Timeline of healthcare in China

From Timelines
Jump to: navigation, search
The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of healthcare in China". The original page still exists at Timeline of healthcare in China. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of healthcare in China, focusing especially on modern science-based medicine healthcare. Major events such as crises, policies and organizations are included.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
2500BP-1949 Traditional Chinese Medicine prevails in this time which covers most of the history of China. Chinese herbology, acupuncture, dietary therapy, tai chi, tui na and qigong thrive.[1] Around the 19th century, western-inspired evidence-based medicine makes its way into the country.
1949–1980 With modern medicine already established, after the Communist Party takes over in 1949, healthcare is nationalized. A national "patriotic health campaign" is attempted to address basic health and hygiene education, and basic primary care is dispatched to rural areas through barefoot doctors and other state-sponsored programs. During this period, Infant mortality falls from 200 to 34 per 1000 live births, and life expectancy increases from about 35 to 68 years.[2]
1978–present Period of economic liberalization. The rural cooperative medical system disintegrates and the barefoot doctors program comes to an end. The increase in the elderly population and their lack of health insurance and pensions will also place enormous pressure on services for their care. All these changes have great impact on the rural health care system, leaving the urban system basically intact, and contribute to the rural-urban disparity in health care. Period of one-child policy.[3]

Full timeline

Number of reported confirmed cases of malaria in China for the period 2002–2014.[4]
Year/period Type of event Event Location
11th Century BC – 771 BC Organization In the Western Zhou dynasty, imperial doctors are divided into four departments: Dietetic (food and beverage hygiene); Diseases (internal medicine); Sores (external medicine); and Veterinary.[5]
770 BCE – AD 221 Compilation Medical researchers compile the written records and oral knowledge of Chinese medicine from the previous ages and write the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine. This book systematizes and consolidates ancient medical experience and theory into one compendium.[5]
265 AD – 907 AD Development During the Jin and Tang dynasties, Chinese medicine experiences great development. In the study of the origins of disease, diagnosis, pharmacology, specialization, medical training, and other aspects, great achievements are made.[5]
960 AD – 1368 AD Development During the Song and Yuan periods, due to the invention of printing technology and further advances in paper making, large quantities of Chinese medical texts are printed and published. This causes Chinese medicine to spread, giving rise to widespread and deep research.[5]
1700s Development The earliest contemporary hospitals begin to appear in China in the form of missionary hospitals run by western churches.[6]
1844 Organization (hospital) Renji Hospital is founded.[7][8] Shanghai
1876–1879 Crisis Northern Chinese Famine kills an estimated 13 million people.[9] Shaanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shandong and Jiangsu.
1883 Organization (hospital) Sheng Jing Hospital is established.[10] Shenyang
1894 Organization (medical school) Hebei Medical University is established.[11][12] Shijiazhuang
1901 Organization (hospital) Haikou City People's Hospital is founded.[13] Haikou
1905 Policy The central government establishes a Sanitary Department.[14]
1907 Organization (hospital) Ruijin Hospital is founded.[15][16] Shanghai
1907 Organization (medical school) Tongji Medical College is established.[17] Wuhan
1908 Organization (medical school) Kung Yee Medical School and Hospital is established.[18] Guangzhou
1912 Organization (medical school) Wenzhou Medical College is established.[19] Wenzhou
1912 Organization (medical school) Zhejiang University School of Medicine is established.[20][21][22] Hangzhou
1912 Organization (medical school) Peking University Health Science Center is established.[23] Beijing
1912 Organization (medical school) Suzhou Medical College is established.[24][25] Suzhou
1917 Organization (medical school) Peking Union Medical College is established.[26][27] Beijing
1919 Organization (medical school) Shanxi Medical University is established.[28] Shanxi
1921 Organization (medical school) Xiamen University is established.[29][30][31] Xiamen
