17||Acquisition||IBM acquires Danish company Maersk Data, which provides consulting capabilities in the transportation and logistics industry.|
|2004||August 26||Acquisition||IBM acquires Venetica, a provider of enterprise content integration (ECM) software.|
|2004||October 12||Acquisition||IBM acquires Montreal-based Systemcorp A.L.G., which develops project management systems to co-ordinates IT projects.|
|2004||November 23||Acquisition||IBM acquires Liberty Insurance Services, which administers policies for insurance companies worldwide.|
|2004||December 13||Acquisition||IBM acquires Paris-based KeyMRO, a provider of outsource procurement services.|
|2004||Supercomputer||IBM Blue Gene is unveiled, at the time both the most powerful supercomputer and the most efficient, consuming only a fraction of the energy and floor space of any other supercomputer.|
|2005||January 7||Acquisition||IBM acquires Las Vegas, Nevada-based SRD, a provider of identity resolution software.|
|2005||January 25||Acquisition||IBM acquires CORIO, an enterprise Application Service Provider (ASP) that deploys and manages enterprise applications from software vendors.|
|2005||February 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires Equitant, a global business transformation outsourcing (BTO) provider that focuses on the management and optimization of the Order-to-Cash cycle for large companies.|
|2005||May 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires Ascential Software, a data integration provider, for US$1.1 billion.|
|2005||May 10||Acquisition||IBM acquires Gluecode Software, a start-up developer of open-source infrastructure software.|
|2005||June 23||Acquisition||IBM acquires Meiosys, a developer of software that allows applications to be moved dynamically from one server to another without disruption.|
|2005||July 27||Acquisition||IBM acquires New York-based Isogon Corporation, which provides IT asset management solutions.|
|2005||August 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires DWL, a customer data software provider in Atlanta and Toronto.|
|2005||August 5||Acquisition||IBM acquires PureEdge Solutions, a developer of electronic forms based on XML standards.|
|2005||October 18||Acquisition||IBM acquires DataPower Technology, a developer of technologies that bridge disparate network equipment and applications.|
|2005||November 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires iPhrase Technologies, a company that specializes in software for online commerce.|
|2005||November 9||Acquisition||IBM acquires Network Solutions Private Limited, a company in India which offers IT Infrastructure Services.|
|2005||November 16||Acquisition||IBM acquires Collation, a company that makes application resource mapping software.|
|2005||December 20||Acquisition||IBM acquires Bowstreet, a provider of application development tools for portals.|
|2005||December 21||Acquisition||IBM acquires San Francisco-based Micromuse, a provider of network management software, for US$865 million.|
|2005||Acquisition||Hitachi takes full control of Hitachi Global Storage Technologies and IBM stops building hard drives, a device that it invented in 1956.|
|2005||December||Acquisition||IBM sells its personal computer division to Lenovo, a major Chinese manufacturer.|
|2006||January 25||Acquisition||IBM acquires CIMS Lab, a developer of software that tracks the usage of computing resources in virtualized technology environments.|
|2006||January 27||Acquisition||IBM acquires ARGUS Semiconductor Software, an advanced lithography process control system that gives users real-time run-to-run capability to control processes using measurement results from upstream and downstream processes.|
|2006||February 8||Acquisition||IBM acquires Viacore, a provider of business process integration solutions for real-time supply chain visibility.|
|2006||March 16||Acquisition||IBM acquires Language Analysis Systems, a developer of multicultural name recognition technology.|
|2006||May 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires BuildForge, a developer of software that allows users to automate their software development processes to meet audit and compliance requirements.|
|2006||May 8||Acquisition||IBM acquires Unicorn Solutions, which specializes in enterprise architecture and metadata management.|
|2007||August 22||Acquisition||IBM acquires Webdialogs, which develops online meeting and communication solutions that include voice, video and Web conferencing, data collaboration, and Web.|
|2007||September 4||Acquisition||IBM acquires DataMirror, which develops and markets data integration, protection, and auditing software.|
|2007||October 24||Acquisition||IBM acquires NovusCG, a privately held storage solutions company.|
|2007||December 6||Acquisition||IBM acquires Arsenal Digital Solutions, which provides on-demand data protection services for server and personal computer data protection.|
|2007||December 21||Acquisition||IBM acquires Helsinki–based in-memory database software provider Solid Information Technology, with the purpose of broadening information on demand portfolio.|
|2008||January 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires XIV, which designs, develops, and supplies data storage systems for enterprise organizations and their data centers.|
|2008||January 18||Acquisition||IBM acquires Net Integration Technologies, a software development company that focuses on developing Linux-based server operating system.|
|2008||January 23||Acquisition||IBM acquires AptSoft, which provides event processing design and execution platform to help companies to implement event-driven applications as part of service oriented architecture.|
|2008||January 31||Acquisition||IBM acquires Cognos, which provides business intelligence and performance management software solutions for organizations.|
|2008||March 12||Acquisition||IBM acquires Encentuate, which provides identity and access management solutions without requiring enterprises to change their existing IT infrastructure..|
|2008||April 2||Product||IBM Power Systems is released.|
