Timeline of recycling

From Timelines
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of recycling, attempting to describe significant events in the history of this industry.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • How did recycling for every material evolve throughout time and what types of recycling industries are there?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Category".
    • You will mostly see a categorization discriminating recycling by material or type of recycling.
    • For events related to all materials in general, look for rows with value "General".
  • What are some milestone recycling practice introductions?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Industry". This type of event aims to describe the introduction of the practice rather than the introduction of a recycling system.
  • What are some notable recycling systems introduced throughout history?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "System introduction".
    • You will see a variety of systems ranging from ancient methods like bronze scrap recovery systems, old methods like some of paper recycling, to contemporary systems using modern machinery for industries like electronic and curbside recycling.
  • What are some notable introduced governmental policies concerning recycling?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
    • You will see some important regulations, like the influential Operation National Sword in China.
  • What are some notable non-profit organizations advocating and operating in the recycling industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization (non-profit)".
    • You will see large global organizations like Bureau of International Recycling, as well as other smaller non-profits.
  • What are some notable companies operating in the recycling industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization (for-profit)".
    • You will read names like Remondis, an old company in Germany, and Tyrelessly in India, etc.
  • What are some notable numbers illustrating the size of the recycling industry around the world?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times As early as 400 BC, people are known to recycle. Archaeological evidence indicates that glass is recycled in the ancient city of Sagalassos, Turkey, during the imperial Byzantine times.[1] Early Romans are also found to recycle bronze coins into statues that could be sold at a higher monetary value than the original coins.[2] Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe
18th Century Industrial revolution. It becomes easier and cheaper to produce goods, it is also easier and sometimes cheaper to throw used items away.[2]
19th Century Scrap metal is purchased by sold by railroads.[3] "Dustmen" collect ash from coal fires, in order to use it as soil conditioner and for brick–making. The practice is still alive today.[4]
20th Century In the 1930s, many people survive the Great Depression by peddling scraps of metal, rags and other items.[5] Goods such as nylon, rubber and many metals are rationed and recycled during World War II.[5] Further in the 1940s ad 1950s, recycling becomes less important as landfilling becomes a cheap way to dispose trash. The 1960s see the rise of the environmental movement, which provoques public awareness and rises environmental consciousness. In the 1970s, a strong worldwide growth in support for energy conservation is triggered partly by the energy shortages and rising prices resulting from the emergence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),[6] thus recycling becomes more popular again and drop-off recycling centers are established.[2] In the 1980s, major cities in the United States begin establishing curbside collection programs for plastics and other recyclables.[7] In the 1990s, municipal recycling programs are established throughout the United States and Europe.[8] Extended producer responsibility programs merge worldwide. "Single-stream recycling popped up in several California communities in the 1990s as a low-barrier entry into recycling."[9][10]

Visual data

The image below shows the evolution of recycling as a percentage of waste generation in the United States.[11]

Recycling as a percentage of waste generation in the United States.png

Full timeline

Year Category Type of event Event Geographical location
3300 BC–1200 BC Metal recycling System introduction Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe during the European Bronze Age.[4] Europe
2000 BC Metal recycling System introduction Composting/Recycling methods, as well as recycling bronze for later use, are developed in China.[12] China
400 BC Glass recycling Industry Recycling may start as early as this time, when some civilizations take glass from conquered villages and reuse the glass in their own settlements. Recycling materials, such as glass, becomes necessary for survival, especially in times of disease, war, or famine.[13]
105 AC Textile recycling System introduction Han dynasty. During this period the Chinese Minister for Agriculture Tsai Lun invents the idea of making paper from old linen rags.[14] China
1031 Paper recycling Industry The first ever recorded reuse of waste paper begins in Japan. Documents and paper are recycled and re-pulped into new paper then sold in local Staples across the country.[5][15][14] Japan
1500s Metal recycling Industry Spanish copper mines use scrap iron for cementation of copper. This recycling practice survives to this day.[4]
1690 Paper/cardboard recycling System introduction The recycled paper manufacturing process is introduced when Rittenhouse Mill, Philadelphia starts manufacturing paper from waste paper and rags.[16][12][5][14][17] United States
1774 Paper recycling System introduction A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper (deinking) is invented by German jurist Justus Claproth.[18] Germany
1776 Metal recycling Industry The first metal recycling is produced in the United States when patriots in New York City manage to melt down a statue of King George III and make into 42,088 bullets.[3][16] United States