1921 Organization (medical school) Medical College of Nanchang University is established.[32][33] Nanchang
1927 Organization (medical school) Fudan University Shanghai Medical College is established.[34][35] Shanghai
1928–1930 Crisis Famine kills about 3 million people.[36] Henan, Shaanxi, and Gansu
1930-1939 Development The Rural Reconstruction Movement pioneers village health workers trained in basic health as a part of a coordinated system of rural uplift programs in the areas of health, education, employment etc.[37]
1933 Organization (medical school) Kunming Medical University is established.[38] Kunming
1934 Organization (medical school) Nanjing Medical University is established.[39][40] Zhenjiang
1935 Organization (hospital) Shanghai Mental Health Center is founded.[41] Shanghai
1937 Organization (medical school) Fujian Medical University is founded.[42][43] Fuzhou
1937 Organization (hospital) Shanghai Children's Hospital is founded.[44][45] Shanghai
1941 Organization (medical school) Fourth Military Medical University is established.[46][47] Xi'an
1942–1943 Crisis Famine kills 2 to 3 million people.[48] Henan
1945 Organization (medical school) Chengde Medical College is founded.[49][50] Hebei
1946 Organization (medical school) Changzhi Medical College is established.[51] Changzhi
1946 Organization (medical school) Liaoning Medical University is established.[52] Jinzhou
1947 Organization (medical school) Chengdu Medical College is established.[53] Chengdu
1947 Organization (medical school) Dalian Medical University is founded.[54] Dalian
1949 Background Inauguration of the People’s Republic of China. At this time the country has 40,000 doctors to care for a population of nearly 540 million. Despite a low urbanization rate, most physicians are concentrated in cities.[55]
1949 Organization (hospital) Tianjin First Central Hospital is founded.[56][57] Tianjin
1950-1959 Campaign Period of the Patriotic Health Campaigns.[58]
1951 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Guangzhou Pharmaceuticals is founded as a pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution company.[59] Guangzhou
1951 Organization (medical school) Tianjin Medical University is established. It is the first medical institution approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China.[60][61] Tianjin
1951 Organization (medical school) Southwest Medical University is established.[62][63] luzhou
1951 Organization (hospital) Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University is founded.[64]
1951 Organization (medical school) Weifang Medical University is established.[65] Weifang
1951 Organization (medical school) Southern Medical University is established.[66][67] Guangzhou
1951 Organization (medical school) Sichuan Medical University is established.[68] Luzhou
1951 Organization (medical school) North Sichuan Medical University is established.[69][70] Nanchong
1953 Organization (pharmaceutical company) North China Pharmaceutical Group Corp is founded.[71]
1954 Organization The Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China (MOH) is established.[72]
1956 Organization (medical school) Xinjiang Medical University is established.[73] Xinjiang
1956 Organization (medical school) Beijing University of Chinese Medicine is founded.[74] Beijing
1956 Organization (medical school) Chongqing Medical University is founded.[75][76] Chongqing
1956 Crisis An outbreak of the Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 occurs.[77] Guizhou
1957 Organization (hospital) Shanghai Chest Hospital is founded.[78] Shanghai
1957 Report There are over 200,000 village doctors across the nation, enabling farmers to receive basic health care at home and work every day.[79]
1958 Organization (medical school) Bengbu Medical College is founded.[80] Bengbu
1958 Organization (medical school) Ningxia Medical University is founded.[81][82] Yinchuan
1958 Organization (medical school) Wannan Medical College is established.[83] Wuhu
1958 Campaign The Four Pests Campaign is initiated by Mao Zedong, who identifies the need to exterminate mosquitoes, flies, rats, and sparrows.[84]
1958 Organization (hospital) Xinhua Hospital is founded.[85][86] Shanghai
1958–1959 Campaign The massive Great Leap Forward campaign is set to rapidly transform China into a modern communist society.[14]
1959–1961 Crisis The Great Chinese Famine leads to from about 15 million excess deaths (government statistics) to 30 million (scholarly estimates)[87] It is widely considered to be the direct consequence of the Great Leap Forward.
