Timeline of endocrinology
This is a timeline of endocrinology.
|Time period||Development summary|
|20th century||The 1910s and 1920s is considered the era of purification of hormones. The 1930s is the era of steroid hormone discovery, the 1940s is the era of endocrine disease, description and therapeutic advances, the 1950s is the era of synthetic hormone production, the 1960s and 1970s is the era of releasing hormones and hormone receptor signaling pathways, 1980s is the era of peptide hormone gene cloning and advent of recombinant hormone therapy, the 1990s is the era of hormone and soluble factor production by many tissues.|
|21st century||The 2000s is the era of genetics and endocrine physiology and disease, the 2010s is the era of integration of endocrine physiology and pathophysiology.|
|4th century BC||The Ayur Veda of Susruta describes "sugarcream" urine which attracts ants.||India|
|3dr century BC||Demetrius of Apameiz describes a condition resulting in diabetes.|
|30 BC–50 AD||Scientific development||Greek philosopher Celsus describes polyuria.|
|131 AD–201 AD||Galen regards diabetes as due to weakness of the kidneys (diarrhoea urinosa). The "kallikreas" (pancreas) is a protective organ guarding the great veins.|
|5th century AD||Furunculosis and tuberculosis are noted as complications of diabetes mellitus.|
|7th century AD||Cheng Chuan in China records "sweet urine" in diabetes mellitus, and Li Hsuan writes a monograph.||China|
|860–932||Persian polymath Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi introduces a regime of treatment in diabetes mellitus.|
|1020||Persian polymath Avicenna mentions a multitude of urine and notes the occurrence of impotence and furunculosis in diabetes mellitus.|
|c.1530||Paracelsus regards diabetes mellitus as a generalized disease.|
|1563||Scientific development||Italian anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachi publishes his Opuscula Anatomica, which contains the first description of the adrenal glands, labeled “glandulae quae renibus incumbent”.||Italy|
|1567||Johannes Wier publishes the first attempt at a medical description of the pituitary disorder.|
|1586–1588||Scientific development||Piccolomineus and Bauhin mention the suprarenal glands.|
|1621–1675||Willis observes the sweetness of diabetic urine which has a honied taste.|
|1627||Flemish anatomist Adriaan van den Spiegel talks of the capsulae renales.|
|1624–1689||Sydenham regards diabetes mellitus a general disease with its main site in the blood.|
|1651||Highmore suggests that the suprarenals have an absorbent function of exudates from the large vessels.|
|1742||French doctor Joseph Lieutaud discovers the pituitary-portal blood system, known today as the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis.|
|1805||Cuvier defines medulla and cortex of the adrenal gland.|
|1838||Scientific development||German anatomist Martin Rathke becomes the first to describe the formation of the pituitary gland itself. Rathke describes the human hypophysis cerebri as being derived from two parts: an ectodermal dorsal invagination of the oral epithelium, which becomes the adenohypophysis, and a ventral process arising from the floor of the diencephalon, constituting the neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary gland.||Germany|
|1838||Scientific development||Scottish physician Robert Willis describes several forms of DI ("hydruria", "anazoturia", and "azoturia") according to associated excretion of urea.|
|1855||English physician Thomas Addison talks "On the constitutional and local effects of disease of the suprarenal capsules".||United Kingdom|
|1856||Scientific development||Mauritian physiologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard proves in animal experiments that the adrenals are essential for the maintenance of life.|
|1856||Scientific development||French physician Alfred Vulpian introduces the staining method for adrenaline.||France|
|1865||Scientific development||French physiologist Claude Bernard publishes An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, which introduces the concept of milieu interieur (internal milieu) and the importance of endocrine systems in keeping this constant.||France|
|1885||"Bernard, Claude (1813-1878), Claude Bernard invented the term ‘internal secretion’, showing that the body can both break down and build up, complex chemical substances"|
|1894||Scientific development||English physiologist Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer discovers and demonstrates the existence of adrenaline together with George Oliver, and he also coins the term "endocrine" for the secretions of the ductless glands. Schafer's method of artificial respiration is named after him.||United Kingdom|
|1895||Scientific development||Adrenaline becomes the first hormone to be isolated.|
|1896||Scientific development||Osler finds orally given adrenal extract temporarily effecive in the case of Addison's disease.|
|1901 – 1908||Scientific development||Schaefer and his team study the action of pituitary extract on the kidneys.|
|1901||Scientific development||"Takamine, Jokichi (1854-1922).Isolation of adrenaline in crystalline form from the adrenal medulla.The blood-pressure-raising principle of the suprarenal glands."|