1800 Paper recycling System introduction English papermaker Matthias Koops is granted the first patent for paper recycling. His patent application involves extracting ink from printed and written paper and converting the paper into pulp to make new paper. This process would be later adopted by paper mills worldwide.[19] United Kingdom
1813 Textile recycling System introduction Benjamin Law develops the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool, through a process of combining fibres with virgin wool.[4] United Kingdom
1865 General Organization (non-profit) The Salvation Army is founded in London, and begins collecting, sorting and recycling unwanted goods. The Household Salvage Brigades employ the unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. In the 1990s, the organization and its program would migrate to the United States.[20][5] United Kingdom
1874 Paper/cardboard recycling Industry The first municipal paper recycling in the United States starts in Baltimore, Maryland. A second one opens in New York City in the same year.[19] United States
1884 Glass recycling System introduction Container-deposit legislation. An official recycling system for bottles with refundable deposits is established in Sweden.[3] Sweden
1896 General Facility launch An early major recycling center is started by the Benedetto family in New York City, where they collect rags, newspaper, and trash with a pushcart.[21] United States
1897 General Facility launch A materials recovery facility is buit in New York City, where trash is sorted at “picking yards” and separated into various grades of paper, metals, and carpet. Burlap bags, twine, rubber and even horse hair are also sorted for recycling and reuse.[5] United States
1904 Aluminium recycling Facility launch The first large–scale aluminum recyclers are operated in the metalworks of Chicago.[8] United States
1907 Plastic recycling Background The first synthetic plastic Bakelite, is produced. This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.[22]
1916–1918 General Organization (government agency) Due to massive shortages of raw materials during World War I, the United States Federal government creates the Waste Reclamation Service with the motto “Don’t Waste Waste – Save It.”.[5] United States
1926 Sewage sludge recycling Product Milorganite is introduced as a brand of biosolids fertilizer produced by treating sewage sludge.[23] United States
1934 General Organization (for-profit) German Recycling and waste management company Remondis is founded.[24] Germany
1939–1945 General Crisis-motivated recycling Recycling and reusing materials become vital during The Great Depression and World War II, since resources and materials are limited and people can no longer afford to purchase new materials. Recycling and reusing become a symbol of the war, and a way for American’s back home to do their part to help the war effort.[13]
1939–1945 Paper/cardboard recycling Crisis-motivated recycling Paper recycling efforts resurface during World War II when, due to a major shortage of paper pulp, people are asked to save used paper and rags to make new paper.[19]
1940 Scrap recycling Crisis-motivated recycling Nylon, elastic, used batteries and various scrap metals are recycled in Europe and the United States to benefit the war effort.[14] Europe, United States
1948 General Organization (non-profit) The Bureau of International Recycling is formed. Headquartered in Brussels, it is considered to be the first federation to support the interests of the recycling industry on an international scale.[25][26][27] Belgium
1948 Timber recycling Notable product A 100 meters tall tower of Golm transmitter near Potsdam, Germany is built from recycled timber from old radio towers. The tower would remain intact for 31 years.[28] Germany
1955 (1 August) General Publication Life magazine offers a two-page article on “Throwaway Living”, selling to consumers the idea that single-use items are a necessity of the modern lifestyle. Ease and convenience would soon become the two most desirable qualities in product marketing, inevitably leading to parks, forests and highways becoming littered with garbage.[5] United States
1960 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated at around 5 million tons.[19] United States
1962 General Literature Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, warning that, when you throw something away, it doesn't really go away.[29] United States
1962 General Organization (non-profit) The United States National Waste & Recycling Association is founded.[30][31][32] United States
1964 Metal recycling Product The aluminum beverage can is introduced and quickly becomes an industry standard.[8]
1965–1970 General Symbol introduction American designer Gary Anderson introduces the symbol for Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, inspired in the Möbius strip.[33][5] United States
1968 Aluminium recycling System introduction The aluminum industry begins aluminum recycling.[29]
1970 (April 22) General Annual event Earth Day is founded in the United States by Senator Gaylord Nelson and globally by entrepreneur John McConnell.[5]
1970 Metal recycling Crisis-motivated recycling "Ban The Can" is conceived and executed by Ruth "Pat" Webb as the first post-World War II mass recycling program in the United States in Honolulu, Hawaii. Webb organizes military and civilian volunteers to collect over 9 tons (8,200 kg) of metal cans from the roadways and highways of Oahu. The metal cans are later recycled into steel reinforcement bars to be used in local construction projects.[34] United States
1971 Metal recycling, Glass recycling Policy The Oregon Bottle Bill is passed as a container-deposit legislation in Oregon, requiring cans, bottles, and other containers sold in Oregon to be returnable with a minimum refund value.[35] United States
1972 General Facility launch The first recycling mill is built in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.[7][5] United States
