Timeline of pediatrics

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This is a timeline of pediatrics, describing significant events in the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient history Typical diseases of the child start being described early. Greek physician Hippocrates writes about cephalhematoma, hydrocephalus, clubfoot, worms, diarrhea, scrofula, asthma, and mumps.[1] Soranus of Ephesus describes the fingernail test for breast milk quality, and Galen writes about ear discharge, pneumonia, and intestinal prolapse and describes a disorder that corresponds to rickets.[1] Avicenna discusses tetanus, worms, convulsions, meningitis, and umbilical abscess.[1]
17th – 18th centuries English physicians Thomas Sydenham and Edward Jenner stand out among the increasing number of authors who wrote about diseases in children during the 17th and 18th centuries. Thomas Sydenham writes on scarlet fever, measles, smallpox, epilepsy, rickets, teething fever, scorbutus (scurvy), and Sydenham's chorea. Edward Jenner achieves one of the greatest medical benefits of all time: the prevention of disease by immunization.[1]
19th century Clinical studies of childhood diseases proliferate throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in one of the first modern textbooks of pediatrics, published by Frédéric Rilliet and Ernest Barthez in France in 1838–43.[2]
20th century Early in the century the first well-child clinics are established to monitor and study the normal growth and development of children. By the mid-century, the use of antibiotics and vaccines manage to eliminate most serious infectious diseases of childhood in the developed world, and infant and child mortality fall to the lowest levels ever. In the last half of the century, pediatrics again expand to incorporate the study of behavioral and social as well as specifically medical aspects of child health.[2] In the 1970s, an increasing number of collaborative arrangements for both training and research between pediatricians and psychologists is noted.[3]
21st century Pediatrics is today a dynamic discipline, with outstanding achievements in the field of child health in recent years.[4]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
1552 BC Field development The Ebers Papyrus discusses, among other topics, breastfeeding, a cure for worms, and treatment of eye diseases.[1] Egypt
c.400 BC Field development Greek physician Hippocrates writes about cephalhematoma, hydrocephalus, clubfoot, worms, diarrhea, scrofula, asthma, and mumps.[1]
c.100 AD Field development Greek physician Soranus of Ephesus describes the fingernail test for breast milk quality (If the droplet clings to the nail, it contains sufficient fat. If not, it is watery).[1]
c.200 AD Field development Greek physician Galen writes about ear discharge, pneumonia, and intestinal prolapse and describes a disorder that corresponds to rickets.[1]
990 AD Scientific development Persian polymath Avicenna discusses tetanus, worms, convulsions, meningitis, and umbilical abscess.[1]
1583 Literature Hieronymus writes the first important printed book about children, entitled De Morbus Pusiorum.[1]
1802 Organization (hospital) L'Hôpital des Enfants Malades opens in Paris, on the site of a previous orphanage. It is considered the first generally accepted pediatric hospital in the Western World.[5] France
1813 – 1852 Field development American physician Eli Ives gives lectures to medical students at Yale University about diseases in children and other medical topics.[6] United States
1825 Literature Two early textbooks in pediatrics are published, Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children by Dr. William Potts Dewees and Practical Observations on Diseases of Children by Dr. George Logan.[6] United States
1830 Field development The Charité hospital in Berlin establishes a separate Paediatric Pavillion.[5] Germany
1841 Literature French physician Ernest Barthez publishes Treatise on the Pneumonia of Children.[7] France
1843 Literature Ernest Barthez publishes Traite clinique et pratique des maladies des enfants.[8] France
1852 Organization (hospital) The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, opens in London as the first paediatric hospital is the English-speaking world.[5] United Kingdom
1855 Organization (hospital) The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is founded as the first pediatric hospital in the United States.[5] United States
1869 Organization (hospital) Boston Children's Hospital is founded.[5] United States
1886 German agricultural chemist Franz von Soxhlet proposes pasteurization be applied to milk and other beverages.[9][10][11][6] Germany
1888 Organization The American Pediatric Society is established.[6] United States
1897 Literature American pediatrician Luther Emmett Holt publishes The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, which includes a 20-page chapter on diseases of the blood and is the first American pediatric medical textbook to provide significant hematologic information.[12][13] United States
1911 Journal The American Journal of Diseases in Children is released.[6] United States
1930 Organization The American Academy of Pediatrics is formed.[14][15][16][6] United States
