Timeline of psychiatry

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This is a timeline of psychiatry, attempting to describe significant events in the development of the field. Some events related to the development of psychoanalysis are mentioned for historical perspective.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient history Specialty in psychiatry can be traced in Ancient India, with the oldest texts on psychiatry including the ayurvedic text, Charaka Samhita.[1][2] Some of the first hospitals for curing mental illness are established during the 3rd century BCE.[3]
<18 century Until the 18th century, mental illness is most often seen as demonic possession. However, it gradually comes to be considered as a sickness requiring treatment. Many judge that modern psychiatry is born with the efforts of French physician Philippe Pinel in the late century.[4]
19th century Psychiatry gets its name as a medical specialty in the early 1800s. For the first century of its existence, the field concerns itself with severely disordered individuals confined to asylums or hospitals. These patients are generally psychotic, severely depressed or manic, or suffer conditions we would now recognize as medical: dementia, brain tumors, seizures, hypothyroidism, etc.[5] Research and teaching in psychiatry are dominated by the Germans for 100 years, until 1933.[6] Great contributions to the field occur in the late 19th century, when German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin emphasizes a systematic approach to psychiatric diagnosis and classification and Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who is familiar with neuropathology, develops psychoanalysis as a treatment and research approach.[4]
20th century Around the turn of the century, Sigmund Freud publishes theories on the unconscious roots of some of these less severe disorders, which he terms psycho-neuroses. Psychoanalysis is the dominant paradigm in outpatient psychiatry for the first half of the century. By the late 1950s and early 1960s, new medications begin to change the face of psychiatry.[5] The modern era of clinical neuropsychiatry begins likely around the 1980s.[7] Second-generation antipsychotics are introduced into clinical psychiatry in the early 1990s.[8]
21st century Pharmaceutical innovation dries up in the 2000s, with no new classes of medication or blockbuster psychiatric drugs being discovered.[5]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
1656 Facility Louis XIV of France establishes the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris for prostitutes and the mentally defective.[9] France
1672 Literature English physician Thomas Willis publishes the anatomical treatise De Anima Brutorum, describing psychology in terms of brain function. Unied Kingdom
1724 Field development New England Puritan minister Cotton Mather breaks with superstition by advancing physical explanations for mental illnesses over demonic explanations.[10] United States
1758 Literature English physician William Battie publishes Treatise on Madness, likely the first English medical monograph devoted to madness.[11] United Kingdom
1793 Field development French physician Philippe Pinel in Paris begins what is then called “moral treatment and occupation”, as an approach to treating people with mental illness. Pinel believes that moral treatment means treating one’s emotions. Treatment for the mentally ill thus becomes based on purposeful daily activities. Pinel begins advocating for, and using, literature, music, physical exercise, and work as a way to “heal” emotional stress, thereby improving one’s ability to perform activities of daily living.[12] France
1808 – 1816 Field development German physician Johann Christian Reil coins the term psychiatry.[13][14][15][6] Germany
1809 Field development Philippe Pinel publishes the first description of dementia praecox (schizophrenia).[16][17][18] France
1811 Field development German physician Johann Christian August Heinroth in Leipzig occupies the first chair of psychiatry/psychotherapy in the Western world.[19] Germany
1812 Literature American physician Benjamin Rush publishes Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon Diseases of the Mind, which would become very influencial in the field of psychiatry for the next 70 years.[20][21] United States
1822 Field development French physician Antoine-Laurent Bayle attributes the psychiatric symptoms of neurosyphilis to a chronic inflammation of the meninges, making him the first person to discover a psychiatric disease with definite organicity.[19]
1834 Facility American philantropist Anna Marsh deeds the funds to build the first financially-stable private asylum in the United States. The Brattleboro Retreat marks the beginning of America’s private psychiatric hospitals challenging state institutions for patients, funding, and influence.[19] United States
