Timeline of colorectal cancer

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The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of colorectal cancer". The original page still exists at Timeline of colorectal cancer. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of colorectal cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
Ancient times Different herbs to treat colorectal cancer are proposed more than 6,000 years ago in ancient China. The ancient Greek and Indian civilizations also record preventative care and treatment plans, such as the use of olive oil, for colon health.[1]
1960s The colonoscope is developed thanks in part to advances in fiber optics and engineering.[1] Engineering advances improve the visualization and illumination provided by the laparoscope.[2]
1970s Endoscopic screening, including colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy, are introduced, enabling discovery of colorectal cancers and precancers at their earliest stages when they are most treatable and curable.[3]
1980s Video chip technology is introduced for laparoscopy, providing a major enhance in colorectal cancer surgery.[2]
1990s New gene tests for hereditary conditions are developed, which enable physicians to identify people with these conditions and monitor them more closely for cancer or pre cancerous polyps through regular colonoscopy screenings.[3]
Present time Today, the treatment of colorectal cancer can be aimed at cure or palliation. When colorectal cancer is caught early, surgery can be curative. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up about 10% of all cases.[4] In 2012, there were 1.4 million new cases and 694,000 deaths from the disease.[4] It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found.[5] It is less common in women than men.[5]

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of May 22, 2021.

Year colorectal cancer colorectal cancer screening colorectal cancer chemotherapy colorectal cancer treatment colorectal cancer surgery
1980 1,610 698 391 1,140 1,040
1985 3,030 955 818 1,950 1,630
1990 5,790 1,720 1,440 3,570 2,980
1995 11,700 3,940 2,920 7,640 6,130
2000 27,400 8,810 6,570 16,800 12,100
2002 36,200 10,600 8,480 22,700 13,800
2004 54,000 13,300 12,000 34,000 17,700
2006 68,800 15,500 15,200 44,800 22,200
2008 87,900 27,300 20,500 61,000 29,800
2010 110,000 23,500 25,100 78,400 33,600
2012 148,000 31,300 37,500 106,000 45,100
2014 162,00 38,200 50,100 118,000 54,400
2016 141,000 43,500 55,000 107,000 59,200
2017 131,000 46,200 57,600 102,000 59,900
2018 124,000 46,200 55,700 96,900 56,200
2019 86,800 44,200 52,000 78,700 50,800
2020 70,700 32,900 45,000 59,800 44,800
Colorectar tb.png

The comparative chart below shows Google trends data for Colorectal cancer (Genetic disorder, topic and Search term) from January 2004 to January 2021, when the screenshot was taken.[6]

Colorectal gtre.jpeg

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart shows Google Ngram Viewer data for colorectal cancer from 1900 to 2019.[7]

Colorectal c ngram.jpeg

Wikipedia views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Colorectal cancer on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from June 2015; to December 2020.[8]