|1902||Scientific development||British physiologists Ernest Starling and William Bayliss isolate secretin, the first substance to be called a hormone.||United Kingdom|
|1902||Scientific development||Bayliss and Starling report on their discovery of "secretin" in the duodenum.|
|1902||Scientific development||Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov develops a theory of nerve regulation of salivary and alimentary glands, and includes the regulation of the pancreas in his theory.||Russia|
|1904||Scientific development||Ernest Starling and William Bayliss develop the theory of hormonal control of internal secretion.||United Kingdom|
|1905||Medical development||William Bulloch and JH Sequeira describe patients with adrenogenital syndrome.|
|1905–1906||Scientific development||Edkin describes gastric secretin.|
|1906||Scientific development||Dale describes the oxytocic action of posterior pituitary extract.|
|1910||Scientific development||Hungarian pathologist Arthur Biedl shows that the adrenal cortex is essential for life. His classic work Innere Sekretion (Internal Secretions) shows the rapid development of the knowledge of endocrinology.|
|1912||Harvey Cushing publishes The Pituitary Body and its Disorders, showcasing the innovative operative techniques that would lead to odern surgical procedures to remove pituitary tumors.|
|1914||Scientific development||"biochemist Edward C. Kendall isolated thyroxine in crystalline form on Christmas Day, 1914."|
|1914||Scientific development||Simmonds describes pituitary cachexia (Simmonds' disease).|
|1915||Scientific development||"Cannon, Walter Bradford (1871-1945), Cannon showed the close connection between the endocrine glands and the emotions."|
|1915||Scientific development||Gaines demonstrates pituitary function in lactation.|
|1915||Scientific development||Keeton and Koch confirm the specific nature of gastrin.|
|1916||Scientific development||Erdheim describes pituitary dwarfism ("Nanosomia pituitaria").|
|1916||Organization||The Endocrine Society is founded. It is a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism.||United States|
|1916||Literature||"1916: Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Elliott Joslin First Published"|
|1917||Literature (journal)||Scientific journal Endocrinology is launched by the Endocrine Society.||United States|
|1919||Scientific development||American biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall obtains pure thyroxine.|
|1920||Scientific development||American anatomist Herbert McLean Evans and Professor Joseph Long discover the human growth hormone.||United States|
|1921||Scientific development||Evans and Long show the effect of anterior lobe extract on the growth rate of rats.|
|1921||Scientific development||"Banting, Frederick & Mcleod, JJ & Best, Charles, The Canadians Banting, McLeod and Best succeeded in lowering the level of blood-sugar when they used insulin to control the carbohydrate metabolism."|
|1923||Canadian medical scientist Frederick Banting and John Mcleod are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of insulin.|
|1923||Organization||The American Thyroid Association is founded. It is a non-profit, all-volunteer professional organization with over 1,700 members from 43 countries around the world.||United States|
|1923||Medical development||American pharmaceutical Eli Lilly and Company introduces the first commercial insulin.||United States|
|1925||"James B. Collip (Society President, 1925-1926) isolated parathyroid hormone and with Leitch used in the treatment of tetany. Collip JB 1925 The extraction of a parathyroid hormone which will prevent or control parathyroid tetany and which regulates the level of blood calcium. Journal of Biological Chemistry 63 395–438."|
|1926||British chemist Charles Harington successfully synthesizes thyroxine.||United Kingdom|
|1926||Foster and P.E. Smith find that atrophy of the thyroid and lowered BMR in hypophysectomized animals could be restored by using pituitary homoplastic implants. In the same year, Smith shows that hypophysectomy causes atrophy of the adrenals, which Evans prevents by administration of pituitary extracts.|
|1927||P.E. Smith and Engle demonstrate that gonadal activity is maintained by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.|
|1928||Bernhard Zondek and Aschheim isolate the gonadotrophic hormones (prolan A and B) of the anterior pituitary.|
|1929||"Walter B. Cannon (Society President, 1921-1922) coins the term "homeostasis" for "same" and "steady". This important concept highlighted the critical role of negative feedback in governing endocrine physiology. "|
|1929||Putnam, Benedict and Teel produce experimental acromegaly in dogs by anterior lobe extract injection.|
|1929||Scientific development||Stricker and Grueter discover prolactin.|
|1929||"C.F. and G.T. Cori proposed the theory of the Cori Cycle. The Cori Cycle refers to the phases in the metabolism of carbohydrates in which muscles convert glycogen to lactic acid, which is carried by the blood to the liver where it is converted to glycogen then broken down to glucose that, in turn, is carried by the blood to muscles, where it is converted to glycogen and used as an energy source for muscular activity."|
