Timeline of IBM

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This is a timeline of IBM, attempting to describe important events in the history of the company.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1880s–1924 Origin of IBM. The three companies that would merge to create IBM are founded in this period: the Tabulating Machine Company (tabulating systems), the International Time Recording Company (mechanical time recorders), and the Computing Scale Company (commercial scales).
1920s IBM asmumes its actual name.
1930s IBM manages to grow during the Great Depression. The company adds a new product unit, the electric writing machine division.[1]
1940s All IBM facilities become at the disposal of the United States government during the Second World War. IBM products expand into bombsights, rifles and engine parts. During the war years, IBM makes its first steps into computing. The Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator is IBM's first large-scale digital calculating machine.[1]
1950s IBM focuses on solid-state electronics.[2] The company releases the first large computer based on the vacuum tube.[1]
1960s IBM's transforms from maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters into the computer industry.[1] In the 1960s, IBM leads the information technology industry, especially with the innovative IBM System/360 family.[3] By the early decade, the company already has over 100,000 employees.[4]
1980s–1990s IBM’s profit margins suffer a steep decline, largely due to its lost position as a leader in technological development.[3] Early in the 1980s, IBM announces the IBM Personal Computer. However, the company would suffer during the revolution of personal computers for focusing rather on business clients than PC use.[1] In the 1990s, despite pressures to split IBM up, the CEO decides to keep it together and start focusing on client/server field.[1]
Recent years IBM operates in over 170 countries. The company is one of the world's largest employers, with nearly 380,300 employees (as of 2016).[5] IBM now holds more than 40,000 active patents, generating considerable income from royalties.[6]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details
1885 Technology Julius E. Pitrap of Gallipolis, Ohio, patents his first computing scale. Pitrap's patents would be later acquired by a forerunner of IBM.[7]
1886 Technology American inventor Herman Hollerith conducts the first practical test of his tabulating system in recording and tabulating vital statistics for the Baltimore Department of Health.[8]
1889 Organization The International Time Recording Company (ITR) begins originally as the Bundy Manufacturing Company in Auburn, New York. ITR's main product line are mechanical time recorders invented and patented by Willard L. Bundy one year before.[9]
1891 Organization American businessmen Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, from Dayton, Ohio, purchase the patents for the newly invented computing scale and incorporate the Computing Scale Company for the production of commercial scales.[10]
1895 Technology The Computing Scale Company introduces the first automatic computing scale.[11]
1896 Organization Herman Hollerith forms the Tabulating Machine Company in Washington, D.C., the result of a successful capitalization of his invented punch card tabulating machine, which uses an electric current to sense holes in punched cards and keep a running total of data.[12]
1900 Organization George W. Fairchild establishes the International Time Recording Company as the selling agency of the Bundy Manufacturing Company, Willard and Frick Manufacturing Company, and Standard Time Stamp Company, which also manufactures a card recorder.[13]
1911 June 16 Organization IBM is originally incorporated as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, a merger of the International Time Recording Company, Computing Scale Company, and the Tabulating Machine Company.[14][15][6][9]
1914 Directorate American businessman Thomas J. Watson becomes the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company's general manager.[15][6]
Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg
1920 Product CTR introduces its first printer, a printer-lister that could print the data contained on cards as well as the results of tabulations.[15][16]
1923 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires German firm Dehomag, which would serve as subsidiary of IBM with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II.[17][18]
1924 IBM (standing for International Business Machines) assumes its present name.[15][6]
1928 Product IBM releases the Tabulator, which is able to do subtraction.[19]
1928 Program IBM implements its "Suggestion Plan" program, giving cash rewards to employees who contribute viable ideas on how to improve products and procedures. It's the beginning of IBM's investment in research and development.[2]
1930 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires The Automatic Accounting Scale Company, a maker of automatic counting scales.[17]
1932 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires the National Counting Scale Company.[17]
1933 Acquisition IBM purchases Electromatic Typewriters, Inc., entering the field of electric typewriters, in which it would eventually become an industry leader.[6]
1933 Policy IBM introduces the 40-hour week for both manufacturing and office locations.[20]
1934 Policy IBM becomes the first company to start group life insurance. The plan is created for all employees with at least one year of service.[21][20]