1838 Field development France passes a law that establishes its modern asylum system. Other countries like England, Germany, and the United States quickly follow suit.[19] France
1841 Facility The Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane is founded in England.[22][23] United Kingdom
1844 Organization The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII) is founded in Philadelphia.[24] United States
1845 Policy The Lunacy Act 1845 is passed in Britain. It is the first British statute to treat the insane as “persons of unsound mind” rather than social outcasts.[25] United Kingdom
1852 Literature French physician Bénédict Augustin Morel publishes Traite des Maladies Mentales, which introduces the term "dementia praecox".[26][27] France
1852 Field development French physician Charles Lasègue first describes paranoid dementia as "delusion of persecution".[26] France
1857 Literature Bénédict Augustin Morel publishes Traité des Dégénérescences, which is considered a foundational text of the degeneration theory.[28][29][30] France
1859 Literature French physician Paul Briquet publishes Traite Clinique et Therapeutique de L'Hysterie, which presents 430 cases of hysterical patients at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris.[31][32][33] France
1885 Drug Sulfonethylmethane (Trional), a hypnosedative prepared by condensing ethylmercaptan with metyl ethyl ketone, is synthesized by Bayer.[34] Germany
1888 Field development Swiss psychiatrist Gottlieb Burckhardt performs the first attempts at psychosurgery. Six chronic schizophrenic patients undergo localized cerebral cortical excisions. Most patients show improvement and become easier to manage, although one dies from the procedure and several have aphasia or seizures.[19] Switzerland
1893 Field development German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin introduces the concept of "dementia praecox", later reformulated as schizophrenia.[35][36] Germany
1895 Literature Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer publish Studies on Hysteria, based on the case of Bertha Pappenheim.[37][38][39] Austria
1900 Field development Russian neurologist Vladimir Bekhterev discovers the involvement of the hippocampus in memory.[40][41][42] Russia
1901 Field development German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer identifies the first case of what would later become known as Alzheimer's disease.[43][44][45] Germany
1901 Literature Sigmund Freud publishes The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.[46]
1905 Field development French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon develop the Binet-Simon Scale as a means to determine the children in need of alternative education.[47][48][49]
1906 Field development Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov publishes the first studies in classical conditioning.[50][51] Russia
1908 Field development Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler introduces the term Schizophrenia.[26]
1911 Organization The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) is founded.[52] United States
1913 Organization The British Psychoanalytical Society is founded by Ernest Jones.[53] United Kingdom
1920 Field development Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach develops the Rorschach Inkblot Test.[54]
1923 Field development English neuroscientist Sir Henry Dale finds that acetylcholine can mimic the effect of the parasympathetic system.[55][56][57]
1924 Field development German neuropsychiatrist Hans Berger first describes Electroencephalography (EEG).[58][59][60] Germany
1924 Literature Austrian psychoanalyst Otto Rank publishes The Trauma of Birth, coining the term "pre-Oedipal".[61]
1926 Organization La Société Psychanalytique de Paris was founded.[62]
1927 Field development Austrian-Jewish neurophysiologist Manfred Sakel in Vienna develops Insulin Shock Therapy as a treatment for schizophrenia.[63] Austria
1928 Organization The Indian Association for Mental Hygiene is established.[64][65] India
1938 Field development Italian neurologist Ugo Cerletti and Italian psychiatrist Dr. Lucio Bini discover electroconvulsive Therapy.[66][67][68] Italy
1939 Literature Russian-born researcher Nathaniel Kleitman publishes Sleep and Wakefulness.[69]
1943 Drug Methamphetamine (Desoxyn), a member of the amphetamine class, is marketed by Abbot Laboratories.[34]
1944 Drug Ritalin (Methylphenidate) is first synthesized.[70][71][72]
1947 Organization The Indian Psychiatric Society is established.[73][74][75] India
1948 Field development Australian psychiatrist John Cade discovers that lithium is dramatically effective in the treatment of mania.[76][77][78] Australia
1949 Field development Portuguese neurologist Antonio Moniz is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on Lobotomy.[79]
