Timeline of cardiovascular disease

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The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of cardiovascular disease". The original page still exists at Timeline of cardiovascular disease. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease, focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
Prior to 1400s Descriptions of heart failure exist from Ancient Egypt, Greece, and India. The Romans are known to use the foxglove as medicine.[1]
1400s–1700s Early discoveries of coronary artery disease start to happen. Among the most important works, are those made by William Harvey and Friedrich Hoffmann.[2]
1700s–1800s Angina is described and studied extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries. Work by cardiologist William Osler stands out.[2]
1900s Period of increased interest, study, and understanding of heart disease. Catheters start to be used to explore coronary arteries.[2]
1940s–1950s The International Society of Cardiology is designed, and the World Congress of Cardiology starts to be held. The link between heart disease and diet is discovered.[2]
1960s–Present Bypass surgery, angioplasty, and stents are developed. As a result of these treatment advances, a diagnosis of heart disease today is no longer necessarily a death sentence. Still, cardiovascular diseases remain by far the main cause of death worldwide.[2][3]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1628 Scientific development English physician William Harvey describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.[1]
1658 Scientific development Swiss physician Jakob Wepfer describes for the first time carotid thrombosis, extracranially and intracranially, in a patient with a completely occluded and calcified right internal carotid artery.[4]
1681–1742 Scientific development German physician Friedrich Hoffmann notes that coronary heart disease starts in the “reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."[2] Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
1733 Medical development English clergyman and scientist Stephen Hales measures blood pressure.[5] Teddington, England
1768 Scientific development English physician William Heberden describes angina pectoris for the first time.[6] Royal College of Physicians, London
1785 Medical development English physician William Withering publishes an account of medical use of digitalis, which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.[1]
1803 Medical development British surgeon David Fleming performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.[4]
1812 Scientific development French physician César Julien Jean Legallois proposes the idea of artificial circulation.[7]
1819 Development French physician René Laennec invents the stethoscope, an acoustic device for listening internal sounds of an animal or human body.[1] Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris
1831 Discovery English physician Richard Bright describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease (Bright's disease).[8]
1872-1919 Development Canadian physician William Osler works extensively on angina, and is one of the first to indicate that angina is a syndrome rather than a disease in itself.[2]
1882 Medical development (device) German Von Schröder introduces the first bubble oxygenator.[7]
1895 Scientific development German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which are used to diagnose heart disease.[1]
1901 Scientific development Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invents the string galvanometer, which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.[1] Leiden, Netherlands
1920 Medical development Organomercurial diuretics are first used for treatment of heart failure.[1]
1924 Organization The Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease is established.[9] New York City
1926 Organization The Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute is founded.[10] Melbourne, Australia
1929 Medical development German surgeon Werner Forssmann develops the technique of cardiac catheterization. For this achievement, Forssmann will receive the Nobel Prize in 1956.[11][7] Eberswalde, Germany
1932 Medical development (device) American cardiac surgeon Michael E. DeBakey develops the roller pump, which later becomes an essential component of the heart-lung machine.[12] Tulane University, New Orleans
1937 Medical development (device) An artificial heart designed by Soviet scientist W. P. Demichow is first successfully applied on a dog for 5.5 hours.[7] Soviet Union
1938 Medical development American surgeon Robert Gross applies systematically the first modern cardiovascular surgery when successfully closes a patent ductus arteriosus.[13] Boston Children's Hospital, Boston
1941 Medical development French physician André Cournand and American physician Dickinson Richards, use the cardiac catheter as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both are awarded the Nobel Prize in 1956.[13][14] Bellevue Hospital, New York City
1948 Scientific development The Framingham Heart Study is initiated under the direction of the National Heart Institute to better understand atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of cholesterol. Over 1000 medical papers will have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.[15][16] Framingham, Massachusetts