1934 Policy IBM's factory employees are placed on salary, eliminating piece-work and providing employees and their families with an added degree of economic stability.[20]
1934 Product IBM introduces the IBM 801 Bank Proof machine to clear bank checks.[20]
1937 Policy IBM starts offering paid vacations to its employees.[21]
1937 Product The IBM 805 test scoring machine is launched commercially.[15][22]
1938 Facility IBM establishes new world headquarters on 590 Madison Avenue, New York city.[20]
c.1939 Production IBM manufactures five to ten million punched cards each day, having thirty-two presses functioning within its branch in Endicott, New York.[19]
1941 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Munitions Manufacturing Corporation.[17]
1942 Team IBM launches a program to train and employ disabled people.[20][15]
1943 Facility IBM establishes a facility in San Jose, California, to take advantage of a growing hive of electronics research in the area that would much later be called "Silicon Valley." Four years later, the hard disk drive would be invented in this facility.[2]
1943 Directorate American businesswoman Ruth Leach Amonette becomes IBM’s first female vice president.[20][23]
1945 Facility IBM Research (IBM's research and development division) begins with the opening of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in Manhattan.[15]
1945–1946 Technology IBM provides a translation system for the Nuremberg trials.[4]
1946 Product IBM introduces an electric Chinese ideographic character typewriter, allowing experienced users to type at a rate of 40 to 45 Chinese words a minute.[20]
1946 Team IBM hires Thomas Laster, the company's first African American salesman, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[20][23]
1948 The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) is announced to the public.[15]
1952 Directorate Thomas Watson, Jr. (Thomas J. Watson son) becomes president of IBM.[6]
1953 Thomas Watson Jr. reorganizes IBM in a fashion that represents modern management structure today, allowing him better visibility into the company. IBM transitions from medium-sized maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters to a computer company, with research and development boosted to 9 percent of the budget.[2]
1954 Product IBM delivers the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) for the United States Navy's Bureau of Ordnance.[15] NORC is likely the most powerful computer at the time.[24][25][26]
1954 IBM starts working in real-time computing with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[2]
1956 Faiclity IBM Research – Zurich opens in Rüschlikon, near Zurich, Switzerland.[27]
1956 September 14 Product The IBM 305 RAMAC is released. It is the first commercial computer using a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.[28][15]
RAMAC disk
1956 Facility IBM Rochester is established in Rochester, Minnesota.[29]
IBM Rochester.jpg
1957 Product IBM releases Fortran, a general-purpose, imperative programming language.[15]
Fortran logo.svg
1958 IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin
1958 Facility IBM Hursley is established as a research and development laboratory in Hursley House in Hampshire, England.[30]
Hursley House.jpg
1960 Personnel By this time, IBM employs 100,000 people. During this period, IBM makes and sells massive computers to large governments and corporations.[4]
1961 Facility The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is established. It is the headquarters for IBM Research.[15]
IBM Yorktown Heights.jpg
1961 Supercomputer The IBM 7030 Stretch becomes the first IBM's first transistorized supercomputer. The first example is delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory.[31]
IBM 7030-CNAM 22480-IMG 5115-gradient.jpg
1961 IBM international chess tournament
1962 Supercomputer The IBM 7950 Harvest is delivered.[32]
1962 The IBM Fellows program is founded by Thomas J. Watson Jr. as a way to promote creativity among the company's "most exceptional" technical professionals and is granted in recognition of outstanding and sustained technical achievements and leadership in engineering, programming, services, science, design and technology.[33]
1963 Facility The IBM Building opens in Seattle.[34]
1964 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Science Research Associates, a Chicago publisher of education, test and guidance materials.[17]
1964 IBM computers are used in the Project Gemini.[15]
1964 February Facility The IBM Cambridge Scientific Center is established in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[35]
1964 April 7 The IBM System/360, a family of mainframe computer systems, is announced.[15][19] The System/360 is the first major family of computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment.[2]
1966 The IBM Information Management System is released.[15]
1966 Product The Dynamic random-access memory DRAM is developed by Robert Dennard at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.[15]
1966 Marketing IBM's initial logo is released.[21]
1967 Scientific development Polish-born mathematician and IBM researcher Benoît Mandelbrot publishes the initial findings of what he would later describe as “fractal geometry".[36]
1967 Facility The IBM Toronto Software Lab is established.[37]
1969 The Apollo 11 mission takes place, supported by four thousand IBM employees who built the computers and wrote many of the complex software programs that launched the Apollo missions.[36][15]
1969 IBM stops bundling hardware, services and software in packages and starts selling individually. This so-called "unbundling" would give birth to multibillion-dollar software and services industries.[1]