|1929||Scientific development||Adolf Butenandt and American biochemist Edward Adelbert Doisy isolate estrone simultaneously but independently.||Germany, United States|
|1929||Scientific development||Aron and, independently, Loeb and Basset describe the action of thyroid-stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary.|
|1930||Scientific development||Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay proves the diabetogenic effect of extracts from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Houssay and Biasotti succeed in removing the pancreas in the hypophysectomized dog.||Argentina|
|1930||Medical development||Rowntree and Greene successfully treat a patient with Addison's disease with Swingle and Pfiffner's extract.|
|1931||Scientific development||German biochemist Adolf Butenandt isolates the androgenic steroid androsterone.||Germany|
|1932||Scientific development||Cushing connects the "polyglandular syndrome" of pituitary basophilism with pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity.|
|1932||Scientific development||Anderson and Collip describe the thyrotrophic hormone (TSH) of the anterior pituitary.|
|1933||Medical development||Loeb treats the abnormal serum electrolytes in Addison's disease with sodium chloride.|
|1933||Scientific development||American biologist Oscar Riddle and colleagues identify and isolate the pituitary hormone prolactin.||United States|
|1933||Scientific development||"Dr. Oscar Riddle (Society President, 1928-1929) and colleagues identified and assayed prolactin."|
|1933||Scientific development||Collip and his team isolate an impure "adrenotropic hormone".|
|1934||Scientific development||American endocrinologist Fuller Albright suggests a relationship between chronic renal disease and hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), in which an intrinsic abnormality of the parathyroid glands leads to overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the following years, Albright would describe the biochemistry of primary hyperparathyroidism and kidney stones as one of the important diagnostic features.||United States|
|1934||Scientific development||" Progesterone was isolated by Butenandt from the corpus luteum in 1934."|
|1935||Scientific development||Dutch biochemist Ernst Laqueur in Amsterdam isolates testosterone, and determines its chemical structure.||Netherlands|
|1935||Scientific development|| "1935: Discovery of Cortisone
The adrenocortical hormones, cortisone and cortisol, were discovered between 1935 and 1938. E.C. Kendall first isolated Compound E (later renamed cortisone) in 1935 from bovine adrenal glands along with a series of structurally related steroids (including cortisol, then named compound F) capable of improving muscular strength when administered to adrenalectomised rats or dogs" ||
|1935–1953||Scientific development||Austrian pathologist Friedrich Feyrter in Danzig describes the pheriferal paracrine endocrine glands in man. Feyrter is often described as the "Father of Neuroendocrinology".|
|1936||Scientific development||Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye introduces the concept of stress.|
|1936||Scientific development||Evans and his group isolate the interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH).|
|1937||Scientific development||Ruzicka, Butendant and Hanisch synthesize testosterone from cholesterol.|
|1937||Scientific development||F.G. Young describes the diabetogenic hormone.|
|1937||Scientific development||Lambie and Trikojus obtain purified TSH.|
|1939||"In 1939, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was divided equally between Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt "for his work on sex hormones"and Leopold Ruzicka "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes""|
|1939||Scientific development||Sheehan in Liverpool describes panhypopituitarism caused by pituitary necrosis after post-partum hemorrhage.|
|1940||Scientific development||Choh Hao Li isolates luteinizing hormone (LH).|
|1941||Literature (journal)||The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology is launched.|
|1942||"Klinefelter's syndrome was first described by Harry Klinefelter, Jr., Edward C. Reifenstein, Jr., and Fuller Albright, Jr. (Society president, 1946-1947), in their article, "Syndrome Characterized by Gynecomastia, Aspermatogenesis without A-Leydigism, and Increased Excretion of Follicle- Stimulating Hormone", "|
|1942||Scientific development||Li and Sayers isolate the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).|
|1943||Scientific development||Choh Hao Li and Evans isolate pure adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from sheep pituitaries.|
|1943||Scientific development||"Edwin B. Astwood (Society President, 1961-1962) used thiourea and thiouracil in the medical treatment of Grave's disease."|
|1943||Scientific development||Sayers isolate ACTH from swine pituitaries.|
|1946||Scientific development||Hans Selye describes the general adaptation syndrome.|
|1946||Organization||The Society for Endocrinology is founded. It is an international membership organization, supporting scientists, clinicians and nurses who work with hormones throughout their careers.||United Kingdom|
