Timeline of hemophilia
This is a timeline of hemophilia, an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot.
|Time period||Development summary.|
|Ancient times||Hemophilia is recognized, though not named.|
|19th century||While the history of hemophilia dates back to the 2nd century AD, a modern description of hemophilia appears only at the beginning of the 19th century. Hemophilia figures prominently in the history of European royalty in the 19th and following century. Britain's Queen Victoria, through two of her five daughters (Princess Alice and Princess Beatrice), passes the mutation to various royal houses across the continent, including the royal families of Spain, Germany and Russia.|
|20th century||Until the early 1900s, there is no way to store blood for hemophiliacs so they are generally given a transfusion from a family member if they have suffered a trauma. At this point, the life expectancy for boys with hemophilia is around 13 years old. Some of the early treatments include lime, bone marrow, oxygen, thyroid gland, hydrogen peroxide or gelatin. In the 1930s, snake venom is used to help blood clotting. Hospital-based plasma transfusions are common treatments for hemophiliacs in the late 1920s and continue until the 1950s. The different factor deficiencies are distinguished in the 1950s and 1960s. By 1960, the life expectancy of a person with severe hemophilia rises to just under 20 years old. By the 1970s, freeze-dried powder formulas of factor VIII and IX become readily available, which means hemophiliacs are able to self-administer the factor in their own homes. In the 1980s, the rise of HIV and AIDS leads to many people with hemophilia dying of AIDS and becoming HIV positive through contaminated blood products. Hemophiliacs are also at a high risk of contracting hepatitis C until blood screening is introduced in 1992. In the 1990s, modern treatment, using safer factor concentrates, again improves the outlook of hemophilia.|
|21st century||Recent advances include a better understanding of the cause, detection, and elimination of inhibitor antibodies found in many hemophilia patients. New recombinant factors not containing contain human or animal plasma are introduced in the early 2000s, lessening the chance of allergic reactions. Currently, researchers are working on ways of correcting the mutated gene using viruses as vehicles to deliver corrected factor IX genes.|
|2nd century AD||Field development||The first written reference to a bleeding disorder appears in the Babylonian Talmud.|
|12th century||Treatment||Arab physician Albucasis authors the first written reference to hemophilia treatment.|
|1803||Field development||American physician John Conrad Otto from Philadelphia publishes a paper about a familial bleeding disorder that only affects male members.||United States|
|1828||Field development||Friedrich Hopff at the University of Zurich writes the word hemophilia in a description of the condition.||Switzerland|
|1840||Treatment||The first successful blood transfusion in a hemophilic boy is conducted.|
|1901||Treatment||The United States Surgeon General’s Catalogue lists lime, inhales oxygen and the use of thyroid gland or bone marrow, or hydrogen peroxide or gelatin, as treatments for hemophilia.||United States|
|1920||Field development||Factor I deficiency is first described.|
|1925–1930||Treatment||Hospital-based plasma transfusions become common treatments for hemophiliacs.|
|1926||Field development||Finnish physician Erik von Willebrand publishes a paper describing what he calls “pseudohemophilia”, a bleeding disorder affecting men and women equally. It would later named Von Willebrand disease.|
|1930||Field development||Scientists learn how to separate blood into its major parts, plasma and red cells.|
|1934||Treatment||Snake venom is used to help blood clotting.|
|1936||Treatment||The first plasma treatment for hemophilia is conducted.|
|1937||Treatment||Drs Patek and Taylor, at Harvard, find they could correct the clotting problem by adding a substance coming from the plasma in blood. This is called anti-hemophilic globulin.||United States|
|1930s||Field development||Doctors look at defective platelets as the likely cause of hemophilia.|
|1944||Field development||Argentine physician Alfredo Pavlovsky shows in a lab test that blood from one hemophiliac could correct the clotting problem in a second hemophiliac and vice-versa.||Argentina|
|1946||Field development||American biochemist Edwin Joseph Cohn describes the later called Cohn process, by which human plasma may be separated into five fractions.||United States|
|1947||Field development||Alfredo Pavlovsky discovers two types of hemophilia (A and B).||Argentina|