1971 Product Floppy discs become commercially available as a component of IBM products.[15][38]
1972 Marketing The current IBM logo is made available.[21]
1972 Facility The IBM Haifa Research Laboratory opens in Haifa, Israel.[39]
IBM Denia.jpg
1973 March Product The IBM 3340 hard disk unit, known as the Winchester, is introduced.[40]
1973 Product (hardware) IBM 3890 is released.
1973 Facility The IBM Plaza opens in Chicago. It is designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.[41]
IBM Building seen from the Chicago River.jpg
1973 Technology IBM develops a supermarket checkout station using glass prisms, lenses and a laser to read product prices.[1]
1974 January 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Satellite Business Systems, a provider of private professional satellite communications.[17]
1974 Technology IBM announces Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems.[20]
1975 September Product IBM introduces the IBM 5100, its first "portable" computer.[15][42][40]
IBM 5100 - MfK Bern.jpg
1975 Product The IBM 3350 Direct Access Storage Facility, code-named Madrid, is introduced for use with IBM System/370.[43]
1976 Product IBM introduces the first laser printer.[15]
1976 Facility The IBM Building, Johannesburg is completed.[44]
1978 February Product IBM begins working on its first microcomputer, a machine called System/23 Datamaster.[42]
1978 Product IBM announces the IBM 5110, the successor of the IBM 5100 Portable Computer.[45]
IBM 5110 computer - Ridai Museum of Modern Science, Tokyo - DSC07664.JPG
1978 Facility The IBM Rome Software Lab is established in Rome, Italy.[46]
1979 November 1 Product The IBM 5520 is released as an administrative system able to support the creation, storage, retrieval and editing of documents ranging from single-page memos to multi-page manuals. Available in four models, it includes disk storage capacity up to 130 megabytes, and is able to accommodate from three to 12 printers.[47]
1980 Product (experimental minicomputer) The first prototype computer employing Reduced instruction set computer architecture is produced and dubbed IBM 801 for the number of the building in which it was developed.[48][15]
1980 February Product The IBM 5120 is introduced.[49][45] This computer system is the lowest-priced IBM computer to date. It includes a main storage capacity of 32,768 characters of information, a 120 character-per-second printer and the BASIC programming language.[50]
IBM 5120 Computer System.jpg
1981 July Product The IBM System/23 Datamaster is released, combining word processing and data processing in a machine with the purpose to give small businesses access to information processing. It includes viewing screen, keyboard and diskette drives packaged in a single desktop console, and has the capacity to include two computer workstations.[51]
IBM Datamaster (2282600489).jpg
1981 August 12 Product The IBM Personal Computer (model number 5150) is introduced.[6] It first includes the IBM BASIC programming language.[52]
1981 Scientific development IBM scientists Rangaswamy Srinivasan, James J. Wynne and Samuel E. Blum discover how the newly invented excimer laser could remove specific human tissue without harming the surrounding area and do so on an extremely minute scale. Such process become the foundation for LASIK and PRK surgery.[36]
1981 Scientific development IBM researchers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level that would revolutionize the ability to manipulate solid surfaces the size of atoms.[36]
1982 May Microsoft releases MS-DOS 1.1 for the IBM PC.[40]
1982 June Competition Columbia Data Products releases the first IBM PC clone. [40]
1982 November Product Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable PC, the first 100% IBM PC compatible system.[40]
1982 Facility IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory is established as the Japan Science Institute (JSI) in Tokyo, Japan.[53]
1983 Steve Jobs offers IBM's Philip Don Estridge (known as the "father of the IBM PC") the position of president of Apple Computer, for US$1 million per year, US$1 million signing bonus, and US$2 million to buy a house. However, Estridge turns it down.[54]
1983 March 8 Product The IBM Personal Computer XT is announced in New York city.[40][54]
Ibm px xt color.jpg
1983 March 15 Product The IBM 5550 is released in Japan.[54][55]
1983 March Operating system IBM releases the IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System v2.00 (PC-DOS), with BASIC v2.00, at a price of US$60.[54]