1949 Medical development (device) IBM develops the Gibbon Model I heart-lung machine. It consists of DeBakey pumps and film oxygenator.[7] United States
1949–1958 Scientific development Scottish epidemiologist Jerry Morris performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.[17]
1950 Organization The First World Congress of Cardiology (WCC) is held.[18] Paris
1950 Scientific development Team led by American scientist John Gofman demonstrates the role of lipoproteins in the causation of heart disease.[15][19] University of California, Berkeley
1950-1958 Medical development Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of Merck and Co develop thiazides for treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
1950–1959 Medical development (drug) Scottish pharmacologist James Black develops propranolol, a beta blocker used for the treatment of heart disease. Black is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for this work.[13] Imperial Chemical Industries, London
1950–1959 Scientific development American scientist Ancel Keys discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where fat diet has slow consumption.[2] Southern Europe
1952 MEdical development (device) Swedish cardiologist Inge Edler and German physicist Carl Hellmuth Hertz adapt for human use a sonar device for detecting submarines in World War II and record echoes from the walls of a human heart, thereby launching the field of echocardiography.[13]
1952 Medical development (device) American cardiologist Paul Zoll develops the first external cardiac pacemaker.[13][7] Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1952 Medical development American surgeon Charles A. Hufnagel sews an artificial valve into a patient's aorta.[7]
1953 Medical development American surgeon John Gibbon performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.[13] Thomas Jefferson Hospital, Philadelphia
1953 Dr Michael DeBakey implants a seamless, knit Dacron tube for surgical repairs and/or replacement of occluded vessels of vascular aneurysms.[7] United States
1958 Medical development (drug) Thiazide diuretics are introduced for treating hypertension.[1]
1959 Program The World Health Organization establishes Cardiovascular Disease program.[20]
1960 Scientific development Framingham Study: Cigarette smoking is found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1960 Medical development The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon Robert H. Goetz.[22] Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City
1961 Scientific development Cholesterol level, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1961 Organization The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is established as a charity organization in order to fund research on cardiovascular disease.[23] London
1963 Organization Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo is founded as a center specializing in cardiology, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.[24] Sao Paulo
1964 Medical development Russian cardiac surgeon Vasiliy Kolesov performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.[22]
1964 Medical development American interventional radiologist Charles Dotter describes angioplasty for the first time.[25]
1967 Medical development South African cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.[1] Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town
1967 Medical development Argentine cardiac surgeon René Favaloro performs the first documented saphenous aortocoronary bypass.[26] Cleveland Clinic, Ohio
1967 Dcientific development Physical inactivity and obesity are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[20] U.S.A.
1968 Medical development (device) A. Kantrowitz et al. perform the first clinical trial in a man with intra-aortic balloon pumping.[7]
1969 Organization The International Cardiology Foundation (ICF) is established.[27] Geneva
1969 Medical development (device) Argentine cardiac surgeon Domingo Liotta and American cardiac surgeon Denton Cooley perform the first clinical implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH).[28] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1970 Organization The Sixth World Congress of Cardiology is held. During this congress, the International Cardiology Federation (ICF) is created.[18] London
1970 Scientific development Atrial fibrillation is found to increase stroke risk 5-fold.[21] U.S.A
1971 Medical development (device) White– Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) are implemented on newborn babies using veno-venous bypass for up to 9 days.[7]
1975 Organization The Philippine Heart Center is founded.[29] Quezón City, Philippines
1976 Scientific development Menopause is found to increase the risk of heart disease[21] U.S.A
1977 Medical development German radiologist Andreas Gruentzig first develops coronary angioplasty for treatment of coronary artery disease.[30] Zurich, Switzerland
1978 Scientific development Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1978 Organization The International Society of Cardiology and the International Cardiology Federation merge to become the International Society and Federation of Cardiology.[18]