1973 Plastic recycling Facility launch An early recycling center for plastic materials is created in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.[14] United States
1974 Waste recycling Program launch University City, Missouri starts offering curbside recycling to its residents.[5] United States
1974 Waste recycling Program launch The first multi–material curbside recycling program is launched in Canada.[6] Canada
1970s Timber recycling Industry Industry pioneers on the East Coast of the United States begin selling of recycled lumber.[28] United States
1980 Fluorescent lamp recycling System introduction The first commercial lamp crusher in the world is introduced.[36] United Kingdom
1981 General Policy Woodbury, New Jersey becomes the first city in the United States to mandate recycling.[37][4] United States
1983 Curbside recycling System introduction The blue box recycling system (BBRS) is launched in Canada, initially as a waste management system used by Canadian municipalities to collect source separating household waste materials for the purpose of recycling. The first full-scale community wide BBRS is implemented in the City of Kitchener, Ontario. Today, the blue box system and variations of it remain in place in hundreds of cities around the world.[6] Canada
1983 Automotive oil recycling Policy The Used Automotive Oil Recycling Ac is passed in Washington State, requiring sellers of 100 gallons or more oil per year to post signs on used oil recycling and to identify the nearest oil collection center.[38] United States
1984 Plastic recycling Statistics Plastics recycling tops 100 million pounds in the United States for the first time in the history of plastics recycling.[7] United States
1985–1989 Curbside recycling Program launch Rose Rowan starts the first kerbside collection service for recyclables.[33]
1986 General Policy Rhode Island becomes the first U.S. state to mandate recycling, including some plastic bottles and containers.[7] United States
1986 Drug recycling Program launch The Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) is established by both the United States Department of Defense and the Food and Drug Administration as a federal program aiming to save government resources by extending the shelf-life of medications in military stockpiles.[39] United States
1987 Scrap recycling Organization (non-profit) United States-based private, non-profit trade association Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries is founded.[40] United States
1987 Packaging recycling Organization (for-profit) Eltex Recycling is founded in Romania. It operates packaging waste recycling, among other specialties.[41] Romania
1988 Plastic recycling recycling code introduction The Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) introduces a recycling code system that helps with recycling plastic by numbers.[42] United States
1988 General Organization (for-profit) ReCycled Refuse International Ltd is founded in Switzerland. It produces renewable energy through recursive recycling.[43] Switzerland
1988 Precycling Concept development The term precycling is introduced for a waste awareness campaign in Berkeley, California. It is the practice of reducing waste by attempting to avoid bringing items which will generate waste into home or business.[44] United States
1988 Curbside recycling Statistics The number of curbside recycling programs in the United States increases to about 1,050.[5] United States
1988 Plastic recycling Recycling code release The Plastics Industry Trade Association (SPI) creates the Resin Identification Code to help recycling programs identify the resin content in plastic waste.[45] United States
1989 General Organization (non-profit) The Center for the Development of Recycling is founded at San Jose State University, California. It works on urban water conservation and recycling projects.[46] United States
1990 General Program launch The concept of Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is first formally introduced by Thomas Lindhqvist in a report to the Swedish Ministry of the Environment. EPR is defined as an environmental protection strategy that makes the manufacturer of the appliance responsible for its entire life cycle and especially for the “take-back”, recycling and final disposal of the product.[47] Sweden
1990 Refrigerant reclamation Policy The United States Congress Clean Air Act of 1990 mandates that all chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halocarbons, containing fluorine, chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen (HCFCs) be reclaimed.[48] United States
1990 Plastic recycling System introduction Coca-Cola begins blending recycled plastics into its beverage bottles.[7]
1990s General Single-stream recycling Single-stream recycling is introduced in California, as a system that combines all recyclable items such as paper, plastic, metal, and glass together in a collection truck, rather than being sorted into separate materials and handled separately throughout the entire process.[13]
1991–2011 General Policy More than 70 Extended producer responsibility (EPR) laws are enacted in the United States, generally requiring manufacturers to implement EPR programs, though without specifying recycling targets.[49] United States
1991 Packaging recycling Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Germany, after the German Packaging Ordinance is passed, extending to producers the responsibility for their products and packaging, beyond production and delivery through to the entire life cycle. Since the adoption, until 1998, the per capita consumption of packaging is reduced from 94.7 kg to 82 kg, resulting in a reduction of 13.4%.[50][51][5] Germany
1991 General Organization The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL) is established, in order to create jobs and benefit the environment through recycling.[20]
1991 Electronic recycling System introduction The first electronic waste recycling system is implemented in Switzerland, beginning with collection of old refrigerators but gradually expanding to cover all devices.[52] Switzerland