1960 Organization (medical school) Capital University of Medical Sciences is founded.[88] Beijing
1965 Mao Zedong's speech on health care mentions the concept of "barefoot doctor".[37]
1965 Organization (medical school) Hubei University of Medicine is established.[89] Shiyan
1967 Campaign The Project 523 is launched with the purpose of finding new drugs for malaria, a disease claiming many lives at the time. More than 500 Chinese scientists recruited. Artemisinin is discovered. Officially terminated in 1981.[90]
1968 Policy The barefoot doctors (farmers who receive minimal basic medical and paramedical training) program becomes integrated into national policy. In areas lacking medicine or urban-trained doctors, village doctors can go through short-term training – three months, six months, a year – before returning to their villages to farm and practise medicine.[79][91]
1970 Organization (medical school) Binzhou Medical College is established.[92] Binzhou
1971 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group is founded.[93] Taizhou
1976 Background Mao Zedong dies.[94]
1978 Background The Communist Deng Xiaoping becomes paramount leader of China, giving birth to a new era of reforms.[95]
1979 Organization (medical school) Clinical Medicine College of Hangzhou Normal University is founded.[96] Hangzhou
1980 Policy One-child policy is introduced as a part of the family planning policy.[97]
1980–1989 Study The China–Cornell–Oxford Project is conducted to examine the diets, lifestyle, and disease characteristics of 6,500 people.[98] 65 rural counties
1981 Organization The National Family Planning Commission is formed. Dissolved in 2003.[99]
1984 Reform The government starts to implement free-market reforms. Free medical care is abolished.[100]
1985 Policy The Ministry of Health officially cancels the title of barefoot doctor.[14] Those able to pass qualifying examinations are now termed “rural doctors”, while others are re-categorized as health workers or medical aides.[55]
1985 Organization China’s State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SATCM) is established.[101]
1989 Project The China Health and Nutrition Survey is started.[102]
1989 Organization (pharmaceutical company) CSPC Zhongrun is founded as a pharmaceutical manufacturer.[103][104]
1989 Organization (medical school) Changsha Medical University is founded.[105] Changsha
1993 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Jilin Aodong Medicine is established as a state-owned enterprise that manufactures patent drugs and pharmaceutical packaging products.[106] Dunhua
1994 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Tasly is founded. Notably producer of traditional Chinese medicines.[107][108] Tianjin
1995 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Tiens Group is founded.[109] Tianjin
1995 Organization (Healthcare provider) Shenzhen Goldway Industrial is founded as a manufacturer of medical devices.[110] Shenzhen
1995 Organization (pharmaceutical company) China Nepstar is founded as a drugstore chain.[111][112] Shenzhen
1997 Background Deng Xiaoping dies.[113]
1998 Policy Health insurance becomes available for working urban residents through the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) program, which covers employees in private and state-owned enterprises, government, social organizations, and non-profits.[55]
1998 Organization (hospital) Shanghai Children's Medical Center is founded.[114] Shanghai
1999 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Haifu is established as a manufacturer of non-invasive ultrasound therapeutic systems for tumors.[115][116] Chongqing
2000 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Guizhentang Pharmaceutical company is founded as a company that profits from extracting bile out of Bile bears to make traditional Chinese medicine.[117] Quanzhou
2000 Organization (pharmaceutical company) WuXi PharmaTech is founded.[118][119] Shanghai
2000 Organization (healthcare provider) Zhuhai Fornia Medical Device Company is founded as a Chinese-American joint venture that manufactures medical devices.[120][121] Zhuhai
2000 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Sinovac Biotech is founded as a manufacturer of vaccines against human infectious diseases.[122][123] Beijing
2002 Policy The system of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is established by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, creating a nationwide infrastructure for disease control and prevention.[14]
2002–2003 Crisis The Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic outbreaks in China.[124] Guangdong Province
2003 Organization (pharmaceutical company) China National Pharmaceutical Group is founded. It is the largest pharmaceutical company in China.[125] Beijing
2003 Organization (pharmaceutical company) Nanjing Ange Pharmaceutical is founded as a drug manufacturer.[126] Nanjing
2003 Organization The National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) supersedes the National Family Planning Commission. Dissolved in 2013.[127]
2005 Organization (hospital) Beijing New Century International Hospital for Children is founded.[128] Beijing
2007 Organization Zhejiang Xinhua Compassion Education Foundation is founded as an NGO to address malnourished children in rural China.[129]
2007 Execution Zheng Xiaoyu, the former head of the State Food and Drug Administration, is executed for corruption.[130]
2008 Crisis Chinese milk scandal: It involves milk and infant formula along with other food materials and components being adulterated with melamine. An estimated 300,000 victims reported.[131] Six infants die from kidney stones and other kidney damage with an estimated 54,000 babies being hospitalized.[132][133]