1949 Literature The World Health Organization publishes ICD-6, the sixth revision of the International statistical classification of diseases, which includes a section on mental disorders for the first time.[80]
1950s Field development American psychologist Albert Ellis develops Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).[81] United States
1950 Organization The World Psychiatric Association is founded.[82][83][84]
1951 Drug Methylparafynol (methilpentynol; meparfynol), an early tranquilizer and member of the carbinol drug class, is introduced.[34]
1952 Field development The American Psychiatric Association publishes the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[85][86][87] United States
1952 Drug The first monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant iproniazid is discovered.[88][89][90]
1952 Field development French psychiatrist Jean Delay becomes the first to recognize the therapeutic value of chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia. He invents the word psychopharmacology.[19] France
1952 Drug Phenothiazine antipsychotic mepazine is synthesized in Germany.[34] Germany
1953 Field development Nathaniel Kleitman, at the University of Chicago, discoveres Rapid eye movement sleep (REM), founding modern sleep research.[69][91][92] United States
1953 Drug Chlorpromazine, a “mood-calming” drug, is licensed in the United States.[19] United States
1954 Field development James Olds and Peter Milner of McGill University discover the brain reward system.[93][94][95][96] Canada
1954 Field development American neurobiologist Roger Sperry begins split-brain research at the Californian Institute of Technology.[97][98][99] United States
1954 Organization All India Institute of Mental Health is founded.[100][101] India
1955 Drug Ethinamate (Valmid), a hypnosedative of the carbmate class, is launched.[34]
1955 Field development The term neuroleptic is coined to refer to the effects of phenothianzine medication. It becomes a synonym for antipsychotic.[34]
1955 Drug Meprobamate (Miltown), an antineurotic drug of the dicarbamate class, is marketed.[34]
1955 Drug Methyprylon (Nodular), a hypnosedative of the piperidine class, is launched by Hoffmann-La Roche.[34]
1955 Drug Talbutal (Lotusate), a barbiturate sedative, is marketed.[34]
1956 Drug Heterocyclic tranquilizer mephenoxalone is introduced in Argentina. In 1961, it is introduced in the United States.[34] Argentina
1956 Field development Gregory Bateson, John Weakland, Donald deAvila Jackson, and Jay Haley propose the double bind theory of schizophrenia's thought disorder.[102][103][104]
1957 Field development Swedish neuropharmacologist Arvid Carlsson, at the University of Lund, discovers that dopamine is one of the brain chemicals used to send signals between neurons.[105][106][107] Sweden
1957 Drug Imipramine hydrochloride (tofranil) becomes available as the first of a series of new anti-depressive drugs.[108][109][110]
1958 Drug Oxanamide (Quiatcin), a tranquilizer, is introduced.[34]
1958 Field development American physician Aaron B. Lerner at Yale University first isolates the hormone melatonin, which is found to regulate the circadian rhythm.[111][112][113][114] United States
1959 Journal The Archives of General Psychiatry is established by the American Medical Association.[115] United States
1959 Drug Nialamide (Niamid) is launched by Pfitzer for depression.[34]
1960s Field development Aaron T. Beck develops cognitive therapy.[116][81]
1960 Drug The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, under the trade name Librium is introduced.[117][118][119]
1961 Literature French philosopher Michel Foucault publishes Madness and Civilization, which reflects the growing counter-cultural backlash against psychiatry. Foucault is best known for his critical studies of social institutions, most notably psychiatry, medicine, the human sciences, and the prison system, as well as for his work on the history of human sexuality.[19] France
1961 Field development Canadian psychiatrist Heinz Lehmann coins the term antipsychotic for a drug against psychosis.[34]
1962 Drug Valproate is first approved as an antiepileptic drug.[120]
1963 Drug Nortriptyline (Aventyl), a tricyclic antidepressant that is an active metabolite of amitriptyline, is introduced in the United Kingdom.[34] United Kingdom
1964 Drug Tranquilizer clonazepam is initially patented.[121]
1965 Drug Hypnotic temazepam is patented.[122]
1966 Drug Trazodone (Desyrel) is developed in Italy. It is considered the first of the second-generation antidepressants.[8] Italy
1967 Drug Thiothixine (Navane), an antipsychotic of the thioxanthene series, is introduced.[34]
1968 Drug Carbamazepine is approved for use in the United States for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.[8] United States
1969 Drug Indian-born American organic chemist Nariman Mehta invents organic compound bupropion in the hopes of developing a superior antidepressant with abilities to treat various psychiatric disorders.[123]