1932 Journal The Journal of Pediatrics is started for the American Academy of Pediatrics.[17] United States
1933 Organization The American Board of Pediatrics, a certifying board of the American Board of Medical Specialties, is founded.[6] United States
1940 Organization The American Osteopathic Board of Pediatrics is established.[18] United States
1941 Literature American surgeons William E. Ladd and Robert Edward Gross publish Abdominal Surgery of Infancy and Childhood, the first modern pediatric surgery textbook.[6] United States
1941 Field development Australian ophthalmologist Norman Gregg correctly identifies the link between congenital cataracts in infants and maternal rubella early in pregnancy.[19][20][6][21] Australia
1943 Field development Helen Taussig and Alfred Blalock develop a palliative surgical treatment for babies with Tetralogy of Fallot.[6]
1945 Literature John Caffey publishes his landmark textbook Pediatric X-Ray Diagnosis.[22]
1946 Literature American pediatrician Benjamin Spock publishes the first edition of Baby and Child Care.[6]
1948 Literature The journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics is first published.[6] United States
1951 Field development The American Board of Pediatrics issues a statement concerning the importance of training in child growth and development for pediatricians.[3] United States
1952 Field development American obstetrical anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar develops the Apgar Score, which is used to test a baby's response to resuscitation right after they are born.[6][23][24][25] United States
1953 Organization The Boston Association for Childbirth Education is founded.[26] United States
1956 Organization La Leche League International is founded. It organizes advocacy, educational, and training related to breastfeeding.[27]
1958 Organization The Society for Pediatric Radiology is founded to study problems peculiar to the practice of pediatric radiology and to aid in the education of members and others interested in those problems.[22][28] United States
1960 Organization The Academic Pediatric Association is founded.[29] United States
1963 Field development American microbiologist Robert Guthrie develops the Guthrie test to screen newborns for phenylketonuria (PKU).[6][30][31] United States
1963 Organization The Indian Academy of Pediatrics is founded in Mumbay.[32] India
1963 Organization The European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) is established.[22]
1964 Organization The Australian Breastfeeding Association is founded in Melbourne, with the aim of helping and supporting mothers to breastfeed.[33] Australia
1965 Literature American developmental psychologist Jerome Kagan publishes The New Marriage: Pediatrics and Psychology, a highly influencial statement concerning the necessity for pediatric concern with developmental issues.[3] United States
1970 Field development American aviator Forrest Bird invents the Baby Bird, the first mass-produced, low-cost, pediatric ventilator, after having invented some of the first portable mechanical ventilators in the 1950s and 60s.[6] United States
1970 Organization The American Pediatric Surgical Association is founded.[34] United States
1980 Literature The Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics is first issued.[35]
1982 Organization The Society of Behavioral Pediatrics is established.[35]
1986 Organization Murdoch Children's Research Institute is founded in Australia. It is the largest child health research institute in Australia and one of the top five worldwide.[36] Australia
1991 Program The World Health Organization and UNICEF launch the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), as a global effort to implement practices that protect, promote and support breastfeeding.[37]
1991 Organization The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action is established as a network of people working on a global scale to eliminate obstacles to breastfeeding.[38]
1992 Organization The Bangladesh Institute of Child and Mother Health is established as a research and health care institute.[39] Bangladesh
2002 Organization The American College of Pediatricians is formed.[40] United States
2003 Program The Pan American Health Organization sets a goal of eradicating rubella from the Western Hemisphere.[19]
2006 Organization Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group is formed. It supports over 1000 children with cancer each year in Britain and Ireland.[41] United Kingdom
2006 Organization The International Breast Milk Project is founded. It is a non-profit organization that solicits donations of human milk and provides the milk to needy infants.[42][43]
2009 Drug Cerarix is approved as a vaccine against HPV, and joins Gardasil (another HPV vaccine) on the vaccine schedule to protect kids from an ever growing list of vaccine-preventable diseases, including chickenpox (Varivax), pneumococcal disease (Prevnar 13), rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix), meningococcal disease (Menactra), and hepatitis A, for which vaccines have been approved since the hepatitis B vaccine was added to the immunization schedule in 1994.[6]