|2008||April 10||Acquisition||IBM acquires FilesX, which provides software solutions that facilitate the recovery of volume, files and application data in heterogeneous storage environments.|
|2008||April 22||Acquisition||IBM acquires Tel Aviv-based de-duplication software specialist Diligent.|
|2008||April 29||Acquisition||IBM acquires InfoDyne Corporation, which provides enterprise products and solutions to the financial market.|
|2008||May||Supercomputer||The IBM Bluefire Supercomputer is installed.|
|2008||July 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires Platform Solutions, which develops open mainframe computers compatible with a set of data center environments and operating systems.|
|2008||July 28||Acquisition||IBM acquires business rules management software maker ILOG.|
|2008||November 18||Acquisition||IBM acquires Transitive, which specializes in cross-platform virtualization technology.|
|2008||Partnership||IBM Research, the United States Department of Agriculture and candy-maker Mars, Incorporated teamed up to sequence the cocoa genome in an effort to help farmers grow tastier, more disease-resistant and more productive cocoa trees.|
|2008||Production||IBM becomes the first company to generate more than 4,000 patents in one year.|
|2009||April 16||Acquisition||IBM acquires Outblaze, a technology company that develops and provides digital media products and services.|
|2009||May 5||Acquisition||IBM acquires Exeros, which provides data discovery software.|
|2009||July 20||Acquisition||IBM acquires source code security testing vendor Ounce Labs.|
|2009||July 28||Acquisition||IBM acquires SPSS, which provides predictive analytics software and solutions for survey authoring and deployment, data mining, and text analytics.|
|2009||September 22||Acquisition||IBM acquires RedPill Solutions, a customer focused consulting company.|
|2009||September||Recognition||United States President Barack Obama recognizes IBM and the Blue Gene family of supercomputers with the National Medal of Technology and Innovation.|
|2009||November 30||Acquisition||IBM acquires Guardium, a database security company that delivers solutions to prevent information leaks and ensures the integrity of enterprise data.|
|2009||December 16||Acquisition||IBM acquires Lombardi Software, which provides business process management software and services in the United States.|
|2010||January 20||Acquisition||IBM acquires American security and analytics consultancy National Interest Security Company.|
|2010||February 3||Acquisition||IBM acquires Initiate Systems, a software firm that enables companies to strategically leverage and share critical data assets.|
|2010||February 16||Acquisition||IBM acquires network automation software provider Intelliden, to boost network automation.|
|2010||May 3||Acquisition||IBM acquires Mountain View-based Cast Iron Systems, which delivers industry-leading cloud integration software, appliances and services.|
|2010||May 24||Acquisition||IBM acquires Sterling Commerce, a provider of order management, B2B and managed file transfer ("MFT") products.|
|2010||June||Facility||IBM Research – Brazil is established, its first in South America. It has locations in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.|
|2010||Supercomputer||The first IBM Aquasar system becomes operational at ETH Zurich.|
|2011||Facility||IBM Research – Australia opens as a development laboratory in Melbourne.|
|2011||Award||IBM Watson computer wins first prize on the quiz show Jeopardy!, against legendary champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings.|
|2011||Facility||IBM Research – Ireland is established in American television game show Dublin.|
|2011||IBM turns 100, and celebrates by passing Microsoft's market value for the first time in 15 years and watching the Watson computing platform destroy the human competition in Jeopardy.|
|2012||January||Team||Ginni Rometty becomes president and chief executive officer of IBM.|
|2012||June||Supercomputer||IBM's Fermi is installed for the Italian and European scientific and industrial research. It is the most powerful supercomputer available in Italy.|
|2012||Scientific development||IBM scientists announce the creation of the world's smallest magnetic memory bit, made of just 12 atoms.|
|2013||November||Facility||IBM Research – Africa officially launches at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya.|
|2015||February||Facility||IBM launches its second Africa lab in Johannesburg, South Africa.|
|2016||Partnership||IBM partners with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to enhance artificial intelligence.|
|2016||June 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Israeli application discovery company EZSource, to help developers modernize mainframe applications for digital business.|
|2016||September 29||Acquisition||IBM acquires Promontory Financial Group, a global market-leading risk management and regulatory compliance consulting firm.|
|2016||October 27||Acquisition||IBM acquires Sanovi Technologies, a business continuity and IT recovery software company that enables continuity for enterprises and cloud service providers.|
|2016||November 1||Acquisition||IBM acquires Expert Personal Shopper (XPS), a dialogue-based product recommendation platform that radically enhances product discoverability.|
|2017||January 23||Acquisition||IBM acquires Agile 3 Solutions, which builds products to aid clients in transforming their business operations.|
|2017||May 2||Acquisition||IBM acquires Verizon - Cloud services.|
|2017||September 24||Acquisition||IBM acquires Israeli data center networking startup Cloudigo.|
|2017||October 4||Acquisition||IBM acquires Australian startup Vivant Digital business (Vivant), a boutique digital and innovation agency.|
|2020||July 30||Product||IBM Cognos Analytics is released.|
|2021||May 6||Technology introduction||IBM introduces what it claims it is the world's first 2-nanometer chipmaking technology, which could be as much as "45% faster than the mainstream 7-nanometer chips in many of today's laptops and phones and up to 75% more power efficient", according to the company.|
Numerical and visual data
The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of June 27, 2021.