|1947||The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to American biochemists Carl and Gerty Cori "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen", and to Argentine biochemist Bernardo Houssay "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar."|
|1948||Hench and his colleagues discover the antiinflamatory effect of cortisone (Kendall's compound-E).|
|1949||Choh Hao Li and Evans isolate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).|
|1949||"Kendall, Edward C isolated and crystallized the active principle of the thyroid, named thyroxin. In 1949, he discovered that cortisone could relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis."|
|1950||Edward Calvin Kendall, Polish-Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein and American physician Philip Showalter Hench are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects."|
|1950||"Lawson Wilkins reported the first documented demonstration of the pathophysiology of androgen insensitivity syndrome by administration of methyltestosterone to a 46, XY female patient, who shows no signs of virilization."|
|1951||"Carl Djerassi developed the first oral progestin, norethindrone, at Syntex, SA Laboratories located in Mexico City, receiving a patent on 1 May 1956. The synthesis of norenindrone was a factor that lead to the development of oral contraceptives."|
|1951||L'Hermite publishes Le Cerveau et la Pensée, stressing the regulation of mental life by the hormones.|
|1953||"1953: First Peptide Hormone Synthesized (Oxytocin), Vincent du Vigneaud"|
|1955||"In 1955, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Vincent du Vigneaud (Society member) "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"."|
|1955||Knobil and Greep show that GH extracts from monkeys are active in man and are species-specific.|
|1955||R. M. Zollinger and E. H. Ellison describe the later called Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.|
|1956||"In 1956, Roitt and Doniach found that patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis had circulating autoantibodies reacting to thyroid self antigens. In the same year, Adams and Purves recognized that patients with Graves’ disease had a serum factor defined as long-acting thyroid stimulator (LATS), later found to be an immunoglobulin G binding to the TSH receptor. Also in 1956, Rose and Witebsky demonstrated that a lymphocytic thyroiditis similar to the spontaneous human disease can be induced in animals by immunization with autologous thyroid extracts in Freund adjuvant. This led to the general concept of autoimmune gland failure."|
|1956||"Carl Djerassi developed the first oral progestin, norethindrone, at Syntex, SA Laboratories located in Mexico City, receiving a patent on 1 May 1956. The synthesis of norenindrone was a factor that lead to the development of oral contraceptives."|
|1956||Cohn describes primary aldosteronism.|
|1957||Medical development||"In 1957, Enovid was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for menstrual disorders, not as a contraceptive, although the drug had been developed as an oral contraceptive. The FDA mandated a warning on the label that it would prevent ovulation. It was not until 1960 that the FDA approved the Pill's use for method of birth control in 1960."||United States|
|1957||Raben develops a method for the extraction of human GH grom the pituitaries of cadavers.|
|1958||"In 1958, Elwood Jensen (Society President, 1980-1981) discovered the estrogen receptor, the first receptor found for any hormone. Using a radioactive marker, Jensen showed that only the tissues that respond to estrogen, such as those of the female reproductive tract, were able to concentrate injected estrogen from the blood. This specific uptake suggested that these cells must contain binding proteins, which he called “estrogen receptors.”"|
|1958||"In 1958, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Frederick Sanger "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"."|
|1958||Verner-Morrison describe the watery diarrhoea hypokalaemic achlorhydric syndrome.|
|1958||Gross suggests angiotensin to control aldosterone secretion.|
|1959||Scientific development||Liddle and his group develop the metyrapone test for pituitary reserve.|
|1959||Scientific development||Rasmussen and Craig isolate the parathyroid hormone and define its structure as a polypeptide hormone.|
|1959–1960||"Rosalyn Yalow (Society President, 1978-1979) and Solomon Berson (Society member) developed a technique that uses radioactive materials to investigate the human body for small amounts of substances. In 1959, Yalow and Berson perfected their measurement technique and named it radioimmunoassay (RIA). RIA is extremely sensitive. It can measure one trillionth of a gram of material per milliliter of blood. Due to the small sample required for measurement, RIA quickly became a standard laboratory tool. Yalow later won the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her work."|
|1961||Scientific development||Choh Hao Li, Dixon and Chung describe the amino acid sequence of bovine adrenocorticopin.|
|1963||Scientific development||Glick, Roth, Berson and Yallow describe a radioimmunological assay (RIA) method for the measurement of human GH.|