1983 Product IBM Planning Analytics is released.
1983 August 1 Facility IBM establishes the Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida.[54]
1983 October Product The IBM 3270 PC is released.[54]
IBM 3270 PC.jpg
1983 December 31 Statistics IBM cumulates one million shipped PC computers.[54]
1983 Microsoft shows IBM a raw version of Windows. However, IBM is not interested as they are already developing what later would be called TopView.[54]
1984 January Legal IBM sues American PC company Corona Data Systems for copyright violation of the IBM PC's BIOS. Corona agrees to cease its infringement.[54]
1984 January 12 IBM announces the Personal Computer Interactive Executive operating system.[54]
1984 IBM Award
1984 February Product The IBM Portable Personal Computer is released.[40]
1984 February 21 Legal IBM files a lawsuit against microcomputer manufacturer Eagle Computer for copyright infringement of the BIOS used in the IBM PC. Eagle agrees on the same day to cease shipments of the infringing computers.[54]
1984 March 9 Agreement American technology company Intel and IBM announce a licensing agreement for IBM to manufacture, for its own use, processors based on Intel designs.[54]
1984 March Product The IBM PCjr is released.[56]
Ibm pcjr with display.jpg
1984 August 14 Product The IBM Personal Computer/AT is released.[57]
1984 September 26 Acquisition IBM acquires the ROLM Corporation, a tech company focused on hardware and software related to the telecommunications industry.[17]
1984 October Product The IBM JX is introduced.[58]
IBM JX.jpg
1985 Facility The IBM Yamato Facility is completed in Yamato, Kanagawa, Japan.[59]
1985 Technology IBM introduces a token-ring local area network, allowing personal computer users to exchange information and share printers and files within a building or complex.[1]
1986 April 3 Product The IBM PC Convertible (a laptop that could be converted into a main desktop in seconds) is released.[60][61] It is the first laptop computer released by IBM.[62]
1986 Facility IBM Almaden Research Center opens in Almaden Valley, San Jose, California.[15]
1987 April Product The IBM Personal System/2 is released.[63]
Personal System 2 Series of Computers.png
1987 October Award IBM researchers Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials".[15][64]
1987 Facility The One Atlantic Center (also known as IBM Tower) is completed in Midtown Atlanta.[65][66]
1988 Partnership IBM partners with the University of Michigan and MCI Communications to create the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet).[2]
1989 Facility The IBM Hakozaki Facility is completed in Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
IBM Hakozaki Facility6.jpg
1989 Organization The IBM Academy of Technology is founded.[67]
1989 IBM (atoms)
1989 October Facility The IBM Somers Office Complex is completed in Somers, New York.[68]
IBM Somers 3.jpg
1990 Product The IBM System/390 is released.[15][69]
1992 April Product IBM announces the first Thinkpad tablet computer.[15][40]
1992 Facility 1250 René-Lévesque (also known as the IBM-Marathon Tower) is completed is Montreal, Canada.[70]
1250 René-Lévesque 21.jpg
1993 Revenue IBM's annual net losses reach record US$8 billion. The loss is attributed to the company being more focused on business clients than personal computer use.[15][1]
1994 Product IBM releases the IBM Personal Dictation System (IPDS), the first wave of speech recognition products for the personal computer.[15]
1994 August Acquisition IBM acquires Transarc, a Pittsburg–based company focused on computer software.[17]
1995 July 6 Acquisition IBM acquires Lotus Development Corporation, the developer of Lotus Software.[17]
1995 October Facility The IBM Austin Research Laboratory is established in Austin, Texas.[71]
1995 Facility The IBM China Research Laboratory is established in Beijing.
1996 February 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Tivoli Systems, a developer of systems management software and services.