|1948||Organization||The U.S. National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF) opens as The Hemophilia Foundation, Inc.||United States|
|1940s||Field development||Factors II and V deficiency are identified.|
|1940s||Treatment||Whole blood transfusions start being given at hospitals.|
|1952||Field development||Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are recognized as two distinct diseases.|
|1952||Field development||Factor IX is identified in a patient with hemophilia B.|
|1955||Treatment||The first infusions of factor VIII in plasma form are performed.|
|1957||Field development||Researchers in Sweden identify Von Willebrand factor as the cause of Von Willebrand disease.||Sweden|
|1958||Treatment||Prophylaxis for hemophilia A is first used.|
|1955–1965||Treatment||Hemophiliacs are treated with whole blood or fresh plasma.|
|1960s||Field development||The clotting factors are identified and named.|
|1960||The life expectancy of a person with severe hemophilia rises to just under 20 years old.|
|1961||Treatment||Factor VIII concentrates are first used.|
|1964||Field development||An article published in Nature describes the clotting process in detail. The interaction of the different factors in blood clotting is named coagulation cascade.|
|1964||Field development||American physiologist Judith Graham Pool discovers a simple way to make cryoprecipitates (cold insoluable precipitates that contain factor VIII) for the treatment of hemophilia.||United States|
|1965||Field development||Dr. Judith Graham Pool from Stanford University discovers a process of freezing and thawing plasma to get a layer of factor-rich plasma (cryoprecipitate). Graham Pool discovers that the cryoprecipitate left from thawing plasma is high in factor VIII. This could be infused to control heavy bleeding allowing blood banks to produce and store large amounts for use in surgical procedures for hemophiliacs.||United States|
|1968||Treatment||The first factor VIII concentrate becomes available.|
|1965–1975||Treatment||Concentrates containing factor IX begin to be available.|
|1970s||Treatment||Primary prophylaxis therapy experiments begin.|
|1970s||Treatment||Freeze-dried plasma-derived factor concentrates become available.|
|1974||Literature (book)||Living with Haemophilia, by Peter Jones, is published.|
|1977||Treatment||Desmopressin is identified to treat mild hemophilia and von Willebrand disease.|
|1982||Field development||The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports first AIDS cases among people with hemophilia.|
|1984||Treatment||First heat-treated factor VIII concentrates become available.|
|1985||Treatment||The first inactivated factor concentrates become available.|
|1985||Treatment||The first SD-treated factor VIII concentrates become available.|
|1988||Treatment||The first high purity factor VIII concentrates become available.|
|1980s||Field development||Factor VIII, factor IX and von Willebrand factor genes are cloned.|
|1991||Literature (book)||Raising a Child with Hemophilia: A Practical Guide for Parents, by Laureen A. Kelley, is published.|
|1992||Field development||Blood screening is introduced. Prior to this, hemophiliacs were at a high risk of contracting hepatitis C and other diseases.|
|1992||Treatment||The first recombinant factor VIII product is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.||United States|
|1995||Treatment||Prophylaxis starts being used as a preventive treatment for children.|
|1997||Treatment||The first recombinant factor IX product is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.||United States|
|1997||Treatment||A bypassing agent is developed, offering patients an alternative product to help stop bleeds and joint damage.|
|1998||Medical development||First human gene therapy trials begin.|
|2005||Literature (book)||Textbook of Hemophilia, by Erik E. Berntorp, is published.|
|2007||Literature (book)||Haemophilia and Haemostasis: A Case-based Approach to Management, by Harold R. Roberts, is published.|
|2008||Literature (book)||Hemophilia, by Michelle Raabe, is published.|
|2009||Treatment||The United States Food and Drug Administration approves RiaSTAP to treat factor I deficiency.||United States|
|2011||Treatment||The United States Food and Drug Administration approves Corifact to treat factor XIII deficiency.||United States|
|2011||Literature (book)||The Bleeding Disease: Hemophilia and the Unintended Consequences of Medical Progress, by Stephen Pemberto, is published.|
|2012||Literature (book)||Hemophilia and Hemostasis: A Case-Based Approach to Management, by Harold R. Roberts, Miguel A. Escobar and Alice D. Ma, is published.|
|2016||Literature (book)||Hemophilia: The Royal Disease, by Todd Eckdahl, is published.|
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