1991 General Program launch Germany introduced its recycling system with the "green dot" as a symbol.[53] Germany
1991–2017 Tire recycling Industry The stockpile of scrap tires shrinks from over a billion to just 60 million in this period. According to the tire industry, tire recycling is a major success story.[54]
1992 Curbside recycling Policy The number of Kerbside collection programs in the United States reaches four thousand, up from just six hundred in 1989. With the rise of curbside recycling, industries abandon many of their buy–back programs and begin to rely largely on municipal services that require them to pay no extra fees.[55] United States
1993 Plastic recycling Organization (non-profit) Brussels-based non-profit[56] European trade association Petcore is founded to promote the collection, sorting and recycling of post-consumer PET bottles.[57] Belgium
1993 General Policy Israel issues its Law for the Collection of Recycling (1993).[58] This law provides the principles and the legal framework for recycling in the country.[59][60] Israel
1994 General Concept development The term downcycling is first used.[61] It refers to the recycling of waste where the recycled material is of lower quality and functionality than the original material.[62]
1994 Packaging recycling Policy A Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste is introduced by the European Union (EU) member states. The essence of the directive is that: “Packaging shall be designed…to permit reuse or recovery…and to minimize its impact on the environment when…disposed of.”[63] European Union
1994–2010 Tire recycling Statistics The European Union increases the amount of tires recycled from 25% of annual discards to nearly 95%, with roughly half of the end-of-life tires used for energy, mostly in cement manufacturing.[64] European Union
1995 Aluminum recycling Statistics A record 47.6 billion soft drink containers are recycled in the United States, an increase of 500 million over the previous year. Aluminum cans are recycled at a rate of 63% in the country, with the highest state-wide rate in California at 80%.[5]
1995 Packaging recycling Organization (non-profit) The Packaging Recovery Organisation Europe is founded as the umbrella organization of 31 national producer responsibility systems engaged in the selective collection and recycling of packaging waste.[65]
1995 Land recycling Program launch Pennsylvania's Land Recycling Program is introduced as a package of laws passed by the legislature with the purpose to redevelop brownfield land.[66] United States
1996 General Statistics Recycling in the United States is rated at 25%, with the United States Environmental Protection Agency setting a new goal of 35%.[5] United States
1996 General System introduction Norwegian companies Elopak and SINTEF team up to sell the first infra-red sorting machine.[5] Germany
1996 General Criticism Columnist John Tierney writes in a New York Times Magazine article that “recycling is garbage.” “Mandatory recycling programs […] offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups—politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations—while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America.”[67][68] United States
1997 General Program launch America Recycles Day is created on November 15 by the National Recycling Coalition. Every year since then, the President of the United States usually issues a Presidential Proclamation recognizing this day and encourage his fellow Americans to commit to the act of recycling.[69] United States
1997 Mobile phone recycling Program launch The first take back pilot program for mobile phone recycling takes place in Europe. It is run in Sweden and United Kingdom and is executed by member companies of the European Telecommunications and Professional Electronics Industry association., a group consisting of six mobile phone manufacturers.[70] Sweden, United Kingdom
1997 Vehicle recycling Program launch The European Commission adopts a Proposal for a Directive which makes vehicle dismantling and recycling more environmentally friendly, seting clear quantified targets for reuse, recycling and recovery of vehicles and their components and pushing producers to manufacture new vehicles also with a view to their recyclability.[71] European Union
1998 Electronic recycling Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Taiwan for electrical and electronic equipment, requiring producers to take back and recycle products such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air–conditioners and computers, regardless of where they are sold.[50] Taiwan
1998 General Policy Extended producer responsibility programs (EPR) start being adopted in Switzerland.[72] Switzerland
1998 Curbside recycling Organization Ukranian state enterprise Ukrecoresursy launches with the purpose to provide waste recycling services.[73][74] Ukraine
1998 General Statistics The number of roadside recycling programs in the United States reaches 9,000, with 12,000 recyclable drop-off centers.[75] United States
1999 General Policy Norway introduces a scheme calling for manufacturers to establish regional collection centers to process the products, recycling where possible and economically viable.[63] Norway
2000 General Study The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) confirms a link between global warming and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down greenhouse gas emissions.[5]
2000 Paper recycling Organization (non-profit) The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) is set up as an industry self-initiative with the purpose of monitoring progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling, which is published the same year.[76]
2000 General Organization (non-profit) New Zelander non-profit organization Xtreme Waste is founded. It is dedicated to recycling.[77] New Zealand
2000 Concrete recycling Statistics Japan reaches a concrete recycling rate of 96%.[78] Japan