1996 IBM Cloud and Smarter Infrastructure
1996 February 10 Achievement IBM's Deep Blue chess-playing computer wins its first game against world champion Garry Kasparov.[72]
1996 April Product The IBM NetVista Software Suite is introduced.[73]
1996 Competition Microsoft's market value passes that of IBM, as personal computing explodes, largely led by IBM's competitors like Dell and Compaq running Microsoft Windows.[4]
1997 March Product The IBM IntelliStation is announced.[74]
1997 October Product The IBM ThinkPad 770 starts production.[75]
IBM Thinkpad 770.jpg
1998 Facility The IBM India Research Laboratory is established in Delhi, India.[76]
1999 Linux Technology Center
1999 July 12 Acquisition IBM acquires the Sequent Computer Systems, a designer and manufacturer of multiprocessing computer systems.[17]
1999 Employees of IBM Europe form a European Works Council, a set of information and consultation bodies representing employees in European multinational companies.[77]
1999 July 27 Acquisition IBM acquires Mylex, a leading provider of RAID storage subsystems.[17]
1999 September 22 Acquisition IBM acquires security software firm Dascom.[17]
2000 February Scientific development IBM researchers discover a way to transport information on the atomic scale that uses the wave nature of electrons instead of conventional wiring. The new phenomenon, called the "quantum mirage" effect, may enable data transfer within future nanoscale electronic circuits too small to use wires.[15][78]
2000 September Product IBM announces the ThinkPad X Series, a line of notebook computers and convertible tablets.[79]
2001 May Common Public License
2001 June 7 Acquisition IBM acquires Mainspring, a designer and developer of digital business strategies.[17]
2001 Achievement IBM becomes the first company to generate more than 3,000 patents in one year.[6]
2002 January 14 Acquisition IBM acquires CrossWorlds Software, a provider of business integration software that unites and extends business processes.[17]
2002 March Team Samuel J. Palmisano is promoted to IBM's chief executive officer.[80]
2002 June 25 Acquisition IBM acquires Metamerge, which specializes in directory integration software.[17]
2002 August 29 Acquisition IBM acquires TrelliSoft, a provider of storage resources.[17]
2002 September 3 Acquisition IBM acquires Access360, a provider of solutions for tackling Resource Provisioning Management (RPM).[17]
2002 September 12 Acquisition IBM acquires El-Segundo, California–based HOLOSOFX, which works in the field of Business Process Management (BPM).[17]
2002 October 2 IBM acquires PwC Consulting, a subsidiary of PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network.[17]
2002 October 7 Acquisition IBM acquires EADS Matra Datavision, a developer of software applications.[17]
2002 November 4 Acquisition IBM acquires Tarian Software, the developer of the Tarian eRecordsEngine, an embedded electronic recordkeeping technology for business application software.[17]
2002 Acquisition IBM sells its magnetic hard drive business to the Japanese electronics firm of Hitachi, for US$2.05 billion. Under the terms of the sale, IBM agreeds to continue the production of hard drives with Hitachi for three years in a joint venture known as Hitachi Global Storage Technologies.[6]
2003 February 20 Acquisition IBM acquires Rational Software Corporation, a provider of integrated solutions that automate the software development process.[17]
2003 May 14 Acquisition IBM acquires Think Dynamics, a developer of software that introduces true Utility Computing into environments that support multiple e-Business Internet.[17]
2003 July 15 Acquisition IBM acquires Aptrix, a privately-held, Australia-based provider of web content management software.[81][17]
2003 October 14 Acquisition IBM acquires CrossAccess Corporation, a provider of data integration infrastructure software.[17]
2003 November 13 Acquisition IBM acquires Productivity Solutions, a Jacksonville, Florida-based vendor of retail self-checkout systems.[17]
2003 December 17 Acquisiton IBM acquires Green Pasture Software, a provider of document management software.[17]
2004 March 9 Acquisition IBM acquires Trigo Technologies, which develops product information management solutions for global manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.[17]
2004 April 7 Acquisition IBM acquires Daksh Infosoft, a business process outsourcing company in India.[17]
2004 June 7 Acquisition IBM acquires El Segundo, California-based Candle Corporation, which offers solutions to help customers develop, deploy and manage their enterprise infrastructure.[17]
2004 July 14 Acquisition IBM acquires Mountain View, California-based AlphaBlox, a maker of software that embeds analytics into existing business processes.[17][82]