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of October 19, 2021.

Year pediatrics
1900 231
1910 396
1920 550
1930 835
1940 1,410
1950 2,790
1960 5,130
1970 9,420
1980 16,100
1990 34,600
2000 96,900
2010 209,000
2020 111,000
Pediatrics gscho.png

Google Trends

The comparative chart below shows Google Trends data for Pediatrics (Branch of medicine) and Pediatrics (Search term), from January 2004 to April 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[44]

Pediatrics gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Pediatrics, from 1850 to 2019.[45]

Pediatrics ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Pediatrics, from July 2015 to March 2021.[46]

Pediatrics wv.png

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Luecke, Percy E. "The history of pediatrics at Baylor University Medical Center". PMC 1200641Freely accessible. PMID 16200089. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Pediatrics". britannica.com. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics, Volume 2 (Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Barry M Lester, Michael W. Yogman ed.). 
  4. {{cite journal |last1=Singh |first1=M |title=Pediatrics in 21st Century and Beyond. |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27510612}
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "History of Pediatrics". pediatrics.com. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 "Milestones in the History of Pediatrics". verywellhealth.com. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  7. "The Online Books Page". onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  8. Rilliet, Frédéric; Barthez, Ernest. Traité clinique et pratique des maladies des enfants, Volume 1. 
  9. The Oxford Companion to Cheese. 
  10. Nollet, Leo M.L.; Toldra, Fidel. Handbook of Dairy Foods Analysis. 
  11. Do, Choon H.; Pavlath, Attila E. Chemistry: Our Past, Present, and Future. 
  12. "The diseases of infancy and childhood : for the use of students and practitioners of medicine / by L. Emmett Holt.". catalog.hathitrust.org. Retrieved 3 October 2018. 
  13. Mullner, Ross M. Encyclopedia of Health Services Research: Ed. by Ross M. Mullner. 
  14. Oski's Pediatrics: Principles & Practice (Julia A. McMillan, Ralph D. Feigin, Catherine DeAngelis, M. Douglas Jones ed.). 
  15. "AAP Facts". aap.org. Retrieved 5 September 2018. 
  16. Cole, Jim; Stankus, Tony. Journals of the Century. 
  17. "American Osteopathic Board of Pediatrics". tripmondo.com. Retrieved 20 September 2018. 
  18. 19.0 19.1 DUDGEON, J. A. "Maternal Rubella and Its Effect on the Foetus" (PDF). adc.bmj.com. Retrieved 1 September 2018. 
  19. Lambert, Scott R. "Congenital rubella syndrome: the end is in sight". PMC 2095420Freely accessible. PMID 17947261. doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.117960. 
  20. Forrest, Jill M; Turnbull, Fiona M; Sholler, Gary F; Hawker, Richard E; Martin, Frank J; Burgess, Margaret A; Doran, Trevor T. "Gregg's congenital rubella patients 60 years later". 
  21. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Carachi, Robert; Buyukunal, Cenk; Young, Daniel G. A History Of Surgical Paediatrics. 
  22. "The Virginia Apgar Papers". profiles.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  23. "Dr. Virginia Apgar". cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  24. "Virginia Apgar". britannica.com. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  25. "Visible Woman, 1959, and Boston Association for Childbirth Education newsletter, 1968". schlesinger75radcliffe.org. Retrieved 20 September 2018. 
  26. "History of La Leche League". ergobaby.com. Retrieved 25 September 2018. 
  27. Practical Pediatric Imaging: Diagnostic Radiology of Infants and Children (Donald R. Kirks, Nathan Thorne Griscom ed.). 
  28. "Academic Pediatrics". sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  29. "Phenylketonuria and the Guthrie Test". pediatrics.aappublications.org. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  30. "Guthrie test". embryology.med.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved 31 August 2018. 
  31. "Indian Academy Of Pediatrics". linkedin.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  32. "Australian Breastfeeding Association". breastfeeding.asn.au. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  33. Clatworthy, HW. "Robert E. Gross.". PMID 3095885. 
  34. 35.0 35.1 Carey, William B. Developmental-behavioral Pediatrics. 
  35. "Murdoch Children's Research Institute". mcri.edu.au. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  36. "Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative". who.int. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  37. "World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action". waba.org.my. Retrieved 30 September 2018. 
  38. "Institute of Child and Mother Health (ICMH)". bd-directory.com. Retrieved 30 September 2018. 
  39. "American College of Pediatricians". acpeds.org. Retrieved 30 September 2018. 
  40. "Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group". microsites.realbuzz.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  41. "Putting Breast Milk to Good Use". content.time.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  42. "Breast Milk Shipped to Africa to Help Feed Orphan Children". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  43. "Pediatrics". Google Trends. Retrieved 11 April 2021. 
  44. "Pediatrics". books.google.com. Retrieved 11 April 2021. 
  45. "Pediatrics". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 11 April 2021.