2001 Electronic recycling Policy The Home Appliance Recycling Law comes into force in Japan, thus making recycling of waste electrics a legal requirement under the Specific Household Appliance Recycling Law and the Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization Resources. Consumers are required to pay a combined fee for retailers to take back discarded air–conditioners, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines and for producers to recycle them.[50][79] Japan
2001 Metal recycling Organization (non-profit) The British Metals Recycling Association is formed. It represents over 300 organizations working across the British metal recycling sector.[80] United Kingdom
2001 Vehicle recycling Policy China implements its Management Rules of Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles.[81] China
2001 General Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Japan with three basic laws setting the legal structure, establishing the 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), also mandating recycling fees which include consumers.[82] Japan
2001 Plasterboard/drywall recycling Organization (for profit) Danish company Gypsum Recycling International is founded.[83][84] Denmark
2001 Electronic recycling Policy Japan enacts its Home Appliance Recycling Law, which introduces a recycling framework for household electric equipment.[85]
2001 Upcycling Organization (for-profit) American recycling company TerraCycle is founded with the mission to eliminate the idea of waste.[86][87] United States
2002 Textile recycling Organization (non-profit) The Carpet America Recovery Effort launches as a joint industry-government non-profit organization whose mission is to develop market-based solutions for recovering value from discarded carpets.[88][89] United States
2002 Glass recycling, Plastic recycling Policy New York City, an early municipal recycling pioneer, eliminates glass and plastic recycling, after finding that the benefits of recycling plastic and glass are outweighed by the price—recycling cost twice as much as disposal.[67] United States
2003 Electronic recycling Policy The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) is passed into European Law. It sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods.
2003 Electronic recycling Policy The California Electronic Waste Recycling Act is signed, establishing a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.[90] United States
2003 Curbside recycling Organization (non-profit) American independent 501(c)3 Curbside Value Partnership is founded. It is a non-profit[91] organization operating Kerbside collection.[92][93] United States
2003 Freecycling Organization (non-profit) The Freecycle Network (freecycle.org[1]) launches as a website in Tucson, Arizona. It coordinates a worldwide network of "gifting" groups to divert reusable goods from landfills. The network would grow into nearly 5,000 community-based Freecycle groups in over 85 countries around the world.[94][95][96] Freecycling is the act of giving away usable unwanted items to others instead of disposing of them in landfills.[97] United States
2003 Electronic recycling Organization (non-profit) The e-Stewards initiative launches as an electronics waste recycling standard created by the Basel Action Network.[98] It is a non-profit organization that offers recycling solutions for enterprises, recyclers, and consumers.[99] United States
2003 Curbside recycling Policy The British Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 requires local authorities in England to provide every household with a separate collection of at least two types of recyclable materials by 2010.[100] United Kingdom
2003 Appliance recycling Policy The California Electronic Waste Recycling Act is signed. It establishes a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.[90] United States
2004 Vegetable oil recycling Policy The different Belgian regions impose collection and recycling targets on producers of frying oils and frying fats.[101] Belgium
2005 Single-stream recycling Statistics About a fifth of all communities in the United States with recycling programs use single-stream recycling.[10] United States
2005 Aircraft recycling System introduction Airbus becomes a pioneer in the field of aircraft recycling when it launches PAMELA, a project that demonstrates that up to 85% of each aircraft’s components could be safely and effectively reused, recovered or recycled, compared to just 60% before the project’s inception.[102]
2005 Aircraft recycling Organization (non-profit) The Aircraft Fleet Recycling Association is founded by 11 organizations from various sectors of the aircraft industry, including Boeing, Europe Aviation and Rolls Royce, which agree to join forces to develop an industry code of conduct and industry-developed recommended best practice in the areas of aircraft dismantling and materials recycling.[103]
2005 Vehicle recycling Policy Japan passes its Automobile Recycling Law, the first in Asia.[104] Japan
2006 Electronic recycling Organization (non-profit) The World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association launches. It is a not-for-profit[105] business consortium dedicated to the reform of the trade of e-waste.[106][107]
2006 Battery recycling Policy The European Union passes the Battery Directive, one of the aims of which is a higher rate of battery recycling. The EU directive states that at least 25% of all the EU's used batteries must be collected by 2012, and rising to no less than 45% by 2016, of which at least 50% must be recycled.[108] European Union
2006 Upcycling Program launch The Recycled Orchestra of Cateura in Paraguay is created by the program Sounds of the Earth, directed by Luis Szaran. The instruments of the orchestra are made from materials taken from the landfill of Asunción, whose name comes from the Cateura lagoon in the area.[109][110] Paraguay
2007 Electronic recycling Policy Five U.S. states pass laws requiring that unwanted electronics be recycled.[5] United States