2004 July 29 Acquisition IBM acquires software company Cyanea Systems, which develops software used by businesses to monitor the performance of their enterprise applications.[83][17]
2004 August 17 Acquisition IBM acquires Danish company Maersk Data, which provides consulting capabilities in the transportation and logistics industry.[84][17]
2004 August 26 Acquisition IBM acquires Venetica, a provider of enterprise content integration (ECM) software.[85][17]
2004 October 12 Acquisition IBM acquires Montreal-based Systemcorp A.L.G., which develops project management systems to co-ordinates IT projects.[86][17]
2004 November 23 Acquisition IBM acquires Liberty Insurance Services, which administers policies for insurance companies worldwide.[87][17]
2004 December 13 Acquisition IBM acquires Paris-based KeyMRO, a provider of outsource procurement services.[17][88]
2004 Supercomputer IBM Blue Gene is unveiled, at the time both the most powerful supercomputer and the most efficient, consuming only a fraction of the energy and floor space of any other supercomputer.[36]
2005 January 7 Acquisition IBM acquires Las Vegas, Nevada-based SRD, a provider of identity resolution software.[17][89]
2005 January 25 Acquisition IBM acquires CORIO, an enterprise Application Service Provider (ASP) that deploys and manages enterprise applications from software vendors.[17]
2005 February 2 Acquisition IBM acquires Equitant, a global business transformation outsourcing (BTO) provider that focuses on the management and optimization of the Order-to-Cash cycle for large companies.[90]
2005 May 2 Acquisition IBM acquires Ascential Software, a data integration provider, for US$1.1 billion.[91][17]
2005 May 10 Acquisition IBM acquires Gluecode Software, a start-up developer of open-source infrastructure software.[92][17]
2005 June 23 Acquisition IBM acquires Meiosys, a developer of software that allows applications to be moved dynamically from one server to another without disruption.[93][17]
2005 July 27 Acquisition IBM acquires New York-based Isogon Corporation, which provides IT asset management solutions.[17]
2005 August 2 Acquisition IBM acquires DWL, a customer data software provider in Atlanta and Toronto.[94][17]
2005 August 5 Acquisition IBM acquires PureEdge Solutions, a developer of electronic forms based on XML standards.[95][17]
2005 October 18 Acquisition IBM acquires DataPower Technology, a developer of technologies that bridge disparate network equipment and applications.[96][17]
2005 November 1 Acquisition IBM acquires iPhrase Technologies, a company that specializes in software for online commerce.[17][97]
2005 November 9 Acquisition IBM acquires Network Solutions Private Limited, a company in India which offers IT Infrastructure Services.[17]
2005 November 16 Acquisition IBM acquires Collation, a company that makes application resource mapping software.[98][17]
2005 December 20 Acquisition IBM acquires Bowstreet, a provider of application development tools for portals.[99][17]
2005 December 21 Acquisition IBM acquires San Francisco-based Micromuse, a provider of network management software, for US$865 million.[100][17]
2005 Acquisition Hitachi takes full control of Hitachi Global Storage Technologies and IBM stops building hard drives, a device that it invented in 1956.[6]
2005 December Acquisition IBM sells its personal computer division to Lenovo, a major Chinese manufacturer.[6][15]
2006 January 25 Acquisition IBM acquires CIMS Lab, a developer of software that tracks the usage of computing resources in virtualized technology environments.[101][17]
2006 January 27 Acquisition IBM acquires ARGUS Semiconductor Software, an advanced lithography process control system that gives users real-time run-to-run capability to control processes using measurement results from upstream and downstream processes.[102][17]
2006 February 8 Acquisition IBM acquires Viacore, a provider of business process integration solutions for real-time supply chain visibility.[17][103]
2006 March 16 Acquisition IBM acquires Language Analysis Systems, a developer of multicultural name recognition technology.[104][17]
2006 May 2 Acquisition IBM acquires BuildForge, a developer of software that allows users to automate their software development processes to meet audit and compliance requirements.[105][17]
2006 May 8 Acquisition IBM acquires Unicorn Solutions, which specializes in enterprise architecture and metadata management.[106][17]
2007 August 22 Acquisition IBM acquires Webdialogs, which develops online meeting and communication solutions that include voice, video and Web conferencing, data collaboration, and Web.[17]
2007 September 4 Acquisition IBM acquires DataMirror, which develops and markets data integration, protection, and auditing software.[17]
2007 October 24 Acquisition IBM acquires NovusCG, a privately held storage solutions company.[17]
