Timeline of orthopedics

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This is a timeline of orthopedics, listing significant events on the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times Orthopedic principles start development and use already in primitive times. The Egyptians describe ways to recognize and manage common orthopedic conditions. The Greeks and Romans subsequently begin to study medicine in a systematic manner, and greatly improve our understanding of orthopedic anatomy and surgical technique.[1]
16th century Until the 16th century, the majority of medical theories were heavily influenced by the work of Hippocrates. The scientific study of anatomy gains prominence during this time, especially due to the work done by great artists, such as Leonardo Da Vinci.[1]
18th century The modern term orthopedics is coined.[2]
19th century Three landmark discoveries in orthopedics make surgeries safe, painless and enthusiastic. These are the development of principles of antisepsis by Joseph Lister, the discovery of ether anesthesia in 1846 by William Morton and the invention by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen of X-rays, which would revolutionize the way of making a diagnosis in orthopedic cases.[3]
20th century Rapid development continues to better control infections. It further develops and introduces novel technology. The World Wars contribute a lot to the development of core orthopedics by producing countless number of patients requiring amputation, debridement, fracture management, tendon surgeries, etc.[3]

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of October 19, 2021.

Year "orthopedics"
1900 79
1910 172
1920 283
1930 369
1940 459
1950 549
1960 1,130
1970 1,290
1980 1,900
1990 4,870
2000 12,400
2010 29,200
2020 36,000
Orthopedics gscho.png

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for Orthopaedics (Health career), from January 2004 to March 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[4]

Orthopaedics gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Orthopaedics, from 1800 to 2019.[5]

Orthopaedics ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Orthopaedics, on desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015 to February 2021.[6]