2010 Study The Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS) is launched in 2010 by the Institute of Social Science Survey (ISSS) of Peking University.[134]
2011 Study The The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is conducted in order to examine health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China.[135]
2011 Report Medical and healthcare institutions around the country number 954,000, licensed doctors (assistants) reach 2,466,000, or 1.8 per thousand people, registered nurses total 2,244,000, or 1.7 per thousand people, hospital beds reach 5,160,000, or 3.8 per thousand people.[136]
2012 Achievement Health insurance reaches 95 percent of the Chinese population.[100]
2013 Organization The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC) supersedes the NPFPC.[137] Beijing
2015 Policy The Chinese news agency Xinhua announces plans of the government to abolish the one-child policy, now allowing all families to have two children.[138]

See also

Template:Portal

References

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction
  2. Winnie Yipa & William C. Hsiaob (25 Feb 2015). "What Drove the Cycles of Chinese Health System Reforms". Health Systems & Reform. 1: 52–61. doi:10.4161/23288604.2014.995005. 
  3. Shi L (1993). "Health care in China: a rural-urban comparison after the socioeconomic reforms.". Bull. World Health Organ. PubMed. 71: 723–36. PMC 2393531Freely accessible. PMID 8313490. .
  4. "China statistics summary (2002 - present)". Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Historical Timeline of Chinese Medicine". 
  6. "Historical Evolution of Chinese Healthcare System". 
  7. "About Renji". renji.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  8. "Renji Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine". chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  9. "Epidemic Chinese Famine". Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  10. "Josai Visits China Medical University". josai.jp. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  11. "Hebei Medical University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  12. "Hebei Medical University". chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  13. "Haikou City People's Hospital". tophealthclinics.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "Public Health Education in India and China" (PDF). 
  15. "Ruijin Hospital". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  16. "Ruijin Hospital". smartshanghai.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  17. "Tongji Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  18. "Kung Yee Medical School and Hospital". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  19. "Wenzhou Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  20. "Zhejiang University School of Medicine". cmm.zju.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  21. "Zhejiang University School of Medicine". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  22. "Zhejiang University". chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  23. "Peking University Health Science Center". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  24. "Overview - School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences Soochow". suda.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  25. "Suzhou Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  26. Macy, Josiah (1972). Western medicine in a Chinese palace: Peking Union Medical College, 1917-1951. Jr. Foundation. p. 250. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  27. "Peking Union Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  28. "Shanxi Medical University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  29. "Xiamen University". xmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  30. "Xiamen University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  31. "Xiamen University". topuniversities.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  32. "Nanchang University". qmul.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  33. "Medical College of Nanchang University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  34. "Fudan University Shanghai Medical College". besteduchina.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  35. "Fudan University Shanghai Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  36. Through Chinese eyes: tradition, revolution, and transformation by E. Vernoff and P. J. Seybolt.
  37. 37.0 37.1 "Chinese cooperation in health sector". 
  38. "Kunming Medical University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  39. "Nanjing Medical University". njmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  40. "Nanjing Medical University International New Students Scholarship". csc.edu.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  41. "Shanghai Mental Health Center". sinoaid.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  42. "Introduction to FJMU". fjmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  43. "Fujian Medical University". csc.edu.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  44. "Shanghai Children's Hospital". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  45. "A Two-Way Street to China". uchicagokidshospital.org. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  46. "Fourth Military Medical University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  47. "Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU)". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  48. Micah S. Muscolino (2011). 'Violence against people and the land: The environment and refugee migration from China's Henan Province, 1938–1945.' Environment and History (17), pp. 301–302.