2007 December 6 Acquisition IBM acquires Arsenal Digital Solutions, which provides on-demand data protection services for server and personal computer data protection.[17]
2007 December 21 Acquisition IBM acquires Helsinki–based in-memory database software provider Solid Information Technology, with the purpose of broadening information on demand portfolio.[17][107][108][109]
2008 January 2 Acquisition IBM acquires XIV, which designs, develops, and supplies data storage systems for enterprise organizations and their data centers.[17]
2008 January 18 Acquisition IBM acquires Net Integration Technologies, a software development company that focuses on developing Linux-based server operating system.[17]
2008 January 23 Acquisition IBM acquires AptSoft, which provides event processing design and execution platform to help companies to implement event-driven applications as part of service oriented architecture.[17]
2008 January 31 Acquisition IBM acquires Cognos, which provides business intelligence and performance management software solutions for organizations.[17]
2008 March 12 Acquisition IBM acquires Encentuate, which provides identity and access management solutions without requiring enterprises to change their existing IT infrastructure..[17]
2008 April 2 Product IBM Power Systems is released.
S822LC 9036.png
2008 April 10 Acquisition IBM acquires FilesX, which provides software solutions that facilitate the recovery of volume, files and application data in heterogeneous storage environments.[17]
2008 April 22 Acquisition IBM acquires Tel Aviv-based de-duplication software specialist Diligent.[17]
2008 April 29 Acquisition IBM acquires InfoDyne Corporation, which provides enterprise products and solutions to the financial market.[17]
2008 May Supercomputer The IBM Bluefire Supercomputer is installed.[110]
2008 July 2 Acquisition IBM acquires Platform Solutions, which develops open mainframe computers compatible with a set of data center environments and operating systems.[17]
2008 July 28 Acquisition IBM acquires business rules management software maker ILOG.[17]
2008 November 18 Acquisition IBM acquires Transitive, which specializes in cross-platform virtualization technology.[17]
2008 November Smarter Planet
2008 Partnership IBM Research, the United States Department of Agriculture and candy-maker Mars, Incorporated teamed up to sequence the cocoa genome in an effort to help farmers grow tastier, more disease-resistant and more productive cocoa trees.[36]
2008 Production IBM becomes the first company to generate more than 4,000 patents in one year.[6]
2009 April 16 Acquisition IBM acquires Outblaze, a technology company that develops and provides digital media products and services.[17]
2009 May 5 Acquisition IBM acquires Exeros, which provides data discovery software.[17]
2009 July 20 Acquisition IBM acquires source code security testing vendor Ounce Labs.[17]
2009 July 28 Acquisition IBM acquires SPSS, which provides predictive analytics software and solutions for survey authoring and deployment, data mining, and text analytics.[17]
2009 September 22 Acquisition IBM acquires RedPill Solutions, a customer focused consulting company.[17]
2009 September Recognition United States President Barack Obama recognizes IBM and the Blue Gene family of supercomputers with the National Medal of Technology and Innovation.[36]
2009 November 30 Acquisition IBM acquires Guardium, a database security company that delivers solutions to prevent information leaks and ensures the integrity of enterprise data.[17]
2009 December 16 Acquisition IBM acquires Lombardi Software, which provides business process management software and services in the United States.[17]
2010 January 20 Acquisition IBM acquires American security and analytics consultancy National Interest Security Company.[17]
2010 February 3 Acquisition IBM acquires Initiate Systems, a software firm that enables companies to strategically leverage and share critical data assets.[17]
2010 February 16 Acquisition IBM acquires network automation software provider Intelliden, to boost network automation.[111][112][113]
2010 May 3 Acquisition IBM acquires Mountain View-based Cast Iron Systems, which delivers industry-leading cloud integration software, appliances and services.[17]
2010 May 24 Acquisition IBM acquires Sterling Commerce, a provider of order management, B2B and managed file transfer ("MFT") products.[17]
2010 June Facility IBM Research – Brazil is established, its first in South America. It has locations in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[114]
2010 Supercomputer The first IBM Aquasar system becomes operational at ETH Zurich.[115]
2011 Facility IBM Research – Australia opens as a development laboratory in Melbourne.[116]
2011 Award IBM Watson computer wins first prize on the quiz show Jeopardy!, against legendary champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings.[15][117][118]
