Timeline of nuclear security
This is a timeline of nuclear security.
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|1970s||"In addition to that, Zuberi notes that “by the late 1970s the defni�tion of proliferation changed from acquiring nuclear weapons or other explosive devices to developing a ‘nuclear explosive capability’”, and “consequently, the objective of safeguards changed from early detection of diversion of signifcant quantities of nuclear materials from peaceful to military pursuits to ‘prevention of development of nuclear explosive 4 ON NUCLEAR (DIS-)ORDER 121 capability’” (Zuberi 2003, p. 44)."|
|2000s||"many countries began expressing a newfound interest in nuclear energy during the early 2000s."|
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Details||Country|
|1946||Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission||Canada|
|1950||Organization||Federal Protective Forces|
|1952||June 13||Organization||Israel Atomic Energy Commission||Israel|
|1955||Organization||UK Atomic Energy Authority Constabulary||United Kingdom|
|1959||A reactor in Italy becomes the last nuclear project financed by the World Bank.||Italy|
|1960||The first Israeli nuclear reactor goes on line, with the second in 1962.||Israel|
|1968||July 1||The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is signed.|
|1973||February 27||Organization||Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission||Bangladesh|
|1974||Using a reactor provided by Canada for “peaceful” purposes, India conducts a test of a nuclear explosive device. Nuclear materials were supplied by the United States, and the Canadian reactor was used to produce plutonium for the nuclear explosive. This case can be seen as an example of how early civilian nuclear assistance could lead to the foundation of nuclear weapon programs.||India|
|1974||The Nuclear Suppliers Group is formed.|
|1975||January 19||Organization||Nuclear Regulatory Commission||United States|
|1975||Taiwan receives nuclear assistance from France. In the same year, the CIA reports, “Taipei conducts its small nuclear program with a weapon option clearly in mind, and it will be in a position to fabricate a nuclear device after five years or so.”||Taiwan|
|1976||Iraq signs an agreement for nuclear cooperation with France, which provides Osiris-class nuclear reactor. Intended for peaceful scientific research, in 1981 it would be destroyed by the Israelis, who believe it was designed to make nuclear weapons.||Iraq|
|1977||"The subsequent administration of President Carter launched the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation in 1977 to discuss the options the establishment of joint regional fuel-cycle facilities and prac�tical aspects of multilateral cooperation on storage of plutonium (cf. Skjoldebrand 1980)."|
|1978||The United States Congress passes the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to put further restrictions on US nuclear exports.||United States|
|1979||Peak of the nuclear power sector’s growth in the world. At this time, there are 233 power reactors being simultaneously under construction, a number had fallen to 120 by 1987.||Worldwide|
|1981||The Israeli Air Force destroys the unfinished Iraqi Osirak reactor during the Operation Opera. This attack would be widely viewed to be a stopgap measure, delaying but not preventing Iraqi nuclear aspirations.|
|1982||South Africa develops and builds its first nuclear explosive device, with its scientists having been trained by the United States as a result of government-backed programs.||South Africa|
|1982–1983||India smuggles Chinese heavy water through German nuclear-materials broker Alfred Hempel, who manages to ship 60 tons of heavy water to Bombay.||India|
|1983||Argentina announces having built a "medium-sized" uranium-enrichment plant.||Argentina|
|1983||November 15||Organization||Atomic Energy Regulatory Board||India|
|1984||India buys beryllium from a German company. Beryllium is a neutron reflector used in nuclear weapons. It is a substitute for gold or natural uranium reflectors in early devices, with the purpose of saving much weight and money.||India|
|1984||Iran receives nuclear assistance.||Iran|
|1985||Atomic Energy Licensing Board|
|1986||April 26||The Chernobyl disaster occurs. This incident would have a devastating effect on nuclear industries around the world, as a result of decline in demand for nuclear power.||Ukraine|
|1991||July 18||Organization||Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials||Argentina, Brazil|
|Early 1990s||Many nuclear smugglers are thought to be moving directly from the former Soviet Union to Western Europe by road or rail.|
|1992||Program launch||The Cooperative Threat Reduction Program begins.|
|1995||Customs officials catch a man trying to smuggle highly enriched uranium through a land checkpoint in Bulgaria.||Bulgaria|
|1996||The World Bank adopts a more official policy proscription against loans for nuclear power plants.|
|1996 (July)||Wassenaar Arrangement is formally established.|
|1997||January||Organization||International Nuclear Regulators' Association|
|2000||February 2||Organization||Strategic Plans Division Force|