Colorectalcancer wv.jpeg

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1896 Scientific development English Sir Jonathan Huchinson first describes the association of mucosal pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyposis.[9]
1913 Scientific development Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is first described.[10]
1925 Scientific development Researchers first describe association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.[11]
1925 Scientific development American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn and Herman Rosenberg report the first case of adenocarcinoma complicating ulcerative colitis.[12]
1932 Scientific development English physician Cuthbert Dukes devices a classification system for colorectal cancer.[1]
1939 Scientific development Bacon and Sealy publish one of the earliest retrospective article focusing colorectal cancer in the young.[13]
1956 Scientific development Whitelaw et al. publishes the first report of vaginal metastasis from colorectal cancer, a case of vaginal lesion from sigmoid adenocarcinoma.[14]
1958 Medical development (treatment) Fluorouracil is introduced for treating colorectal cancer. It is found to show improvements when combining with other drugs like leucovorin, methotrexate and trimetrexate.[15]
1960s Epidemiology English surgeon Denis Parsons Burkitt observes that rural Ugandans consuming a diet rich in dietary fiber have a low rate of colorectal cancer.[16]
1965 Scientific development Researchers discover association of primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis. Many studies since confirm the higher risk of ulcerative colitis–associated colorectal cancer in patients with PSC.[11]
1966 Scientific development Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer, is first categorized.[17]
1966–1969 Medical development Japanese surgeon Hiromi Shinya and William Wolff, working at Beth Israel Medical Center develop colonoscopic techniques using an esophagoscope, which would allow one endoscopist to perform a colonoscopy, rather than the two-person technique, which was previously the standard. They also develop the electrosurgical polypectomy snare for polyp removal. In September 1969, Wolff and Shinya publish their work using diagnostic fiber colonoscopy, thus revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer.[1] New York City, US
1973 Organization The Johns Hopkins Colorectal Cancer Registry is founded. It is the foundation of hereditary and non-hereditary colorectal cancer research conducted at Johns Hopkins University.[18]
1978 Scientific development It is first reported that cholecystectomy may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.[19]
1982 Medical development (treatment) New procedure called total mesorectal excision emerges as a new standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. It consist in removing only the cancerous region of the rectum, allowing patients to maintain normal bowel function.[20]
1985 Medical development Treatment Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is developed as a surgery performed via a scope inserted into the anus to remove early stage rectal cancers less invasively. TEM is especially important as an option for patients who are too ill or elderly to undergo an open abdominal operation.[3]
1985–1991 Medical development (treatment) Treatment after surgery is found to increase colorectal cancer survival, by means of administration of chemotherapy (adjuvant treatment). Prior to this, about half of patients experienced a recurrence of their cancer after surgery, which often led to death.[3]
1990 Epidemiology According to research in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, compared with adults born in 1950, people born around 1990 have two and four times the odds of developing colon and rectal cancers, respectively.[21]
1990–1999 Medical development (diagnosis) Genetic tests become available for familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.[3]
1992 Scientific development Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is first described.[22]
1992 Scientific development Lahm et al. make early description of a growth-promoting effect of Interleukin 6 on colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro.[23]
1992–2005 Epidemiology A publication from the American Cancer Society shows that the overall incidence of colorectal cancer per 100,000 individuals increased in the period among adults from 20 to 49 years by 1.5% per year in men and 1.6% per year in women.[13]
1994 Scientific development Study shows that approximately one third of patients with low grade dysplasia progress to high grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer during further examination.[11]
1996 Medical development (treatment) FDA approves Camptosar (irinotecan), for advanced colon cancer.[24] United States
1997 Medical development Surgery is found to cure colon cancer patients with tumors that have spread to the liver alone.[3]
2000 Medical development The American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy every 10 years as the preferred screening strategy for persons at average risk of acquiring colorectal cancer.[25]
2001–2004 Medical development (treatment) FDA approves Xeloda (capecitabine), the first oral chemotherapy drug, for patients with advanced metastatic colon cancer, and later for patients with stage III colon cancer (cancer with limited spread in the surrounding tissue) who have had surgery to remove the tumor.[3] United States
2002–2004 Medical development FOLFOX regime, which combines eloxatin (oxaliplatin) with fluorouracil and leucovorin, is approved to treat advanced colon cancer that has spread despite other treatments.[3]
2003 Scientific development 567 individuals with colon cancer are randomized to receive whether surgery alone or surgery combined with vaccines derived from their own cancer cells. Eventually, the median survival for the cancer vaccine group is over 7 years, compared to the median survival of 4.5 years for the group receiving surgery alone.[26]
2004 Scientific development Researchers publish a study suggesting that focused ultrasound combined with radiation could be safe and effective in patients with rectal carcinoma.[27] China
2004 Medical development Avastin (bevacizumab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.[28]
2004 Medical development Erbitux (cetuximab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.[28]
2004 Scientific development Becker et al. are able to show that Interleukin 6, secreted by lamina propria T cells and macrophages, is also important for the development of colorectal cancer in vivo.[23]
2004–2008 Epidemiology The United States National Cancer Institute database from 2004-2008 reveals that the median age at colorectal cancer diagnosis is 70 years; in young people, CRC rates vary from 0.1% before 20 years to 1.1% between 20 and 34 and 3.8% between 35 and 44.[13]
2008 Epidemiology The IARK ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) second for cancer prevalence and third for mortality in men and third for frequency and second for mortality in women in developed countries.[29]
2009 Scientific development Several studies report the feasibility of using stool based microRNA as biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening.[30]
2010 Scientific development Researchers find a consistent link between higher vitamin D levels in the blood and a lower rate of colorectal cancer.[31]
2012 Medical development FDA approves Stivarga (regorafenib) and Zaltrap (aflibercept) for antiangiogenic therapy. Studies show both drugs extend survival, offering new options for patients with aggressive colorectal cancers.[32] United States
2012 Medical development Researchers find that virtual colonoscopy (a less invasive form of colonoscopy) is as accurate as conventional colonoscopy in finding potentially cancerous polyps.[33]
2014 Medical development Researchers at Cleveland Clinic create online colorectal cancer risk calculator, designed to help both patients and physicians determine when screening for colorectal cancer is appropriate.[34] Cleveland, Ohio, US
2015 Medical development FDA approves Lonsurf (trifluridine and tipiracil) for patients with an advanced form of colorectal cancer who are no longer responding to other therapies.[35][36] United States