Orthopaedics wv.png

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
1600BC Literature The Edwin Smith papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical text, describes the reduction of a dislocated mandible, signs of spinal or vertebral injuries, description of torticollis, and the treatment of fractures such as clavicle fractures. The document also discusses ryt, which refers to the purulent discharge from osteomyelitis.[1] Egypt
430BC–330BC Literature The Hippocratic Corpus is compiled as a collection of medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings. It contains text that applies specifically to the field of orthopedic surgery. For example, this text discuses shoulder dislocations and describes various reduction maneuvers. The Hippocratic Corpus also describes the correction of clubfoot deformity, and the treatment of infected open fractures with pitch cerate and wine compresses.[1]
16th century Literature Spanish texts talk about the Aztecs use of reduction of fractures, as well intramedullary fixation using fir branches.[7] Mexico
1597 Literature Scottish surgeon Peter Lowe publishes his A discourse of the Whole Art of Chirurgerie, which uses the term amputation for the first time.[8] United Kingdom
1741 Field development French physician Nicolas Andry is credited with the term orthopaedics, taken from the title of his 1741 book Orthopédie on childhood deformity correction.[9] The term is a composite of 2 Greek words: orthos, meaning “straight and free from deformity,” and paidios, meaning “child”.[1] France
1768 Literature English surgeon Percivall Pott publishes his book Some Few Remarks upon Fractures and Dislocations following his compound femoral fracture on the use of splinting to avoid amputation.[10] United Kingdom
1780 Organization Swiss doctor Jean-André Venel establishes the first orthopedic institute in Orbe, Switzerland, a center for the correction of curvatures and torsions of the spine.[11][12] Switzerland
1841 Facility German-American surgeon William Ludwig Detmold establishes in New York City a public clinic for the treatment of crippled children.[13] United States
1842 Field development William Ludwig Detmold gives the first series of lectures on orthopedics in the United States.[13] United States
1851 Instrumental Dutch military surgeon Antonius Mathijsen invents the plaster of Paris orthopedic.[3]
1863 Organization James Knight founds the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City, the oldest orthopedic hospital in the United States. It would later become known as the Hospital for Special Surgery.[1] United States
1886 Organization The New York Orthopedic Dispensary is established.[1] United States
1888 Field development Virgil Gibney at Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled begins the first orthopedic training program in the United States.[1] United States
1889 Literature The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery is established.[14]
1894 Organization The British Orthopaedic Society is founded.[15] United Kingdom
1895 Scientific development German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays. The discovery proves to be immensely beneficial, improving our ability to diagnose and manage orthopedic conditions ranging from fractures to avascular necrosis of the femoral head to osteoarthritis.[1] Germany
1917 Organization The Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases is established in New York City.[1] United States
1918 Organization The British Orthopaedic Association is founded.[16] United Kingdom
1926 Organization The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) is founded.[17] Japan
1933 Organization The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is founded.[18] United States
1942 Field development Austin Moore performs the first metal hip arthroplasty at John Hopkins Hospital.[1][19] United States
1946 Organization The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is established.[20] United States
1948 Literature The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery is established.[21]
1953 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research is established.[22]
1954 Organization The Orthopaedic Research Society is established.[23]
1955 Organization The Indian Orthopaedic Association is founded.[24] India
1962 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica is established.[25] Turkey
1964 Literature The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal is established.[26]
1968 Organization The Brittle Bone Society is established. It is a charity dedicated to providing support to people affected by osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI).[27] United Kingdom
1960s Field development British orthopaedic surgeon Sir John Charnley advances the field of joint replacement. Charnley pioneers the modern total hip replacement, an develops as an expert in tribology at Wrightington Hospital, England.[28][1] United Kingdom
1972 Organization The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine is formed.[29] United States
1972 Organization The Bengali National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedic Rehabilitation is established.[30] Bangladesh
1976 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Skeletal Radiology is established.[31]
1976 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Spine is established.[32]
1978 Organization The American Osteopathic Board of Orthopedic Surgery is formed.[33] United States
1978 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Bone is first issued.[34]
1980 Organization The United States National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses is founded in Missouri.[35] United States
1983 Literature The Journal of Orthopaedic Research is established.[36]
1987 Literature The Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma is first issued.[37]
1988 Organization The International Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Association (IFOPA) is established. It supports medical research, education and communication for those afflicted by the rare genetic condition Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). United States
1990 Organization The Illinois Bone and Joint Institute is founded.[38] United States
1991 Organization The European Association for Osseointegration is founded.[39]
1992 Literature The Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery is established.[40]
1992 Literature The European Spine Journal is established.[41]
1993 Literature Orthopaedic journals Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy is established.[42]
1993 Literature Monthly peer-reviewed medical journal Osteoarthritis and Cartilage is established.[43]
1995 Organization The ISAKOS - International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine is formed in Hong Kong. Hong Kong
1997 Literature The Journal of Musculoskeletal Research is established.[44]
1998 Organization Anaesthesia, Trauma and Critical Care (ATACC) is established as a non-profit charitable organization whose objective is to deliver teaching in trauma management and patient care.[45] United Kingdom
1998 Organization The International Osteoporosis Foundation is founded.[46] Switzerland
2001 Literature The Spine Journal is established.[47]
2005 Literature The HSS Journal is established. It covers musculoskeletal diseases and orthopedic surgery.[48]
2006 Literature Medical journal Archives of Osteoporosis is first issued.[49]
2006 Literature Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research is established.[50]
2006 Literature Online medical journal Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders is established.[51]
