Timeline of medical ethics
This is a timeline of medical ethics.
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|1588||Pope Sixtus V adopts a papal bull adopting the position of Thomas Aquinas that contraception and abortion are crimes against nature and sins against marriage.|
|1775 – 1780||Field development||German philosopher Immanuel Kant in his lectures on ethics argues against the sale of human body parts.|
|1779||German physician Johann Peter Frank writes strict ethical guidelines for public health and sanitation to improve the quality of life.||Germany|
|1794||English physician Thomas Percival writes first modern code of medical ethics.||United Kingdom|
|1847||The American Medical Association adopts its first code of ethics, with this being based in large part upon the work of Thomas Percival.||United States|
|1874||"Robert Bartholomew inserts electrodes into a hole in the skull of Mary Rafferty caused by a tumor. He notes that small amounts electric current caused bodily movements and that larger amounts caused pain. Rafferty, who was mentally ill, fell into a coma and died a few days after the experiment."|
|1897||Italian bacteriologist Giuseppe Sanarelli injects the yellow fever bacteria into five patients without their consent. All the patients develop the disease and three die.||Italy|
|1900||"Walter Reed experiments to determine the cause of yellow fever. Thirty-three participants, including eighteen Americans and six Cubans, were exposed to mosquitoes infected with yellow fever or injected with blood from yellow fever patients. Six participants died, including two researcher-volunteers. The participants all signed consent forms, some of which were translated into Spanish."|
|1920||Policy (reproductive rights)||Vladimir Lenin legalizes all abortions in the Soviet Union||Soviet Union|
|1932–1945||Japanese scientists working at Unit 731 conduct abominable experiments on thousands of Chinese war prisoner. Experiments include biological and chemical weapons experiments, vaccination experiments, and wound-healing and surgical studies, including vivisections.||China|
|1943–1944||Nazi human experimentation. "German scientists conducted morally abominable research on concentration camp prisoners, including experiments that exposed subjects to freezing temperatures, low air pressures, ionizing radiation and electricity, and infectious diseases; as well as wound-healing and surgical studies. " "The central leader of the experiments was Josef Mengele, who from 1943 to 1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. About 200 people survived these studies."|
|1947||The Nuremberg Code is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation. It is set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.||Germany|
|1948||The Declaration of Geneva is adopted by the World Medical Association.||Switzerland|
|1954||Literature||Joseph F. Fletcher publishes Morals and Medicine: The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artificial Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia.|
|1964||The Declaration of Helsinki is created in order to provide researchers and physicians with ethical guidelines. It is developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association.||Finland|
|1966||Organization||The Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research is founded.||Israel|
|1966||Organization||The first medical ethics committees in Europe emerge in the United Kingdom and Sweden.||United Kingdom, Sweden|
|1966||Field development||American anesthesiologist Henry K. Beecher publishes an article in The New England Journal of Medicine exposing 22 unethical studies in biomedicine, including the Tuskegee syphilis experiment and the Willowbrook hepatitis study.||United States|
|1974||Policy||The United States Congress passes the National Research Act, which authorizes federal agencies to develop human research regulations.||United States|
|1975||Literature (journal)||American Journal of Law & Medicine||United States|
|1975||Literature (journal)||The Journal of Medical Ethics is launched.|
|1975||The right to die movement begins in the United States with the case of Karen Quinlan, an American woman who was in persistent vegetative state for ten years.||United States|
|1978||Louise Brown becomes the world’s first baby conceived by in vitro fertilization.||United Kingdom|
|1978||Organization||The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is formed.|
|1979||The Belmont Report is published by the U.S. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. It provides the conceptual foundation for a major revision of the research regulations in 1981 in the United States.|
|1979||Literature||IRB: Ethics & Human Research|
|1979||Organization||The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences officially establishes its own private central ethical committee.||Switzerland|
|1979||Organization||Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics||United States|
|1979||The Belmont Report is released by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Report becomes a key document in human research ethics regulations in the United States.||United States|
|1980||Literature (journal)||Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics|
|1981||Organization||Japan establishes its first ethics committee, at the Medical Institute of Tokyo University.||Japan|
|1981||Organization||MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics||United States|
|1973||Literature (journal)||The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics is first issued.|
|1985||Literature||Zhi-zheng Du's Outline of Medical Ethics is published in China as the first systematic textbook of medical ethics after the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.||China|
|1987||Organization||The European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care is founded by an international company of philosophers, physicians, ethicists and other interested professionals in the field.|
|1988||Literature||Zhao-xiong He's History of Chinese Medical Morality is published, providing material on medical ethics from ancient to current China.||China|
|1989||Literature (journal)||Accountability in Research|
|1990||Program launch||The Human Genome Project is launched by the United States as a US$20 billion effort to map and sequence the human genome.||United States|
|1990||American physician William French Anderson begins the first human gene therapy clinical trial on patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency, a genetic disease that affects the immune system.||United States|
