Timeline of orthopedics
This is a timeline of orthopedics, listing significant events on the development of the field.
- 1 Big picture
- 2 Numerical and visual data
- 3 Full timeline
- 4 Meta information on the timeline
- 5 See also
- 6 External links
- 7 References
|Time period||Development summary|
|Ancient times||Orthopedic principles start development and use already in primitive times. The Egyptians describe ways to recognize and manage common orthopedic conditions. The Greeks and Romans subsequently begin to study medicine in a systematic manner, and greatly improve our understanding of orthopedic anatomy and surgical technique.|
|16th century||Until the 16th century, the majority of medical theories were heavily influenced by the work of Hippocrates. The scientific study of anatomy gains prominence during this time, especially due to the work done by great artists, such as Leonardo Da Vinci.|
|18th century||The modern term orthopedics is coined.|
|19th century||Three landmark discoveries in orthopedics make surgeries safe, painless and enthusiastic. These are the development of principles of antisepsis by Joseph Lister, the discovery of ether anesthesia in 1846 by William Morton and the invention by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen of X-rays, which would revolutionize the way of making a diagnosis in orthopedic cases.|
|20th century||Rapid development continues to better control infections. It further develops and introduces novel technology. The World Wars contribute a lot to the development of core orthopedics by producing countless number of patients requiring amputation, debridement, fracture management, tendon surgeries, etc.|
Numerical and visual data
The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of October 19, 2021.
The image below shows Google Trends data for Orthopaedics (Health career), from January 2004 to March 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.
Google Ngram Viewer
|1600BC||Literature||The Edwin Smith papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical text, describes the reduction of a dislocated mandible, signs of spinal or vertebral injuries, description of torticollis, and the treatment of fractures such as clavicle fractures. The document also discusses ryt, which refers to the purulent discharge from osteomyelitis.||Egypt|
|430BC–330BC||Literature||The Hippocratic Corpus is compiled as a collection of medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings. It contains text that applies specifically to the field of orthopedic surgery. For example, this text discuses shoulder dislocations and describes various reduction maneuvers. The Hippocratic Corpus also describes the correction of clubfoot deformity, and the treatment of infected open fractures with pitch cerate and wine compresses.|
|16th century||Literature||Spanish texts talk about the Aztecs use of reduction of fractures, as well intramedullary fixation using fir branches.||Mexico|
|1597||Literature||Scottish surgeon Peter Lowe publishes his A discourse of the Whole Art of Chirurgerie, which uses the term amputation for the first time.||United Kingdom|
|1741||Field development||French physician Nicolas Andry is credited with the term orthopaedics, taken from the title of his 1741 book Orthopédie on childhood deformity correction. The term is a composite of 2 Greek words: orthos, meaning “straight and free from deformity,” and paidios, meaning “child”.||France|
|1768||Literature||English surgeon Percivall Pott publishes his book Some Few Remarks upon Fractures and Dislocations following his compound femoral fracture on the use of splinting to avoid amputation.||United Kingdom|
|1780||Organization||Swiss doctor Jean-André Venel establishes the first orthopedic institute in Orbe, Switzerland, a center for the correction of curvatures and torsions of the spine.||Switzerland|
|1841||Facility||German-American surgeon William Ludwig Detmold establishes in New York City a public clinic for the treatment of crippled children.||United States|
|1842||Field development||William Ludwig Detmold gives the first series of lectures on orthopedics in the United States.||United States|
|1851||Instrumental||Dutch military surgeon Antonius Mathijsen invents the plaster of Paris orthopedic.|
|1863||Organization||James Knight founds the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City, the oldest orthopedic hospital in the United States. It would later become known as the Hospital for Special Surgery.||United States|
|1886||Organization||The New York Orthopedic Dispensary is established.||United States|
|1888||Field development||Virgil Gibney at Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled begins the first orthopedic training program in the United States.||United States|
|1889||Literature||The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery is established.|
|1894||Organization||The British Orthopaedic Society is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1895||Scientific development||German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays. The discovery proves to be immensely beneficial, improving our ability to diagnose and manage orthopedic conditions ranging from fractures to avascular necrosis of the femoral head to osteoarthritis.||Germany|
|1917||Organization||The Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases is established in New York City.||United States|
|1918||Organization||The British Orthopaedic Association is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1926||Organization||The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) is founded.||Japan|
|1933||Organization||The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is founded.||United States|
|1942||Field development||Austin Moore performs the first metal hip arthroplasty at John Hopkins Hospital.||United States|
|1946||Organization||The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is established.||United States|
|1948||Literature||The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery is established.|
|1953||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research is established.|
|1954||Organization||The Orthopaedic Research Society is established.|
|1955||Organization||The Indian Orthopaedic Association is founded.||India|
|1962||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica is established.||Turkey|
|1964||Literature||The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal is established.|
|1968||Organization||The Brittle Bone Society is established. It is a charity dedicated to providing support to people affected by osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI).||United Kingdom|
|1960s||Field development||British orthopaedic surgeon Sir John Charnley advances the field of joint replacement. Charnley pioneers the modern total hip replacement, an develops as an expert in tribology at Wrightington Hospital, England.||United Kingdom|
|1972||Organization||The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine is formed.||United States|
|1972||Organization||The Bengali National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedic Rehabilitation is established.||Bangladesh|
|1976||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Skeletal Radiology is established.|
|1976||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Spine is established.|
|1978||Organization||The American Osteopathic Board of Orthopedic Surgery is formed.||United States|
|1978||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Bone is first issued.|
|1980||Organization||The United States National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses is founded in Missouri.||United States|
|1983||Literature||The Journal of Orthopaedic Research is established.|
|1987||Literature||The Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma is first issued.|
|1988||Organization||The International Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Association (IFOPA) is established. It supports medical research, education and communication for those afflicted by the rare genetic condition Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP).||United States|
|1990||Organization||The Illinois Bone and Joint Institute is founded.||United States|
|1991||Organization||The European Association for Osseointegration is founded.|
|1992||Literature||The Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery is established.|
|1992||Literature||The European Spine Journal is established.|
|1993||Literature||Orthopaedic journals Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy is established.|
|1993||Literature||Monthly peer-reviewed medical journal Osteoarthritis and Cartilage is established.|
|1995||Organization||The ISAKOS - International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine is formed in Hong Kong.||Hong Kong|
|1997||Literature||The Journal of Musculoskeletal Research is established.|
|1998||Organization||Anaesthesia, Trauma and Critical Care (ATACC) is established as a non-profit charitable organization whose objective is to deliver teaching in trauma management and patient care.||United Kingdom|
|1998||Organization||The International Osteoporosis Foundation is founded.||Switzerland|
|2001||Literature||The Spine Journal is established.|
|2005||Literature||The HSS Journal is established. It covers musculoskeletal diseases and orthopedic surgery.|
|2006||Literature||Medical journal Archives of Osteoporosis is first issued.|
|2006||Literature||Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research is established.|
|2006||Literature||Online medical journal Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders is established.|
|2007||Literature||The Journal of Children's Orthopaedics is established.|
|2008||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Foot and Ankle Specialist is established.|
|2010||Literature||Peer-reviewed academic journal Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation is first issued.|
|2010||Literature||Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle is established.|
|2011||Literature||Orthopedic journal Bone & Joint Research is launched.|
|2016||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal EFORT Open Reviews is established. It is the official journal of the European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT).|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
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What the timeline is still missing
Timeline update strategy
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