  49. "Chengde Medical College". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  50. "Chengde Medical College". university-directory.eu. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  51. "Changzhi Medical College". epoch-abroad.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  52. "Liaoning Medical University". china-admissions.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  53. "Chengdu Medical College". haltenraum.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  54. "DLM Highlights". cucas.edu.cn. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 Arthur Daemmrich (2013). "The political economy of healthcare reform in China: negotiating public and private". Springerplus. 2: 448. PMC 3776089Freely accessible. PMID 24052932. doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-448. 
  56. "Tianjin First Center Hospital". tj-fch.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  57. "Investigative Report: A Hospital Built for Murder". theepochtimes.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  58. "Critical health literacy: a case study from China in schistosomiasis control". 
  59. "Company Overview of Guangzhou Pharmaceuticals Corporation". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  60. "Tianjin Medical University". tijmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  61. "Tianjin Medical University". healthsciencessc.org. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  62. "Luzhou Medical College (Southwest Medical University)". sicas.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  63. "Southwest University". csc.edu.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  64. "Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University". morebooks.de. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  65. "Weifang Medical University". cucas.edu.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  66. "Southern Medical University". smu.edu.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  67. "STMU Highlights". school.cucas.edu. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  68. "North Sichuan Medical University MBBS Program". chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  69. "川北医学院历史沿革". nsmc.edu.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  70. "North Sichuan Medical University". chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  71. China Medical and Pharmaceutical Industry Handbook Volume.1 Strategic ... IBP USA. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  72. "中華人民共和國國家衛生和計劃生育委員會". chinalawinfo.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  73. "Xinjiang Medical University". universityscholarship4china.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  74. 北京中医药大学校志: 1956年-1992年. 学苑出版社. 2002. p. 740. ISBN 7800601943. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  75. "About Chongqing". cqmu.edu.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  76. "CQMU Highlights". school.cucas.edu.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  77. Goldsmith, Connie. [2007] (2007) Influenza: The Next Pandemic? 21st century publishing. ISBN 0-7613-9457-5
  78. "Shanghai Chest Hospital". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  79. 79.0 79.1 "China's village doctors take great strides". 
  80. "蚌埠医学院". people.com.cn. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  81. "Ningxia Medical University". ningxiamedical.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  82. www.csc.edu.cn http://www.csc.edu.cn/studyinchina/universitydetailen.aspx?collegeId=295. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  83. "Wannan Medical College". 4icu.org. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  84. Shapiro, Judith Rae (2001). Mao's War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78680-0. 
  85. "Xinhua Hospital". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  86. "Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University". chinaorganharvest.org. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  87. Holmes, Leslie. Communism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press 2009). ISBN 978-0-19-955154-5. p. 32 "Most estimates of the number of Chinese dead are in the range of 15 to 30 million."
  88. "学校简介". myuall.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  89. "湖北医学院". chinashuijing.com. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  90. Weiyuan, C (2009). "Ancient Chinese anti-fever cure becomes panacea for malaria". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 87 (10): 743–744. PMC 2755319Freely accessible. PMID 19876540. doi:10.2471/BLT.09.051009. 
  91. Zhang, Daqing; Paul U. Unschuld (2008). "China's barefoot doctor: Past, present, and future". The Lancet. 372 (9653): 1865–1867. PMID 18930539. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61355-0. 
  92. "BINZHOU MEDICAL UNIVERSITY (MBBS)". studyabroad.page4.me. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  93. "Company Overview of Jiangsu Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Company Ltd.". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  94. "Mao biography". 
  95. "Deng Xiaoping". 
  96. "Clinical Medicine College of Hangzhou Normal University". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  97. "Family Planning in China". 
  98. "China-Cornell-Oxford Project", Cornell University.