|1991||"The 1991 Patient Self-Determination Act passed by the US Congress at the request of the financial arm of Medicare does permit elderly Medicare/Medicaid patients (and by implication, all "terminal" patients) to prepare an advance directive in which they elect or choose to refuse life-extending and/or life-saving treatments as a means of shortening their lives to shorten their suffering unto certain death. The treatment refused in an advance directive under US law, because of the 1991 PSDA, does not have to be proved to be "medically futile" under some existing due-process procedure developed under state laws, such as TADA in Texas."||United States|
|1992||Literature (journal)||Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics||United Kingdom|
|1993||Journal||The Indian Journal of Medical Ethics is launched.||India|
|1993||Scientific development||Researchers successfully clone human embryos.|
|1994||The United States Government declassifies information about secret human radiation experiments conducted from the 1940s-1980s and issues an apology.||United States|
|1994||The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments is formed to investigate questions of the record of the United States government with respect to human radiation experiments.||United States|
|1994||European Journal of Health Law|
|1994||Literature||American philosophers Tom Beauchamp and James Childress publish The principles of biomedical ethics, in which they state their basic principles of bioethics as "the principle of respect for patient autonomy, which has grounded, in particular, the concept of informed consent; dates back to the Hippocratic principle of “do no harm,” which requires minimization of damage to the patient during the medical intervention; the principle of “do good” (beneficence), emphasizing the physician’s responsibility to take positive steps to improve the condition of the patient; and the principle of justice, emphasizing the need for fairness and equal treatment of patients, and equitable distribution of resources (which are always limited) in the provision of medical care".||United States|
|1997||United States President Bill Clinton formally apologizes on behalf of the United States to victims of the syphilis study at Tuskegee.||United States|
|1997||Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights|
|1997||"The Constitutional Court of Colombia decriminalised piety homicide, for terminally ill patients, stating that "the medical author cannot be held responsible for the assisted suicide of a terminally ill patient" and urged Congress to regulate voluntary euthanasia "in the shortest time possible"."||Colombia|
|1997||"As the health of citizens is considered a police power left for individual states to regulate, it was not until 1997 that the US Supreme Court made a ruling on the issue of assisted suicide and one's right to die. That year, the Supreme Court heard two appeals arguing that New York and Washington statutes that made physician-assisted suicide a felony violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."||United States|
|1998||Literature (journal)||Medicine Health Care and Philosophy is launched by the European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare.|
|1998||Scientific development||Methods for growing human embryonic stem cells are perfected. Some countries ban the research; others promote it.|
|1998||Scientific development||American biotechnologist Craig Venter forms Celera Genomics and begins a private effort to sequence the human genome, using dozens of automated sequencing machines.|
|1998||Literature (journal)||Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy|
|1999||Organization||Human Genetics Alert is founded in London. It advocates against uses of reproductive technology and human genetics research that it considers harmful.|
|1999||Policy||The National Institutes of Health and the Office for Human Research Protections require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research have some training in research ethics.||United States|
|1999||Policy||The United States National Institutes of Health and the Office for Human Research Protections require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research to have training in research ethics.||United States|
|2000||Organization||The Office for Human Research Protections is established.||United States|
|2001||The United States Government announces that the National Institutes of Health will fund research on approximately 64 embryonic stem cell lines created from leftover human embryos.||United States|
|2001||Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics||United States|
|2001||Field development||The United States Congress starts debating legislation on human cloning.||United States|
|2001||"Congress debates legislation on human cloning."||United States|
|2001||"The Bush Administration announces that the NIH will only fund human embryonic stem cell research on approximately 64 cell lines created from leftover human embryos."|
|2002||The Netherlands legalizes voluntary euthanasia.||Netherlands|
|2003||The International Bioethics Committee issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.|
|2003||Organization||The Regenerative Medicine Institute||Ireland|
|2004||Literature||Medical ethicist James Hughes publishes Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future, which argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically.|
|2004||Literature (book)||Nicholas Agar publishes Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement|
|2004||eTBLAST is established. It is a search engine designed to search similar texts within the MEDLINE database. eTBLAST would lead to research involving plagiarism and duplicate publications of articles in academic journals.|
|2005||The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights is adopted by UNESCO.|
|2006||Literature||Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Clinical Ethics is launched.||United States|
|2006||Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics|
|2008||The Catholic Church publishes a document entitled Dignitas Personae, about a range of bioethical issues related to the areas of assisted reproduction and human genetics. The paper analizes and comments the bioethical thinking of the Catholic Church.|
|2008||Public Health Ethics|