1979 Organization The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.[31] Washington, D.C.
1982 Medical development (device) The Jarvik 7 total artificial heart, named for its designer, Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted in a patient.[32] University of Utah
1984 Medical development American surgeon Leonard L Bailey transplants a baboon heart into Baby Fae, at Loma Linda Medical Center. The baby survives for three weeks.[7] United States
1984 Medical development (device) Oyer and Portner use the Novacor electronically powered implantable left ventricular assist device as the first successful bridge to transplant.[33][7]
1986 Medical development (device) French physician Jacques Puel and German cardiologist Ulrich Sigwart are attributed to be the first to use the coronary stent.[34] Toulouse, France
1986 Medical development (device) The first atherectomy devices that remove material from the vessel wall are introduced.[7]
1987 Medical development Study done by Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), shows unequivocal survival benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.[1]
1988 Medical development (device) Hemopump, a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for temporary support of a failing heart.[35] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1988 Medical development (device) The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial Ventricular assist device LVAD is conducted by Dr. William F. Bernhard.[36] Boston Children's Hospital
1993 Organization the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) is founded.[37]
1994 Scientific development Enlarged left ventricle (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.[21] U.S.A
1995 Publication The European Society of Cardiology publishes guidelines for diagnosing heart failure.[1]
1996 Scientific development Progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.[21] U.S.A
1997 Medical development (device) The Thoratec Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.[38] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1998 Scientific development Framingham Study: Atrial fibrillation is found to be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.[21] U.S.A
1998 Organization The International Society and Federation of Cardiology board approves the change of name to World Heart Federation (WHF).[18]
1999 Scientific development Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.[21] U.S.A
2000 Organization The World Heart Federation launches World Heart Day as an annual event on the last Sunday of each September.[18]
2000 Organization The Krishna Heart Institute is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in heart diseases.[39] Ahmedabad, India
2000 Organization The Blood Pressure Association is founded as a charitable organization to provide information and support to people with hypertension.[40] London
2001 Scientific development High-normal blood pressure is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[21] U.S.A
2001 Medical development (device) AbioCor total artificial heart is implanted in a 59-year-old man. The TAH is developed by company AbioMed.[41] Jewish Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky
2002 Medical development Alain Cribier performs the first percutaneous aortic valve replacement.[7]
2004 Scientific development Serum aldosterone levels are found to predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.[21][42] Boston Medical Center, U.S.A
2004 Medical development The CardioWest TAH-t becomes the world's first temporary total artificial heart (TAH-t). It is indicated for use as a bridge to transplant in cardiac transplant patients at risk of imminent death from nonreversible biventricular failure.[7]
2006 Organization The Multan Institute of Cardiology is founded.[43] Multan, Pakistan
2007 Organization Atrial Fibrillation Association is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with atrial fibrillation.[44] Shipston-on-Stour, United Kingdom
2008 Epidemiology The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reads 17.3 million worldwide a year according to the WHO.[45]
2008 Organization The Sixteenth World Congress of Cardiology is held. From then on, the WCC moves from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.[18] Buenos Aires
2010 Scientific development Sleep apnea is found to be tied to increased risk of stroke.[21][46] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, U.S.A
2011 Medical development (drug) pCMV-vegf165 is registered in Russia as the first-in-class gene therapy drug for treatment of peripheral artery disease, including the advanced stage of critical limb ischemia.[47][48] Russia
2011 Update The UN declaration on Non-communicable diseases change the global approach to NCD’s of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.[18]
2012 Epidemiology Ischemic heart disease and stroke are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths for stroke.[3]
2013 Program World Heart Federation board adopts the United Nations and World Health Organization targets for cardiovascular disease, launching the 25 x 25 campaign to reduce premature death from CVD by 25% by 2025.[18]