2007 Plastic recycling Organization (non-profit) Non-governmental non-profit[111] organization Trashy Bags is founded in Ghana with the purpose to "contribute to cleaning up the streets of Accra". It turns plastic waste into reusable shopping bags, fashion accessories, school supplies, and other products.[112][113] Ghana
2007 Electronic recycling Organization (for-profit) BuyMyTronics.com launches as an electronics resale business in Denver, Colorado.[114] United States
2008 Paper recycling Program launch The USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program launches in the United States as a project for consumers to recycle paper items, using recycling bins placed in the customer lobbies of post office buildings.[115] United States
2008 PET bottle recycling Statistics The amount of post-consumer PET bottles collected for recycling and sold in the United States is approximately 1.45 billion pounds in this year.[116] United States
2008 General Organization (for-profit) Rubicon is founded. It provides a suite of SaaS products for waste, recycling, and smart city solutions.[117] United States
2008 General Statistics (infrastructure) 48 recycling plants operate in Japan, with around 380 sites are designated for collection.[85] Japan
2009 Scrap recycling Publication American professor Carl A. Zimring publishes Cash for your trash, one of the first specialized studies about scrap recycling in the United States.[118] United States
2009 Drug recycling Organization (non-profit) SIRUM (Supporting Initiatives to Redistribute Unused Medicine) is launched by Stanford University students as a nonprofit organization which advocates for drug recycling.[119] United States
2010 Metal recycling Statistics The metal recycling industry generates US$64 billion in the United States in the year.[120] United States
2010 Concrete recycling Statistics It is estimated that the United States recycles approximately 140 million tons of concrete per year.[121] United States
2010 Mobile phone recycling Program launch Nokia introduces mobile recycling programs in Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Pakistan, Panama, Belarus, Bosnia, Malta, and Ukraine, in order to promote a recycling culture.[70] Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Pakistan, Panama, Belarus, Bosnia, Malta, Ukraine
2010–2011 Upcycling Trend growth The number of products on Etsy or Pinterest tagged with the word "upcycled" increases from about 7,900 in January 2010 to nearly 30,000 a year later—an increase of 275%.[122]
2011 Computer recycling Program launch Australia establishes its National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme to provide local households and small businesses with access to free industry-funded collection and recycling services for televisions and computers, including printers, computer parts and peripherals.[123] Australia
2011 Aircraft recycling Industry Boeing starts recycling carbon fibre.[102] United States
2012 Electronic recycling Statistics More than 585 million pounds of consumer electronics are recycled. This is an increase of 125 million pounds (more than 25%) over 2011.[5]
2012 Single-stream recycling Statistics (infrastructure) As of year there are 248 materials recovery facilities operating in the United States.[124] United States
2012 PET bottle recycling Statistics 81% of the PET bottles sold in Switzerland in this year are recycled.[125] Switzerland
2013 Single-stream recycling Statistics As of year, 100 million Americans are served by single-stream recycling programs.[126] United States
2013 General Program launch Operation Green Fence launches in China as an effort to start getting exporting countries to clean their recycling, their plastics in particular.[127][128] China
2014 Textile recycling Statistics Over 16 million tons of textile waste are generated in the United States in the year. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons are recycled, 3.14 million tons are combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons are sent to the landfill.[129] United States
2014 General Background About 258 million tons of trash are generated in the United States. 66.4 million tons are recycled and 23 million tons of this material are composted. A 34.6 percent recycling rate is calculated. On average, Americans recycle and compost 1.51 pounds of their individual waste generation of 4.44 pounds per person per day.[130] United States
2015 Plastic recycling Statistics An estimated 9 percent out of a cumulative 5800 million tons of primary plastic no longer in use is estimated to have been recycled.[22] In the year, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent recycled.[22] Worldwide
2015 Tire recycling Organization (for-profit) New Delhi-based environment sustainability company Tyrelessly is founded. It provides tire Recycling.[131][132] India
2016 General Financial The recycling industry generates revenue volume of US$160 billion throughout the world in the year, and employs around 1.5 million people.[14]
2016 General Statistics Study by the United States Recycling Economic Information (REI) finds that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States account for: 757,000 jobs, U$36.6 billion in wages, and US$6.7 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.57 jobs, US$76,000 in wages, and US$14,101 in tax revenues for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled.[133] United States
2016 Paint recycling Organization (non-profit) Paintback is founded in Australia as an industry-led non-profit[134] initiative "designed to divert unwanted paint and packaging from ending up in landfill and vital waterways".[135] Australia
2017 (July) General Policy China announces its Operation National Sword, a new regulation on imports of solid wastes as raw materials. The policy bans various plastic, paper and solid waste, including plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride PVC and polystyrene (PS).[127][136] China
2017 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics The recycling rate in the United States is reported at 65.9%, which is among the highest compared to other materials in municipal solid waste.[19] United States