|2009||Policy||The Obama Administration announces it will significantly expand National Institutes of Health funding of human embryonic stem cell research which was restricted under the Bush Administration.||United States|
|2010||Literature (book)||Nicholas Agar publishes Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. The book argues against the doctrine of radical enhancement sometimes identified with the transhumanist movement.|
|2016||The United States National Institutes of Health places a temporary moratorium on funding for experiments involving human-animal chimeras.||United States|
|2018||The Supreme Court of India legalizes passive euthanasia in the country during a case involving Aruna Shanbaug, a nurse who spent 37 years in a vegetative state as a result of sexual assault.||India|
|2018||"In October, He Jiankui, a scientist of the Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China, announces the birth of the world’s first gene edited babies, both girls. He claims that he used CRISPR-Cas 9 technology to modify the CCR5 gene to give the girls immunity to HIV. The announcement generates outrage around the world and many scientists and policymakers call for a ban on human germline, genome editing."||China|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
- Human experimentation in the United States
- Medical ethics
- List of medical ethics cases
- Clinical research ethics
- Unethical human experimentation
- Project MKUltra
Timeline update strategy
- Victory, Regardless. RDV'S INTERNET ANTHLOGY PLUS.
- "Bioethics". britannica.com. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
- LEAKE, CHAUNCEY D. "PERCIVAL'S CODE: A CHAPTER IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL ETHICS". doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02650050020007.
- "Medical Ethics". cambridge.org. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "Archived copy". Retrieved 2007-10-16.
- "Historical Background". link.springer.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Historical Background". link.springer.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Case 5 Roots of Informed Consent". highschoolbioethics.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Resnik, David B. The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects: Protecting People, Advancing Science, Promoting Trust.
- "Major Walter Reed and the Eradication of Yellow Fever". armyhistory.org. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Politics of Participation: Walter Reed's Yellow-Fever Experiments". journalofethics.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Walter Reed and Yellow Fever". exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "ABORTION AND BIRTH CONTROL IN SOVIET RUSSIA". marxists.org. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Savage, Mark. "The Law of Abortion in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the People's Republic of China: Women's Rights in Two Socialist Countries". doi:10.2307/1228777.
- Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul. "United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency". PMC . PMID 24534743. doi:10.1017/S0963180113000753.
- Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz . 14 April 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20150414074936/http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html. Text "title:Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz" ignored (help); Missing or empty
- "Bioethics". iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Fassin, Didier. A Companion to Moral Anthropology.
- Advancing the Human Right to Health (José M. Zuniga, Stephen P. Marks, Lawrence O. Gostin ed.).
- "Morals and Medicine". press.princeton.edu. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "DECLARATION OF HELSINKI". wma.net. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research". medethics.org.il. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Partnership with the Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research and the International Responsa Project". israelrabbis.org. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Have, Ten; Gordijn, Bert. Bioethics in a European Perspective.
- "Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)". niehs.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
- "Ethics and clinical research / Henry K. Beecher". apps.who.int. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Henry Knowles Beecher and the Development of Informed Consent in Anesthesia Research". anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Teaching Researchd (Richard W. ed.).
- "American Journal of Law and Medicine". linkedin.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "Editor-in-Chief Journal of Medical Ethics". blogs.bmj.com. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- VEATCH, ROBERT M. "How Philosophy of Medicine Has Changed Medical Ethics". Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- McFadden RD (12 June 1985). "Karen Ann Quinlan, 31, Dies; Focus of '76 Right to Die Case". The New York Times.
- "THIS DAY IN HISTORY". history.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Louise Brown Biography". biography.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Van der Weyden, Martin B. "The ICMJE and URM: Providing Independent Advice for the Conduct of Biomedical Research and Publication". PMC . PMID 22058614. doi:10.4103/0973-1229.32145.
- Resnik, David B. Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight.
- Metcalf, Jacob; Crawford, Kate. "Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide". doi:10.1177/2053951716650211.
- "Announcing Ethics & Human Research". thehastingscenter.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "About the Center for Health Care Ethics". slu.edu. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics". catalog.slu.edu. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "The Belmont Report". hhs.gov. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Volume 1, Issue 1, February 1980". link.springer.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "Dr. Steven Miles Wins MacLean Prize". macleanethics.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Roberts, Laura Weiss; Siegler, Mark. Clinical Medical Ethics: Landmark Works of Mark Siegler, MD.
- "The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics". journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Cherry, Mark J.; Peppin, John F. Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics.