1971 Field development Computed axial tomography (CAT scans) begins to show the living brain in greater detail than ever before, allowing psychiatrists a way to view the subtleties of the brain without surgery.[19]
1972 Field development American psychologist David Rosenhan publishes the Rosenhan experiment, a comparative study of validity of psychiatric diagnosis.[124][125][126] United States
1973 Field development The American Psychiatric Association declassifies homosexuality as a mental disorder.[127][128][129] United States
1973 Drug Tetracyclic antidepressant maprotiline (Ludiomil) is introduced in Germany.[34] Germany
1974 Drug Atypical antipsychotics clozapine (Clozaril), is introduced in Germany.[34] Germany
1975 Drug Mianserin (Tolvin), a tetracyclic antidepressant, is introduced in Germany.[34] Germany
1976 Drug Nomifensine (Alival), a bicyclic antidepressant, is introduced by Hoechst in Germany.[34] Germany
1977 Drug Lorazepam (Ativan) is introduced in the United States for anxiety, efficacy, and catatonia.[34] United States
1980 Literature The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, III) is published by the {w{w|American Psychiatric Association}}. Considered the psychiatry’s “bible,” it marks the shift in clinical psychiatry from a largely Freudian approach to a more biological orientation.[19] United States
1980 Field development Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a diagnosis is coined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM, III) as attention deficit disorder (ADD).[34] United States
1981 Drug Zimelidine (Zelmid), the first SSRI antidepressant, is launched in Europe.[34] Europe
1982 Program The National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) is launched in India, in order to improve the mental health care infrastructure in the country.[130][131] India
1980 Drug Amoxapine (Asendin), a tricyclic antidepressant with neuroleptic properties, is launched.[34]
1983 Organization The European Psychiatric Association is founded.[132] France
1986 Organization The American Psychiatric Nurses Association is founded.[133] United States
1987 Drug Antidepressant Prozac is released.[5]
1987 Organization The British Neuropsychiatry Association is established. It is the oldest in the world.[134] United Kingdom
1988 Organization The American Neuropsychiatric Association is founded.[7][134] United States
1990s The United States National Institute of Mental Health declares the 1990s the Decade of the Brain "to enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research."[5] United States
1990 Field development Japanese researcher Seiji Ogawa first discovers blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) in MRI. [135]
1991 Drug Anticonvulsant lamotrigine is first introduced in Ireland.[136] Ireland
1991 Field development Hong Kong-born American scientist Kenneth Kwong successfully applies blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging (BOLD) to image human brain activities with MRI.[137] United States
1991 Drug Antidepressant sertraline is first approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[138] United States
1992 Drug Antidepressant paroxetine is first marketed in the United States.[139] United States
1993 Drug Antidepressant venlafaxine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[140] United States
1994 Field development American molecular geneticist Jeffrey M. Friedman and team report the long-sought identity and function of leptin, a key fat-derived hormone that regulates feeding behaviour and body weight.[141][142] United States
1995 Drug Antidepressant Mirtazapine (Remeron) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of depression.[8]
1996 Organization The Japanese Neuropsychiatric Association is founded.[7] Japan
1998 Drug Citalopram is approved for the treatment of depression.[143] United States
1998 Organization The International Neuropsychiatric Association (INA) is formed.[7]
2002 Organization The European Brain Council is founded in Brussels.[144][145] Belgium
2001 Drug Ziprasidone (Geodon), an atypical antipsychotic, is marketed.[34]
2002 Drug Escitalopram is introduced for treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.[146]
2002 Organization The Argentinian Neuropsychiatric Organization is established.[134] Argentina
2004 Drug Duloxetine (sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others) is first used to treat major depressive disorder.[147]
2007 Legal global pharmaceutical Eli Lilly and Company agrees to pay up to US$500 million to settle 18,000 lawsuits from people who claimed they developed diabetes or other diseases after taking Zyprexa.[19] United States

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References

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