|1963||Hirsch finds calcitonin in the mammal thyroid.|
|1964||"Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin’s was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances". Hodgkin's most significant scientific contributions were the determination of the structures of penicillin, insulin, and vitamin B12. She was the third woman ever to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (following Marie Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie)."|
|1965||Organization||The European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) is founded in Copenhagen.||Denmark|
|1965||Scientific development||Tenenhouse finds that the hypocalcaemic factor (calcitonin) is a polypeptide hormone.|
|1966||Scientific development||Schwyzer and Sieber synthesize Template:Script-corticotrophim.|
|1966||Scientific development||British physiologist Roderic Alfred Gregory isolates gastrin and defines its structure.|
|1966||"In 1966, Charles B. Huggins was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer". Dr. Huggins' research on prostate cancer changed the way scientists regarded the behavior of cancer cells and brought hope to the prospect of treating advanced cancers. Dr. Huggins also founded the renowned Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research at the University of Chicago."|
|1967||Scientific development||Immunological methods are introduced for the estimation of serum calcitonin.|
|1969||"In 1969, a group led by Roger Guillemin (Society President, 1986-1987) and another by Andrew V. Schally (Society member) announced that the hypothalamic substance that causes the anterior pituitary gland to release thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) is L-pyroglutamyL-L-histidyl-L-prolineamide (L-pGlu-L-His-L-ProNH2). This tripeptide is now called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). "|
|1969||Scientific development||A. G. Everson Pearse introduces the amine uptake and peptide hormone secretion (APUD) concept.|
|1970||"T4 to T3 Conversion in Periphery Demonstrated by Lewis E. Braverman, Sidney H. Ingbar (Society President, 1985-1986), and Kenneth Sterling. Conversion of Thyroxine (T4) to Triiodothyronine (T3) in Athyreotic Human Subjects"|
|1970||"In 1970, Luis Leloir was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates." Leloir was the director of the Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires, Argentina at the time of the award."|
|1970||Scientific development||Mitchell and colleagues introduce the glucagon stimulation test to detect Growth hormone deficiency.|
|1971||"Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. was awarded the Nobel Prize n Physiology or Medicine in 1971 for his discoveries concerning "the mechanisms of the action of hormones". Sutherland's discovery that the action of cyclic AMP was a biochemical, rather than a physiological demonstration of receptor activity, was one of the first times receptors were thought of in biochemical terms."|
|1971||Scientific development||Hughes, Kosterlitz and colleagues determine the structure of the thyroid-stimulating hormone.|
|1971–1975||Hughes, Kosterlitz and colleagues identify the pentapeptides from the brain to posses potent opiate agonist activity.|
|1971–1979||Scientific development||Present day ideas on the mechanism of hormonal action are formulated.|
|1972-1978||"From 1972- 1978 screening began for neonatal congenital hypothyroidism in the USA, Canada, England, Japan and some other countries. In most cases of congenital hypothyroidism, problems with the thyroid start in the womb. Because the gland is missing, incomplete, or in the wrong place, the body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Missing or low levels of the hormone lead to abnormal growth and development, as well as slower intellectual functioning. Simply providing thyroid hormone at normal levels can prevent the effects and health problems of congenital hypothyroidism. Source: NICHD Mission and Scientific Accomplishments: Congenital Hypothyroidism"|
|1975||Scientific development||A.F. Bradbury, D.G. Smyth and C.R. Snell isolate beta-endorphin and describe its structure.|
|1977||"The discovery led to an increased interest in the role of peptides in the nervous system. Guillemin and Schally each received one-quarter of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The other half the prize was awarded to Rosalyn Yalow (Society President, 1978-1979) for her contribution to the development of the radioimmune assay as a system for the detection of minute amounts of biological substances, including peptides."|
|1977||"In 1977, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was divided, with one half jointly awarded to Roger Guillemin (Society President, 1986-1987) and Andrew V. Schally (Society member), "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" and the other half to Rosalyn Yalow (Society President, 1978-1979) "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"."|
|1978||Medical development||Louise Brown becomes the world’s first test tube baby. After numerous attempts to impregnate her mother, British medical researcher Robert Edwards and British gynecologist Patrick Steptoe tried fertilizing her eggs in a Petri dish before implanting a two-and-a-half-day-old embryo.||United Kingdom|