- "The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare". espmh.org. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Accountability in Research". tandfonline.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "1990: Launch of the Human Genome Project". genome.gov. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "The Human Genome Project (1990-2003)". embryo.asu.edu. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Making History with the 1990 Gene Therapy Trial". genengnews.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- Reprogenetics: Law, Policy, and Ethical Issues (Lori P. Knowles, Gregory E. Kaebnick ed.).
- Kelley K (March 1995). "The Patient Self-Determination Act. A matter of life and death". Physician Assistant. 19 (3): 49, 53–6, 59–60 passim. PMID 10141946.
- "Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics". cambridge.org. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Jesani, Amar. "In the 25th year of bioethics publishing: new challenges of the post-truth era". Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments". bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments - Executive Summary". ehss.energy.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- Nys, Herman. "The European Journal of Health Law 1994-2019: How Innovative Has Its Contribution Been to the Development of Health Law in Europe?". doi:10.1163/15718093-12265006.
- "Nursing Ethics". us.sagepub.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present". intechopen.com. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- "Presidential Apology". cdc.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "Presidential Apology for the Study at Tuskegee". britannica.com. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights". ohchr.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- Mayor, Federico. "The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human RightsLa Déclaration Universelle sur le Génome Humain et les Droits de l'Homme". doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2003.09.017.
- Constitutional Court of Colombia (20 May 1997). "REPÚBLICA DE COLOMBIA Corte Constitucional Sentencia No. C-239/97" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Vacco, Attorney General of New York, et al. v. Quill et al.". United States Supreme Court.
- "Stem Cell Research as Innovation: Expanding the Ethical and Policy Conversation". PMC . PMID 20579255. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2010.00492.x.
- "Chapter 13Embryos, Cloning, Stem Cells, and the Promise of Reprogramming". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "European Citizens' Initiative: European Commission replies to 'One of Us' – Q&A". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy". springer.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "About Human Genetics Alert". hgalert.org. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- "Participant Detail". Within and Beyond the Limits to Human Nature. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "OHRP History". hhs.gov. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Yale journal of health policy, law, and ethics.". search.library.dartmouth.edu. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "THE HUMAN CLONING PROHIBITION ACT OF 2001 AND THE CLONING PROHIBITION". govinfo.gov. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Not Waiting for Congress to Act, Some States Move to Ban Human Cloning". guttmacher.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. "HOUSE BACKS BAN ON HUMAN CLONING FOR ANY OBJECTIVE". nytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- Murugan, Varnee. "Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Decade of Debate from Bush to Obama". PMC . PMID 19774120.
- "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). fas.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Euthanasia in the Netherlands". alliancevita.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Euthanasia now legal in Holland". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "International Declaration on Human Genetic Data". en.unesco.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN GENETIC DATA". who.int. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Regenerative Medicine Institute". nuigalway.ie. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, and Tissue Engineering". fightaging.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future". goodreads.com. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement". onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Liberal eugenics: In defence of human enhancement". link.springer.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Plagiarism in Academia" (PDF). International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. ISSN 1812-9129.
- Starovoytova, Diana. "Plagiarism under a Magnifying-Glass" (PDF). ISSN 2222-1735.
- Langlois, Adèle. "The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: Perspectives from Kenya and South Africa". PMC . PMID 18240025. doi:10.1007/s10728-007-0055-7.
- "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights". en.unesco.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "Clinical Ethics". journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal". jstor.org. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Pastor, LM. "[Ethical analysis and commentary of Dignitas Personae document: from continuity toward the innovation].". PMID 21692553.
- "INSTRUCTION DIGNITAS PERSONAE". vatican.va. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Vatican issues new document on biotechnology". ncronline.org. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2008". link.springer.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- "Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2008". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Wolinsky, Howard. "The pendulum swung. President Barack Obama removes restrictions on stem-cell research, but are expectations now too high?". PMC . PMID 19415078. doi:10.1038/embor.2009.78.
- Nicholas., Agar (2013). Humanity's end : why we should reject radical enhancement. [Place of publication not identified]: Bradford Books. ISBN 978-0262525176. OCLC 842500060.
- "NIH moves to lift moratorium on animal-human chimera research". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Supreme Court allows passive euthanasia: How Aruna Shanbaug case changed right to die with dignity law". firstpost.com. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "The Aruna Shanbaug case which changed euthanasia laws in India". economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- "Chinese Scientist Claims to Use Crispr to Make First Genetically Edited Babies". nytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "The untold story of the 'circle of trust' behind the world's first gene-edited babies". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "CRISPR bombshell: Chinese researcher claims to have created gene-edited twins". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 13 July 2020.