2007 Literature The Journal of Children's Orthopaedics is established.[52]
2008 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Foot and Ankle Specialist is established.[53]
2010 Literature Peer-reviewed academic journal Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation is first issued.[54]
2010 Literature Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle is established.[55]
2011 Literature Orthopedic journal Bone & Joint Research is launched.[56]
2016 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal EFORT Open Reviews is established. It is the official journal of the European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT).[57]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Swarup, Ishaan; O'Donnell, Jospeh F. "An Overview of the History of Orthopedic Surgery". 
  2. Swarup, I; O'Donnell, JF. "An Overview of the History of Orthopedic Surgery.". PMID 28005119. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Mohindra, Mukul; Kumar Jain, Jitesh. Fundamentals of Orthopedics. 
  4. "Orthopaedics". Google Trends. Retrieved 26 March 2021. 
  5. "Orthopaedics". books.google.com. Retrieved 26 March 2021. 
  6. "Orthopaedics". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 26 March 2021. 
  7. Lucena SM (1990). America 1492 Retrato de un Continente hace quinientos años. Milano: Anaya Editores. 
  8. Finlayson, James (1889). Account of the life and works of Maister Peter Lowe: the founder of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. GLasgow: J. Maclehose. 
  9. Andry, Nicolas (1743). Orthopaedia : or, the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children: by such means, as may easily be put in practice by parents themselves, and all such as are employed in educating children. To which is added, a defence of the orthopaedia, by way of supplement / by the author. Translated from the French of M. Andry. London: A. Millar. 
  10. Dobson, J (1972). "Percivall Pott". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 50: 54–65. 
  11. Clarke, Sonya; Santy-Tomlinson, Julie. Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing: An Evidence-based Approach to Musculoskeletal Care. 
  12. "THE POSTWAR CHALLENGE TO ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY". jamanetwork.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Peltier, Leonard F. Orthopedics: A History and Iconography. 
  14. Cowell, HR. "A brief history of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.". PMID 10818974. 
  15. "British Orthopaedic Society". livesonline.rcseng.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  16. "British Orthopaedic Association". boa.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  17. "About The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Corporation". joa.or.jp. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  18. "American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons". aaos.org. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  19. Gomez, Pablo F; Morcuende, Jose A. "Early Attempts at Hip Arthroplasty". PMC 1888777Freely accessible. PMID 16089067. 
  20. "American Society for Surgery of the Hand". assh.org. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  21. "The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume". 
  22. Brand, Richard A. "Writing for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research". PMC 2505311Freely accessible. PMID 18196400. 
  23. "Orthopaedic Research Society". speciation.net. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  24. "Indian Orthopaedic Association IOA". orthopaedicseminar.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  25. "ACTA ORTHOPAEDICA ET TRAUMATOLOGICA TURCICA". miar.ub.edu. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  26. "The Cleft Palate Journal". cleftpalatejournal.pitt.edu. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  27. "Brittle Bone Society". brittlebone.org. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  28. Wroblewski, B.M. (2002). "Professor Sir John Charnley (1911–1982)". Rheumatology. The British Society for Rheumatology via Oxford Journals. 41 (7): 824–825. PMID 12096235. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/41.7.824. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  29. "American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine". britannica.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  30. "National Institute of Traumatology & Orthopaedic Rehabilitation". nitorbd.blogspot.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  31. "Skeletal Radiology". trove.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  32. Elgafy, Hossein K; Miller, Jacob D; Hashmi, Sohaib; Ericksen, Steven. "Top 20 cited Spine Journal articles, 1990-2009". PMC 4095035Freely accessible. PMID 25035845. 
  33. "American Osteopathic Board of Orthopedic Surgery". onlinepublishing.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  34. "Bone". thebonejournal.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  35. "National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses". orthonurse.org. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  36. "Journal of Orthopaedic Research". onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  37. "Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma". journals.lww.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  38. "Illinois Bone and Joint Institute". ibji.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  39. "European Association for Osseointegration". eao.org. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  40. "The first 20 years of the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery". jshoulderelbow.org. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  41. Murray, Michael R.; Wang, Tianyi; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K. "The 100 most cited spine articles". PMC 3463701Freely accessible. PMID 22526702. 
  42. "Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy". link.springer.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  43. "Osteoarthritis and Cartilage". oarsijournal.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  44. "Journal of musculoskeletal research.". nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  45. Southern, David; Sen, Aruni. "Training for trauma". 
  46. "International Osteoporosis Foundation". iofbonehealth.org. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  47. "The Spine Journal". thespinejournalonline.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018. 
  48. "HSS Journal". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  49. "Archives of Osteoporosis". link.springer.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  50. "Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  51. "Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders". link.springer.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  52. "Journal of Children's Orthopaedics". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 28 October 2018. 
  53. "Foot and Ankle Specialist". podiatryarena.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  54. "Browse by Year - Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation". journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 31 October 2018. 
  55. "Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle". 
  56. "Bone & Joint Research". online.boneandjoint.org.uk. Retrieved 28 October 2018. 
  57. "EFORT Open Reviews: High quality instructional review articles on all aspects of orthopaedics and traumatology". efort.org. Retrieved 31 October 2018.