2017 General Recognition The World Economic Forum names Germany recycling world champion.[53] Germany
2018 General Program launch The Global Recycling Day launches on March 18.[137]
2018 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated to be of approximately 5 million tons.[19] United States
2018 PET bottle recycling Statistics 90% of the PET bottles sold in Finland in this year were recycled.[138] Finland
2018 Electronic recycling Product launch Apple Inc. introduces Daisy, a smartphone-recycling robot that can take apart 200 iPhones every hour. About 48,000 metric tons of electronic waste are reported are reported to be diverted from landfills this year.[139]
2018 Paper recycling Organization (for-profit) RecyclePaperZA is established in South Africa.[140] South Africa
2018 General Statistics (infrastructure) In the United States, there are over 300 materials recovery facilities.[141] United States
2018 (March) Scrap recycling Policy China's Operation National Sword goes into full effect, banning 24 types of scrap and implementing much stricter and more rigorous contamination standards. As a result, local governments and the recycling industry begin to face an unprecedented recycling crisis, especially in plastics.[142][127] China
2019 Fluorescent lamp recycling System introduction The world's first LED lamp recycling system is introduced.[36] United Kingdom
2019 General Program launch America Recycles Day becomes an integral part of the Keep America Beautiful campaign.[69] United States
2019 Plastic recycling Recyclability Swiss food company Nestlé recognizes that certain types of plastic, including expanded polystyrene, simply cannot be recycled.[42]
2030 Plastic recycling Program launch Coca Cola intends to use 50% recycled polyethylene terephthalate in its containers by this year.[9]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also


  1. "A geochemical study of Roman to early Byzantine Glass from Sagalassos, South-west Turkey". academia.edu. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "History of Recycling". all-recycling-facts.com. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world's first green industries…". gachman.com. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Nongpluh, Yoofisaca Syngkon; Noronha, Guy C. Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 Bradbury, Matt. "A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling". buschsystems.com. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Paehlke, Robert. Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 "The History of Plastics Recycling". plasticsmakeitpossible.com. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage (Carl A. Zimring, William L. Rathje ed.). Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Single-Stream Recycling and the Future of Waste". thebalancesmb.com. Retrieved 21 February 2020. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Single-Stream Recycling Is Easier for Consumers, but Is It Better?". theatlantic.com. Retrieved 21 February 2020. 
  11. "National Overview: Facts and Figures on Materials, Wastes and Recycling". epa.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "History of the Garbage Man". garbagemanday.org. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING". clearintentions.glass. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 "THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD". paprec.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  15. "History of Recycling". hintonswaste.co.uk. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Chandrappa, Ramesha; Bhusan Das, Diganta. Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  17. "Papermaking Moves to the United States". Robert C. Williams Paper Museum, Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  18. Göttsching, Lothar; Pakarinen, Heikki (2000). "1". Recycled Fiber and Deinking. Papermaking Science and Technology. 7. Finland: Fapet Oy. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-952-5216-07-3. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 "Introduction to Paper Recycling". thebalancesmb.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015". salvationarmy.org. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  21. Politics and Public Policy (Barbara Wejnert ed.). 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "Plastic Pollution". ourworldindata.org. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  23. "President's Message" (PDF). gardeningnaturally.org. Retrieved 28 April 2020. 
  24. "Learning from the Rethmann way". letsrecycle.com. Retrieved 9 February 2020. 
  25. "Bureau of International Recycling (BIR)". letsrecycle.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  26. "Bureau of International Recycling (BIR)". lobbyfacts.eu. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  27. "Bureau of International Recycling". cividesk.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 "HISTORY OF RECLAIMED LUMBER". tntreclaimed.com. Retrieved 8 March 2020. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Plastics in Food Packaging Conference. Plastics Instit. 
  30. "National Waste & Recycling Association". wasterecycling.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  31. "Descripción general de National Waste & Recycling Association". glassdoor.com.ar. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  32. "National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA)". nerc.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 "Recycling". weebly.com. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  34. 1970 Navy Times Article
  35. "Oregon's Bottle Bill". Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 "Balcan Lamp Recycling Systems". cfl-lamprecycling.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  37. Robinson, William D. The Solid Waste Handbook: A Practical Guide. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  38. Used Oil Recycling. 