|2001||The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is formed.||Pakistan|
|2001||Organization||Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency|
|2001||September 11||Al-Qaeda considers flying airplanes into nuclear facilities in the United States as part of the September 11 attacks|
|2005||April 1||Nuclear Decommissioning Authority|
|2005||April 1||Civil Nuclear Constabulary|
|2006||June 13||Autorité de sûreté nucléaire|
|2006||July 16||Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin jointly announce the organization of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT).|
|2007||An armed attack on the Pelindaba nuclear facility in South Africa occurs when four armed men break in and head towards a control room in the eastern block, and manage to deactivate several layers of security, including a 10,000-volt electrical fence, suggesting insider knowledge of the system. This incident highlights that even single points have security weaknesses and can be subject to concerted attacks.||South Africa|
|2007||September||Israel destroys a nuclear reactor under construction in Syria. The facility was not under IAEA safeguards and it is unclear whether its purpose was military or civilian.|
|2008||Research||According to Hastings, when smuggling goods, illicit nonstate actors face a trade-off between the security and efficiency of the route.|
|2009||The United States and South Africa sign an agreement on cooperation on nuclear energy research and development related to pebble bed modular reactor and Generation IV technologies that do not include a conditionality clause.||United States, South Africa|
|2009||The Obama administration mothballs the permanent disposal site of Yucca Mountain by reducing funding of the site to almost negligible levels.||United States|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
- The Nuclear Renaissance and International Security, by Adam N. Stulberg and Matthew Fuhrmann.
- Nuclear Deviance: Stigma Politics and the Rules of the Nonproliferation Gameby Michal Smetana,
The initial version of the timeline was written by FIXME.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
- Category:Nuclear safety and security
- Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
- Missile Technology Control Regime
- Multilateral export control regime
- Wassenaar Arrangement
- Nuclear disarmament
- Anti-nuclear movement
- Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
- Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
- Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism
- New Agenda Coalition
- Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons
- Zangger Committee
- Nuclear War Survival Skills
- Nuclear holocaust
Timeline update strategy
- Smetana, Michal (1 August 2019). Nuclear Deviance: Stigma Politics and the Rules of the Nonproliferation Game. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-24225-1.
- Stulberg, Adam N.; Fuhrmann, Matthew (23 January 2013). The Nuclear Renaissance and International Security. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-8530-3.
- KROENIG, MATTHEW (2009). "Exporting the Bomb: Why States Provide Sensitive Nuclear Assistance". The American Political Science Review. 103 (1): 113–133. ISSN 0003-0554.
- Mizokami, Kyle (12 September 2019). "China's Greatest Nightmare: Taiwan Armed with Nuclear Weapons". The National Interest. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- The 1982 World Book Year Book. World Book Inc., 1983. p. 350.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (20 August 2014). Persian Gulf War Encyclopedia: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-416-2.
- "South Africa: from nuclear armed state to disarmament hero". ICAN. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
- Milhollin, Gary (10 June 1990). "Asia's Nuclear Nightmare: The German Connection". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- Benjamin, Milton R. (19 November 1983). "Argentina Claims To Build Plant for Enriched Uranium". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- "About Us". www.aerb.gov.in. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
- Perkovich 1999: 242, 250, 271
- "Smuggling of Beryllium | Iran Watch". www.iranwatch.org. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- "Beryllium use at Los Alamos" (PDF). cdc.gov. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- "30th anniversary of Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC): A unique contribution to the world". www.cancilleria.gob.ar. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
- "The Wassenaar Arrangement at a Glance | Arms Control Association". www.armscontrol.org. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- USA, IBP (20 March 2009). Pakistan Nuclear Programs and Projects Handbook - Strategic Information and Regulations. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4387-3728-7.
- Holt and Andrews 2007
- "The Pelindaba Break-In of 2007". large.stanford.edu. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- "Pretoria News". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- Farrell 2010)