|1978||Scientific development||German neuropharmacologist Wilhelm Siegmund Feldberg reports on the pharmacology of the central actions of endorphins.|
|1979||Organization||The Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology is founded.|
|1980||Organization||"BIRDEM, the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders"||Bangladesh|
|1980||Literature (book)||"First published in 1980, Endocrine Reviews is an enduring and high impact factor resource. Comprehensive reviews cover clinical and research topics, including thyroid disorders, pediatric endocrinology, growth factors, and reproductive medicine. Each issue provides translational and basic research articles with knowledge, understanding, and perspective in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism."|
|1982||"In 1982, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"."|
|1983–1993||"The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a major clinical study conducted from 1983 to 1993 and funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The study showed that keeping blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible slows the onset and progression of the eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes."|
|1986||"In 1986, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986 was awarded jointly to Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini "for their discoveries of growth factors". Through Rita Levi-Montalcini's discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Stanley Cohen's discovery of epidermal growth factor (EFG), it was shown how the growth and differentiation of a cell is regulated. NGF and EGF were the first of many growth-regulating signal substances to be discovered and characterized."|
|1987||Literature (journal)||Peer-reviewed journal Molecular Endocrinology is first issued.|
|1987||"The Growth Hormone Receptor was cloned by William I. Wood."|
|1988||"Theo Colborn's 1988 research on the state of the environment of the Great Lakes revealed that top predator female birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles transferred persistent, man-made chemicals to their offspring, which undermined the development and programming of their youngsters’ organs before they were born or hatched."|
|1990|| "1990: David Barker Proposes Causal Relationship Between Fetal Development and Adult Disease
In 1990, David Barker proposed the concept, originally called the "Barker Hypothesis" that in utero environmental conditions, such as undernutrition, can permanently alter metabolism and other functions in ways that dramatically affect health later in life and cause e.g., heart disease. This concept has been expanded in recent years to include chemical exposures such as EDCs and is called the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD). " ||
|1991||"1991: The Term “Endocrine Disruption” is First Used at the Wingspread Conference"|
|1992|| "1992: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Shown to Affect Cognitive Function in Children
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in a variety of materials through the 1970s before they were banned. However, low levels of contamination in fish and wildlife continued to serve as sources of human exposure. Jacobson et. al., linked PCB exposure to impairment in cognitive functioning and showed that impairments were predominantly due to developmental, intrauterine exposure, rather than postnatal effects. " ||
|1992||Literature (book)||"In 1992 a book followed, Chemically Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection, which is a collection of technical manuscripts by those who attended the session."|
|1992||"In 1992, a study of Danish men showed that dramatic increases in testicular cancer after exposure to chemicals with estrogenic activity and linked to declines in male reproductive health. "|
|1994|| "1994: Discovery of Leptin
Jeffrey Friedman cloned the ob gene in mice and its homolog in humans in 1994. In 1995, Friedman purified the gene product, a hormone he called leptin. Friedman’s discovery of leptin showed that there is a robust physiologic system that regulates food intake and metabolism, that fat is an endocrine organ, and that obesity is a problem of biology. Leptin acts to maintain homeostatic control of fat mass as follows. Source: "The Discovery of Leptin, the Hormone that Regulates Body Weight." The Rockefeller University Hospital." ||
|1995|| "1995: NIEHS Launches First EDC Initiative: EDCs and Women’s Health Outcomes
Research on the health effects of chemicals and other exposures suspected to disrupt the endocrine system was a recognized high priority of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) of the National Institutes of Health. Exposure to chemicals affecting a person’s endocrine system can have broad systemic effects in reproductive, neurologic, and immunologic health including an increase the risk of hormone-related cancers. The goal of the first NIEHC EDC initiative outlined in the 1995 Request for Applications (RFA) was to encourage the fields of toxicology and epidemiology to pursue research on the human health effects of exposure to chemicals that mimic, antagonize, or indirectly alter the activity of hormones. This initiative was the first to support research studying the health effects on women, a particularly high risk group because of the potential to affect the woman herself and future offspring." ||