|Year||ibm||ibm watson||ibm spss||ibm personal computer|
The image below shows Google Trends data for IBM (Computer hardware company) from January 2004 to February 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.
Google Ngram Viewer
The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article IBM on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider,mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to January 2021.
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
- https://www.thoughtco.com/ibm-history-1991407], [https://www.thoughtco.com/ibm-timeline-1992491
Timeline update strategy
- "The history of IBM From tabulating machines to e-business servers". cbc.ca. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM at 100: 15 inflection points in history". zdnet.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "The Decline and Rise of IBM". sloanreview.mit.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "IBM's First 100 Years: A Heavily Illustrated Timeline". theatlantic.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "You, with IBM." (PDF). ibm.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM". britannica.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "1885". ibm.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "1886". ibm.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "International Time Recording". ibm.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "Computing Scale Company". ibm.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "1895". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Chronological History of IBM". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "1900". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "1911". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "IBM". officetimeline.com. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Punched Card Tabulating Machines". officemuseum.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Acquisitions". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Black, Edwin (March 26, 2002). "Final Solutions". Village Voice. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "A History of IBM Computers". ashgoal.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "The history of IBM - 100+ Years of Innovation". mindmeister.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM SuccessStory". successstory.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "Automated Test Scoring". ibm.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Building an Equal Opportunity Workforce". ibm.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator". columbia.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- Swedin, Eric G.; Ferro, David L. Computers: The Life Story of a Technology.
- "The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator". columbia.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM Research Zurich". zurich.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "IBM Builds on 50 Years of Spinning Disk Storage". eweek.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Goc, Michael J. Where the waters flow: a half century of regional development, 1941-1991.
- "IBM The History Of Hursley Park". computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "What Happened on September 5th". computerhistory.org. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- McMurran, Marshall William. Achieving Accuracy: A Legacy of Computers and Missiles.
- "IBM Fellows - United States". www.ibm.com. 2017-04-13. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "IBM Building, Seattle". openbuildings.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Barnes, Trevor; Gertler, Meric S. The New Industrial Geography: Regions, Regulation and Institutions.
- "IBM research". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "IBM Toronto Software Lab". latitude.to. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "1971: Floppy disk loads mainframe computer data". computerhistory.org. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Research - Haifa". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "IBM ThinkPad notebook". oldcomputers.net. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Clásicos de Arquitectura: Edificio IBM / Mies van der Rohe". Plataforma Arquitectura (in español). 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- "The complete history of the IBM PC, part one: The deal of the century". arstechnica.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "IBM 3350 direct access storage". ibm.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Building". structurae.net. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM 5100". computermuseum.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Rome Software Lab". enacademic.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Archives: IBM 5520 Administrative System". www.ibm.com. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "RISC Architecture". ibm.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM 5120". ibm.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "IBM Archives: IBM 5120 Computing System". www.ibm.com. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "IBM System/23 Datamaster". ibm.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "The birth of the IBM PC". ibm.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "IBM Research Tokyo". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Chronology of IBM Personal Computers". pctimeline.info. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- Hensch, Kurt. IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing: National Language Support Since 1961 ; [looking to East Asia].