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "The History of Colorectal Cancer Screening Colonoscopies". Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Role of Laparoscopic Techniques in Colorectal Cancer Surgery". Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 "Cancer progress". Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.1. ISBN 9283204298. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.5. ISBN 9283204298. 
  6. "Colorectal cancer". trends.google.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021. 
  7. "Colorectal cancer". books.google.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021. 
  8. "Colorectal cancer". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 19 January 2021. 
  9. "Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 7: 25. doi:10.4240/WJGS.v7.i3.25. 
  10. "Recent Developments in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer". Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Mattar, MC; Lough, D; Pishvaian, MJ; Charabaty, A (2011). "Current Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer". Gastrointest Cancer Res. 4: 53–61. PMC 3109885Freely accessible. PMID 21673876. 
  12. "Colorectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis: a reviewColorectal Cancer Complicating Ulcerative Colitis". Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS1 TCBC-SP MARLENY NOVAES FIGUEIREDO1, FÁBIO; FIGUEIREDO, MARLENY NOVAES; MONTEIRO, MARIANE; NAHAS, SERGIO CARLOS; CECCONELLO, IVAN. "Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients". Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 
  14. Ng, Hwei Jene; Aly, E.H. "Vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer". doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.09.004. 
  15. Bertino, JR. "Chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: history and new themes.". Semin Oncol. 24: S18–3–S18–7. PMID 9420015. 
  16. Schatzkin, Arthur; Mouw, Traci; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Thompson, Frances E (1 May 2007). "Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85: 1353–1360. 
  17. "Immunochemistry screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal adenocarcinoma using an initial two antibody panel can replace a four antibody panel". Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  18. "The Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Registry". hopkinscoloncancercenter.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017. 
  19. EKBOM, ANDERS; YUEN, JONATHAN; ADAMI, HANS-OLOV; McLAUGHLIN, JOSEPH K.; CHOW, WONG-HO; PERSSON, INGEMAR; FRAUMENI, JOSEPH F. "Cholecystectomy and Colorectal Cancer". Retrieved 27 November 2017. 
  20. "The Role of Total Mesorectal Excision in the Management of Rectal Cancer". Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  21. "This Type of Cancer is Hitting Millennials Really Hard". www.rd.com. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  22. "Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Incidentally Found After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Case Report". Annals of Colorectal Research. 2. doi:10.17795/acr-24855. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Waldner, Maximilian J.; Foersch, Sebastian; Neurath, Markus F. "Interleukin-6 - A Key Regulator of Colorectal Cancer Development". doi:10.7150/ijbs.4614. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  24. "Irinotecan (CPT-11): Recent Developments and Future Directions–Colorectal Cancer and Beyond". The Oncologist. 6: 66–80. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.6-1-66. 
  25. "Colorectal Cancer Screening for Persons at Average Risk". CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment. 94: 1126–1133. doi:10.1093/jnci/94.15.1126. 
  26. "Colorectal Cancer". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  27. "Colorectal Cancer". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 "New Combinations in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: What Are Our Expectations?". The Oncologist. 10: 320–322. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.10-5-320. 
  29. "Immune cells: plastic players along colorectal cancer progression". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  30. "Colorectal cancer screening: are stool and blood based tests good enough?". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  31. "Healthy Eating: Controlling Colorectal Cancer". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  32. Jitawatanarat, P; Wee, W (2013). "Update on antiangiogenic therapy in colorectal cancer: aflibercept and regorafenib". J Gastrointest Oncol. 4: 231–8. PMC 3635194Freely accessible. PMID 23730520. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2013.008. 
  33. "Cancer". Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  34. "Cleveland Clinic researchers create online colorectal cancer risk calculator". Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  35. "Press Announcements - FDA approves new oral medication to treat patients with advanced colorectal cancer". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-06. 
  36. . Raedler, Lisa A. "Lonsurf (Trifluridine plus Tipiracil): A New Oral Treatment Approved for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer". PMC 5013844Freely accessible. Retrieved 6 March 2017.