|1996||Literature (book)||" The information from this volume and numerous subsequent scientific publications on the result of low-dose and/or ambient exposure effects of endocrine disruptors was popularized in her 1996 book, Our Stolen Future, co-authored with Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson Myers published in 18 languages. Colborn’s work has prompted the enactment of new laws around the world and redirected the research of independent scientists, governments, and the private sector. "|
|1996||"Later work by Larsen, et. al. (1996), built upon this and other studies and further showed increases in testicular cancer, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Increasing evidence linked estrogenic factors to emerging trends in male reproductive health, both in humans and wildlife."|
|1997||Organization|| "1997: Hormone Foundation Established
The Endocrine Society established the Hormone Foundation, a public education affiliate." ||
|1998||"In 1998, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad (Society member) "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system". "|
|2001||Literature|| "2001: Endocrine News First Published
Endocrine News is a monthly news and feature magazine published by the Endocrine Society as a benefit for members and other interested parties. The magazine provides an in-depth look at trends in the field of endocrinology as well as a closer look at recently published research. Additionally, the editorial content in Endocrine News provides its audience with helpful information, insight, and education about the field and practice of endocrinology and endocrine research. Endocrine News informs and engages the global endocrine community by delivering timely, accurate, and trusted content covering the practice, research, and profession of endocrinology." ||
|2009|| "2009: Endocrine Society Publishes Position Statement on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
In 2008, the Endocrine Society created a task force charged with summarizing current knowledge about EDCs, including possible mechanisms of action and potential health risks, and with recommending actions the Endocrine Society could take to promote EDC research. The task force’s work resulted in the landmark Scientific Statement on EDCs published in 2009. In 2015, the Endocrine Society published a second Scientific Statement on EDCs, building on the groundbreaking first statement and summarizing additional research connecting EDC exposures to infertility, hormone-related cancers, neurological issues, and other disorders." ||
|2010||Literature (journal)||Medical journal Hormones and Cancer is first issued.|
|2010||"World’s first test tube baby, Louise Brown, was born by caesarean section on July 25, 1978. Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy."|
|2010||"In 2010, Robert G. Edwards received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of in vitro fertilization". Edwards believed that in vitro fertilization could be used as a treatment for infertility beginning in the 1950s. He worked systematically to realize his goal. Through his research Edwards discovered important principles for human fertilization, and succeeded in accomplishing fertilization of human egg cells in cell culture dishes. The efforts of Edwards were proved a success when the first "test tube baby" was born on July 25, 1978. In the following years, Edwards and his colleagues continued to research and refine IVF technology and share it with scientists and physicians throughout the world."|
|2012||"The 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Robert J. Lefkowitz (Society member) and Brian K. Kobilka "for studies of G-protein–coupled receptors." "G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) form a remarkable modular system that allows transmission of a wide variety of signals over the cell membrane, between cells and over long distances in the body. Today, we understand the molecular mechanism of how these receptors work in intricate detail, in large part because of the studies by Kobilka and Lefkowitz." (Source: THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES)"|
|2015|| "2015: Endocrine Society Issues Position Statement on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the EU
Public interest in health threats posed by EDCs lead to the development of policies, laws, and regulations designed to mitigate health risks due to EDCs. In the European Union, relevant policy activities included Europe’s Strategy on EDCs, and Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). In 2015, the Endocrine Society issued a statement with positions for policymakers in the European Union to consider in the development of criteria to define EDCs and establish science-based regulatory frameworks. Photo by Stéphane Horel" ||
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