- "IBM PCjr". oldcomputers.net. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Artifact of the Month: IBM Personal Computer AT, ca. 1984". blogs.lib.unc.edu. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM JX". old-computers.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "IBM Yamato Facility". geonames.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "Digibarn Systems: IBM PC Convertible". digibarn.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM 5140 Convertible Computer". computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM PC Convertible". ricomputermuseum.org. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "The IBM PS/2: 25 Years of PC History". pcworld.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "One Atlantic Center". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "One Atlantic Center". emporis.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM Academy of Technology". ibm.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM SOMERS OFFICE COMPLEX". self.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "A Brief History of the Mainframe". share.org. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "1250 René-Lévesque". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM Research Austin". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Did Deep Blue Beat Kasparov Because of a System Glitch?". time.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "BIOS Upgrades for IBM NetVista". dewagdkasl.wordpress.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "1997". ibm.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "CD-Based Optical Technology". flylib.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM Research India". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "http://www.ewcdb.eu/company/292". ewcdb.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2021. External link in
- ""Quantum Mirage" May Enable Atom-scale Circuits; IBM Scientists Discover Nanotech Communication Method". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "IBM announces the new Thinkpad X Series Ultraportable Computer". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- Hemp, Paul; Stewart, Thomas A. "Leading Change When Business Is Good". hbr.org. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM Acquires Aptrix; Strengthens its Software Portfolio with Web Content Management Software". ibm.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "IBM to acquire Alphablox". itworld.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM Acquires Application-Management Vendor Cyanea Systems". informationweek.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM Increases Consulting and IT Services Capability with Acquisitions and Seals Services Deals Worth in Excess of $1 Billion". ibm.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM outfoxes competitors with Venetica acquisition". zdnet.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM buys Systemcorp". theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "I.B.M. To Acquire Liberty Insurance Services". mobile.nytimes.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Rudzki, Robert A.; Smock, Douglas A.; Karzorke, Michael; Stewart, Shelley. Straight to the Bottom Line: An Executive's Roadmap to World Class Supply Management.
- "IBM Acquires SRD, Breaks New Ground in Identity Resolution Software". ibm.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM To Acquire Equitant, Leader In Order-To-Cash Managed Services". ibm.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM to Acquire Ascential Software". eweek.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Update: IBM buys open-source developer Gluecode". computerworld.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM Acquires Meiosys In Utility Computing Play". informationweek.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM acquires DWL, customer data software provider in Atlanta and Toronto". forbes.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM To Acquire E-Forms Provider PureEdge Solutions". informationweek.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "DataPower Technology sold to IBM". bizjournals.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM catches iPhrase". cnet.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM adds to systems mgmt., CMDB lineup with Collation buy". networkworld.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM ACQUIRES BOWSTREET INC.". goodwinlaw.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "IBM to acquire Micromuse for $865 million". cnet.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM acquires CIMS Lab". networkworld.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM acquires Inficon's process control software". edn.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM acquires Viacore". mhlnews.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM TO ACQUIRE LANGUAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEMS, INC.". ibm.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "Brief: IBM acquires BuildForge". computerworld.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM Buys Unicorn. Hang on, don't they already have a metadata tool?". toolbox.com. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "IBM to Acquire Solid Information Technology to Broaden Information on Demand Portfolio". ibm.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "IBM to Acquire Solid Information Technology". idm.net.au. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "IBM to Acquire Solid Information Technology". neowin.net. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- Berry, Kenneth J.; Johnston, Janis E.; Mielke Jr., Paul W. A Chronicle of Permutation Statistical Methods: 1920–2000, and Beyond.
- "IBM Acquires Intelliden Inc.". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Acquires Intelliden". informationweek.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM acquires Intelliden to boost network automation". networkworld.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Research Brazil". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- Segall, Richard S. Research and Applications in Global Supercomputing.
- "IBM Research – Australia". research.ibm.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "IBM computer Watson wins Jeopardy clash". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Actors and Their Roles for $300, HAL? HAL!". nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "IBM's Ginni Rometty Completes Ascent by Adding Chairman Role". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "FERMI, the CINECA IBM Blue Gene/Q system, today is the 7th most powerful system worldwide!". hpc.cineca.it. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "IBM opens its first Africa research lab in Nairobi on Friday". businessdailyafrica.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "IBM launches research lab in Johannesburg. 2nd research lab in Africa after Nairobi". africanbusinesscentral.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Here's Why IBM Bought This App Discovery Company". fortune.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM to Acquire EZSource to Help Developers Modernize Mainframe Applications for Digital Business". ibm.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM to buy EZSource for 14th acquisition of Israeli company". reuters.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Closes Acquisition of Promontory Financial Group". prnewswire.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Announces Planned Acquisition of Promontory to Transform Regulatory Compliance with Watson". ibm.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "How Promontory and IBM are reshaping financial services through AI". ibm.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "A boost to advanced networking on IBM Cloud". ibm.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Acquires Israeli Data Center Networking Startup Cloudigo". datacenterknowledge.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "COMPUTING GIANT IBM BUYS UP ISRAELI START-UP CLOUDIGO". jpost.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM Closes Acquisition of Vivant Digital Business". prnewswire.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM acquires Vivant Digital to boost digital transformation capabilities". cmo.com.au. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "IBM unveils 2-nanometer chip technology for faster computing". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
- "IBM". Google Trends. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "IBM". books.google.com. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "IBM". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 27 February 2021.