Numerical and visual data

Mentions on Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of May 20, 2021.

Year Cardiovascular disease Diabetes cardiovascular disease Hypertensive cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease prevention Cardiac arrest
1980 11,000 2,540 6,900 2,740 2,920
1985 18,100 3,670 10,300 4,400 4,290
1990 29,300 5,750 14,000 6,520 5,540
1995 61,600 11,200 18,600 13,800 7,270
2000 161,000 36,500 24,300 46,200 11,700
2002 209,000 57,700 26,700 61,700 14,100
2004 310,000 86,500 31,600 86,300 17,700
2006 429,000 119,000 36,200 110,000 20,300
2008 548,000 159,000 43,000 132,000 25,000
2010 735,000 206,000 49,000 160,000 27,300
2012 771,000 276,000 64,300 212,000 34,200
2014 718,000 273,000 67,500 218,000 37,100
2016 520,000 215,000 69,800 184,000 39,300
2017 407,000 203,000 68,800 161,000 40,100
2018 292,000 151,000 66,400 126,000 38,900
2019 172,000 123,000 64,700 115,000 37,000
2020 126,000 105,000 64,600 98,300 32,200
Cardiovascular disease tb.png

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for Cardiovascular disease (disease) from January 2004 to January 2021, when the screenshot was taken.[49]

Cardio gt.jpeg

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Cardiovascular disease from 1700 to 2019.[50]

Cardio ngram.jpeg

Wikipedia views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Cardiovascular disease on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from June 2015; to December 2020.[51]

Cardiovascular disease wv.jpeg

See also

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Colleen Story,Kristeen Cherney. "The History of Heart Disease". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
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  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Evolution of Surgery for the Treatment and Prevention of Stroke". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
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  26. Denton A. Cooley (2000). "In Memoriam: Tribute to René Favaloro, Pioneer of Coronary Bypass". Tex Heart Inst J. 27: 231–2. PMC 101069Freely accessible. PMID 11225585. 
  27. "The International Society of Cardiology (ISC) and CVD Epidemiology". Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  28. "Professor Domingo Santo Liotta". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  29. "Philippine Heart Center". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  30. Bernhard Meier, Dölf Bachmann, Thomas F Lüscher (February 2003). "25 years of coronary angioplasty: almost a fairy tale". The Lancet. 361: 527. PMID 12583964. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12470-1. 
  31. "Heart Rhythm Society". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  32. "Jarvik 7". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  33. Textbook of Organ Transplantation Set (Allan D. Kirk, Stuart J. Knechtle, Christian P. Larsen, Joren C. Madsen, Thomas C. Pearson, Steven A. Webber ed.). 
  34. Roguin, Ariel (2011). "Historical Perspectives in Cardiology". Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventsions. 4 (2): 206–209. doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.960872. 
  35. "Hemopump". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  36. "LVAD". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  37. "ASNC". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  38. "Thoratec VAD". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  39. "Krishna Heart Institute". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  40. "Blood Pressure Association". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  41. "AbioCor". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  42. Ramachandran S. Vasan, M.D., Jane C. Evans, D.Sc., Martin G. Larson, Sc.D., Peter W.F. Wilson, M.D., James B. Meigs, M.D., M.P.H., Nader Rifai, Ph.D., Emelia J. Benjamin, M.D., Daniel Levy, M.D. "Serum Aldosterone and the Incidence of Hypertension in Nonhypertensive Persons". New England Journal of Medicine. 351: 33–41. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa033263. 
  43. "Multan Institute of Cardiology". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  44. "Atrial Fibrillation Association". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  45. "Deaths due to cardiovascular disease". Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  46. "Sleep apnea tied to increased risk of stroke". Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  47. "Gene Therapy for PAD Approved". 6 December 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  48. Deev, R.; Bozo, I.; Mzhavanadze, N.; Voronov, D.; Gavrilenko, A.; Chervyakov, Yu.; Staroverov, I.; Kalinin, R.; Shvalb, P.; Isaev, A. (13 March 2015). "pCMV-vegf165 Intramuscular Gene Transfer is an Effective Method of Treatment for Patients With Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia". Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics. 20: 473–82. PMID 25770117. doi:10.1177/1074248415574336. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  49. "Cardiovascular disease". trends.google.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021. 
  50. "Cardiovascular disease". books.google.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021. 
  51. "Cardiovascular disease". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 19 January 2021.