  99. Hemminki, Elina; Cao, Guiying; Viisainen, Kirsi; Wu, Zhuochun (2005). "Illegal births and legal abortions – the case of China". Reproductive Health. 2: 5. PMC 1215519Freely accessible. PMID 16095526. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-2-5. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  100. 100.0 100.1 "What China Can Teach The World About Successful Health Care". 
  101. Qihe XuEmail, Rudolf Bauer, Bruce M Hendry, Tai-Ping Fan, Zhongzhen Zhao, Pierre Duez, Monique SJ Simmonds, Claudia M Witt, Aiping Lu, Nicola Robinson, De-an Guo and Peter J Hylands (13 June 2013). "The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. BioMed Central. 13: 132. PMC 3689083Freely accessible. PMID 23763836. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-132. 
  102. Zhang B, Zhai FY, Du SF, Popkin BM (2014). "The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011". Obes Rev. PubMed. 15 Suppl 1: 2–7. PMC 3869031Freely accessible. PMID 24341753. doi:10.1111/obr.12119. 
  103. "Company background of CSPC Hebei Zhongrun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.". cnchemicals.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  104. "Hebei Zhongrun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (CSPC Zhongrun) - See more at: http://www.companiess.com/hebei_zhongrun_pharmaceutical_co_ltd_cspc_zhongrun_info1808943.html#sthash.TWbRSfN9.dpuf". companiess.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  External link in |title= (help)
  105. "CHANGSHA MEDICAL UNIVERSITY". admissions.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  106. Porter, Valerie; Alderson, Lawrence; Hall, Stephen J.G.; Sponenberg, D. Phillip. Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding, 2 Volume Pack. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  107. "Tasly". Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  108. "Tasly Pharmaceutical Group Co Ltd". reuters.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  109. "Company Overview of Tiens Group Co., Ltd.". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  110. "Shenzhen Goldway Industrial". Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  111. "About Us". nepstar.cn. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  112. "China Nepstar Chain Drugstore Ltd". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  113. "Deng Xiaoping biography". 
  114. "Shanghai Children's Medical Center". Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  115. "About Haifu". haifumedical.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  116. "Chongqing Haifu expands international market". thechinatimes.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  117. Ricard, Matthieu. A Plea for the Animals: The Moral, Philosophical, and Evolutionary ... Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  118. "About Us". wuxiapptec.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  119. "Company Overview of WuXi PharmaTech (Cayman) Inc.". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  120. "Zhuhai Fornia Medical Device Company". Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  121. "ZHUHAI FORNIA MEDICAL DEVICE COMPANY". economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  122. "About Sinovac". sinovac.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  123. "Sinovac Biotech Ltd.". scrip.pharmamedtechbi.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  124. Smith, R. D. (2006). "Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks, Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management". Social Science and Medicine. 63 (12): 3113–3123. PMID 16978751. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.004. 
  125. "Company Overview of China National Pharmaceutical Group Corporation". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  126. "Nanjing Ange Pharmaceutical". Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  127. "National Population and Family Planning Commission". 
  128. "Beijing Childrens Hospital". omicsonline.org. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  129. "Zhejiang Xinhua Compassion Education Foundation". 
  130. "China Ex-Food and Drug Chief Executed". 
  131. Branigan, Tania (2 December 2008). "Chinese figures show fivefold rise in babies sick from contaminated milk". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  132. Scott McDonald (22 September 2008). "Nearly 53,000 Chinese children sick from milk". Google. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. 
  133. Jane Macartney (22 September 2008). "China baby milk scandal spreads as sick toll rises to 13,000". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  134. "China Family Panel Studies". 
  135. Zhao Y, Hu Y, Smith JP, Strauss J, Yang G (2014). "Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).". Int J Epidemiol. PubMed. 43: 61–8. PMC 3937970Freely accessible. PMID 23243115. doi:10.1093/ije/dys203. 
  136. "Medical and Health Services in China". 
  137. "NHFPC". 
  138. "China to end one-child policy and allow two". 

Template:Health in the People's Republic of China Template:China topics Template:Asia topic Template:Public health

Category:Health-related timelines