2011 Facility IBM Research – Ireland is established in American television game show Dublin.
2011 IBM turns 100, and celebrates by passing Microsoft's market value for the first time in 15 years and watching the Watson computing platform destroy the human competition in Jeopardy.[4]
2012 January Team Ginni Rometty becomes president and chief executive officer of IBM.[119]
2012 June Supercomputer IBM's Fermi is installed for the Italian and European scientific and industrial research. It is the most powerful supercomputer available in Italy.[120]
2012 Scientific development IBM scientists announce the creation of the world's smallest magnetic memory bit, made of just 12 atoms.[36]
2013 November Facility IBM Research – Africa officially launches at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya.[121]
2015 February Facility IBM launches its second Africa lab in Johannesburg, South Africa.[122]
2016 Partnership IBM partners with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to enhance artificial intelligence.[15]
2016 June 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Israeli application discovery company EZSource, to help developers modernize mainframe applications for digital business.[123][124][125]
2016 September 29 Acquisition IBM acquires Promontory Financial Group, a global market-leading risk management and regulatory compliance consulting firm.[126][127][128]
2016 October 27 Acquisition IBM acquires Sanovi Technologies, a business continuity and IT recovery software company that enables continuity for enterprises and cloud service providers.[17]
2016 November 1 Acquisition IBM acquires Expert Personal Shopper (XPS), a dialogue-based product recommendation platform that radically enhances product discoverability.[17]
2017 January 23 Acquisition IBM acquires Agile 3 Solutions, which builds products to aid clients in transforming their business operations.[17]
2017 May 2 Acquisition IBM acquires Verizon - Cloud services.[17]
2017 September 24 Acquisition IBM acquires Israeli data center networking startup Cloudigo.[17][129][130][131]
2017 October 4 Acquisition IBM acquires Australian startup Vivant Digital business (Vivant), a boutique digital and innovation agency.[17][132][133]
2020 July 30 Product IBM Cognos Analytics is released.
2021 May 6 Technology introduction IBM introduces what it claims it is the world's first 2-nanometer chipmaking technology, which could be as much as "45% faster than the mainstream 7-nanometer chips in many of today's laptops and phones and up to 75% more power efficient", according to the company.[134]

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of June 27, 2021.

Year ibm ibm watson ibm spss ibm personal computer
1980 16,300 1,740 369 2,000
1985 25,400 2,230 408 5,490
1990 66,200 4,140 865 12,000
1995 76,400 4,100 977 12,100
2000 75,200 4,740 1,140 13,000
2002 81,300 5,430 1,280 14,500
2004 90,900 6,670 1,500 16,400
2006 93,800 7,010 1,710 17,800
2008 92,300 6,940 1,890 19,000
2010 90,500 7,040 3,490 16,900
2012 129,000 10,100 25,300 24,500
2014 179,000 12,900 107,000 28,400
2016 168,000 17,100 116,000 30,900
2017 152,000 20,700 108,000 32,000
2018 119,000 23,300 81,800 32,100
2019 86,000 25,000 70,300 28,200
2020 62,500 24,400 51,500 28,200
Ibm tb.png

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for IBM (Computer hardware company) from January 2004 to February 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[135]

IBM GT.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for IBM from 1911 to 2019.[136]>

IBM ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article IBM on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider,mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to January 2021.[137]

IBM WV.png

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


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