Timeline of colorectal cancer
This is a timeline of colorectal cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.
|Ancient times||Different herbs to treat colorectal cancer are proposed more than 6,000 years ago in ancient China. The ancient Greek and Indian civilizations also record preventative care and treatment plans, such as the use of olive oil, for colon health.|
|1960s||The colonoscope is developed thanks in part to advances in fiber optics and engineering. Engineering advances improve the visualization and illumination provided by the laparoscope.|
|1970s||Endoscopic screening, including colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy, are introduced, enabling discovery of colorectal cancers and precancers at their earliest stages when they are most treatable and curable.|
|1980s||Video chip technology is introduced for laparoscopy, providing a major enhance in colorectal cancer surgery.|
|1990s||New gene tests for hereditary conditions are developed, which enable physicians to identify people with these conditions and monitor them more closely for cancer or pre cancerous polyps through regular colonoscopy screenings.|
|Present time||Today, the treatment of colorectal cancer can be aimed at cure or palliation. When colorectal cancer is caught early, surgery can be curative. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up about 10% of all cases. In 2012, there were 1.4 million new cases and 694,000 deaths from the disease. It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found. It is less common in women than men.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1896||Scientific development||English Sir Jonathan Huchinson first describes the association of mucosal pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyposis.|
|1913||Scientific development||Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is first described.|
|1925||Scientific development||Researchers first describe association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.|
|1925||Scientific development||American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn and Herman Rosenberg report the first case of adenocarcinoma complicating ulcerative colitis.|
|1932||Scientific development||English physician Cuthbert Dukes devices a classification system for colorectal cancer.|
|1939||Scientific development||Bacon and Sealy publish one of the earliest retrospective article focusing colorectal cancer in the young.|
|1956||Scientific development||Whitelaw et al. publishes the first report of vaginal metastasis from colorectal cancer, a case of vaginal lesion from sigmoid adenocarcinoma.|
|1958||Medical development (treatment)||Fluorouracil is introduced for treating colorectal cancer. It is found to show improvements when combining with other drugs like leucovorin, methotrexate and trimetrexate.|
|1960s||Epidemiology||English surgeon Denis Parsons Burkitt observes that rural Ugandans consuming a diet rich in dietary fiber have a low rate of colorectal cancer.|
|1965||Scientific development||Researchers discover association of primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis. Many studies since confirm the higher risk of ulcerative colitis–associated colorectal cancer in patients with PSC.|
|1966||Scientific development||Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer, is first categorized.|
|1966–1969||Medical development||Japanese surgeon Hiromi Shinya and William Wolff, working at Beth Israel Medical Center develop colonoscopic techniques using an esophagoscope, which would allow one endoscopist to perform a colonoscopy, rather than the two-person technique, which was previously the standard. They also develop the electrosurgical polypectomy snare for polyp removal. In September 1969, Wolff and Shinya publish their work using diagnostic fiber colonoscopy, thus revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer.||New York City, US|
|1973||Organization||The Johns Hopkins Colorectal Cancer Registry is founded. It is the foundation of hereditary and non-hereditary colorectal cancer research conducted at Johns Hopkins University.|
|1978||Scientific development||It is first reported that cholecystectomy may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.|
|1982||Medical development (treatment)||New procedure called total mesorectal excision emerges as a new standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. It consist in removing only the cancerous region of the rectum, allowing patients to maintain normal bowel function.|
|1985||Medical development Treatment||Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is developed as a surgery performed via a scope inserted into the anus to remove early stage rectal cancers less invasively. TEM is especially important as an option for patients who are too ill or elderly to undergo an open abdominal operation.|
|1985–1991||Medical development (treatment)||Treatment after surgery is found to increase colorectal cancer survival, by means of administration of chemotherapy (adjuvant treatment). Prior to this, about half of patients experienced a recurrence of their cancer after surgery, which often led to death.|
|1990||Epidemiology||According to research in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, compared with adults born in 1950, people born around 1990 have two and four times the odds of developing colon and rectal cancers, respectively.|
|1990–1999||Medical development (diagnosis)||Genetic tests become available for familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.|
|1992||Scientific development||Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is first described.|
|1992||Scientific development||Lahm et al. make early description of a growth-promoting effect of Interleukin 6 on colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro.|
|1992–2005||Epidemiology||A publication from the American Cancer Society shows that the overall incidence of colorectal cancer per 100,000 individuals increased in the period among adults from 20 to 49 years by 1.5% per year in men and 1.6% per year in women.|
|1994||Scientific development||Study shows that approximately one third of patients with low grade dysplasia progress to high grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer during further examination.|
|1996||Medical development (treatment)||FDA approves Camptosar (irinotecan), for advanced colon cancer.||United States|
|1997||Medical development||Surgery is found to cure colon cancer patients with tumors that have spread to the liver alone.|
|2000||Medical development||The American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy every 10 years as the preferred screening strategy for persons at average risk of acquiring colorectal cancer.|
|2001–2004||Medical development (treatment)||FDA approves Xeloda (capecitabine), the first oral chemotherapy drug, for patients with advanced metastatic colon cancer, and later for patients with stage III colon cancer (cancer with limited spread in the surrounding tissue) who have had surgery to remove the tumor.||United States|
|2002–2004||Medical development||FOLFOX regime, which combines eloxatin (oxaliplatin) with fluorouracil and leucovorin, is approved to treat advanced colon cancer that has spread despite other treatments.|
|2003||Scientific development||567 individuals with colon cancer are randomized to receive whether surgery alone or surgery combined with vaccines derived from their own cancer cells. Eventually, the median survival for the cancer vaccine group is over 7 years, compared to the median survival of 4.5 years for the group receiving surgery alone.|
|2004||Scientific development||Researchers publish a study suggesting that focused ultrasound combined with radiation could be safe and effective in patients with rectal carcinoma.||China|
|2004||Medical development||Avastin (bevacizumab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.|
|2004||Medical development||Erbitux (cetuximab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.|
|2004||Scientific development||Becker et al. are able to show that Interleukin 6, secreted by lamina propria T cells and macrophages, is also important for the development of colorectal cancer in vivo.|
|2004–2008||Epidemiology||The United States National Cancer Institute database from 2004-2008 reveals that the median age at colorectal cancer diagnosis is 70 years; in young people, CRC rates vary from 0.1% before 20 years to 1.1% between 20 and 34 and 3.8% between 35 and 44.|
|2008||Epidemiology||The IARK ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) second for cancer prevalence and third for mortality in men and third for frequency and second for mortality in women in developed countries.|
|2009||Scientific development||Several studies report the feasibility of using stool based microRNA as biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening.|
|2010||Scientific development||Researchers find a consistent link between higher vitamin D levels in the blood and a lower rate of colorectal cancer.|
|2012||Medical development||FDA approves Stivarga (regorafenib) and Zaltrap (aflibercept) for antiangiogenic therapy. Studies show both drugs extend survival, offering new options for patients with aggressive colorectal cancers.||United States|
|2012||Medical development||Researchers find that virtual colonoscopy (a less invasive form of colonoscopy) is as accurate as conventional colonoscopy in finding potentially cancerous polyps.|
|2014||Medical development||Researchers at Cleveland Clinic create online colorectal cancer risk calculator, designed to help both patients and physicians determine when screening for colorectal cancer is appropriate.||Cleveland, Ohio, US|
|2015||Medical development||FDA approves Lonsurf (trifluridine and tipiracil) for patients with an advanced form of colorectal cancer who are no longer responding to other therapies.||United States|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
What the timeline is still missing
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