  39. Alnahas, Faez; Yeboah, Prince; Fliedel, Louise; Abdin, Ahmad Yaman; Alhareth, Khair. "Expired Medication: Societal, Regulatory and Ethical Aspects of a Wasted Opportunity". 
  40. "ISRI Time Capsule: ISRI Is Born". isri.org. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  41. "Eltex Recycling". linkedin.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 "RECYCLING CODES". plasticsoupfoundation.org. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  43. "RENEWABLE ENERGY THROUGH RECURSIVE RECYCLING from RCR". rcrcommodities.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  44. "Waste not, want not". theguardian.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  45. "The 7 Plastic Resin Identification Codes and the Significance of the Symbols". microdyneplastics.com/. Retrieved 3 March 2020. 
  46. "Center for the Development of Recycling". recyclestuff.org. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  47. Thomas Lindhqvist & Karl Lidgren, "Models for Extended Producer Responsibility," in Sweden, October 1990.
  48. "Refrigerant Reclamation Tips". contractingbusiness.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  49. Nash, Jennifer; Bosso, Christopher. "Extended Producer Responsibility in the United States". wiley.com. doi:10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Smith, Michael H.; Hargroves, Karlson; Desha, Cheryl. Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures. 
  51. Hanisch, Carola. "Is Extended Producer Responsibility Effective?" Environmental Science & Technology 34.7 (2000): 170A-75A. Web.
  52. "About us – Swico Recycling". www.swicorecycling.ch. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Plastic waste and the recycling myth". dw.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  54. "The Importance of Tire Recycling". thebalancesmb.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  55. Elmore, Bartow J. Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  56. "Platform Members". epbp.org. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  57. "Petcore Europe" (PDF). petcore-europe.org. Retrieved 15 February 2020. 
  58. "חוק איסוף ופינוי פסולת למיחזור, התשנ׳׳ג–1993" [Law for the Collection of Recycling] (PDF). Ministry of Environmental Protection (in Hebrew). State of Israel. Retrieved 8 March 2020. 
  59. "Waste and Recycling". sviva.gov.il. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  60. Science, Technology and American Diplomacy: Annual Report to the Congress : Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Volumes 8-12. 
  61. Thornton Kay, Salvo in Germany - Reiner Pilz, p14 SalvoNEWS No99 11 October 1994
  62. Ana Pires (2018). Sustainable Solid Waste Collection and Management. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-93200-2. 
  63. 63.0 63.1 "Current Status of Extended Producer Responsibility Legislation and Effects on Product Design" (PDF). pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  64. Sienkiewicz, Maciej; Kucinska-Lipka, Justyna; Janik, Helena; Balas, Adolf (October 2012). "Progress in used tyres management in the European Union: A review". Waste Management. 32 (10): 1742–1751. PMID 22687707. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.05.010. 
  65. "PRO Europe Website.". pro-e.org. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  66. "Land Recycling Program". harvard.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 "The Pros and Cons of Recycling". thoughtco.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  68. "4 Reasons Recycling Is Worth Its Associated Costs". hazardouswasteexperts.com. Retrieved 11 February 2020. 
  69. 69.0 69.1 "America Recycles Day". holidayscalendar.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Post-Consumer Waste Recycling and Optimal Production (Enri Damanhuri ed.). 
  71. "Commission proposes Directive on environmentally friendly handling of End of Life Vehicles". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 8 March 2020. 
  72. "A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India". empa.ch. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  73. "Ukrecoresursy". eco-invest.org.ua/. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  74. "Recycling Around the World A-Z: Ukraine". recyclingbins.co.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  75. "Recycling Around the World". BBC News. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2011. 
  76. "RECYCLING". cepi.org. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  77. "Xtreme Waste". xtremezerowaste.org.nz/. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  78. Tam, Vivian WY. "Comparing the implementation of concrete recycling in the Australian and Japanese construction industries". Journal of Cleaner Production. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.11.015. 
  79. Buekens, A.; Yang, J. (2014). "Recycling of WEEE plastics: A review". The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 16 (3): 415–434. doi:10.1007/s10163-014-0241-2. 
  80. "BMRA celebrates 100 Years in Scrap". recyclemetals.org. Retrieved 15 February 2020. 
  81. Cascade Use in Technologies 2018: Internationale Konferenz zur Kaskadennutzung und Kreislaufwirtschaft – Oldenburg 2018 (Alexandra Pehlken, Matthias Kalverkamp, Rikka Wittstock ed.). 
  82. "Assessing Extended Producer Responsibility LAWS in JAPAN". acs.org. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  83. "Gypsum Recycling International". stateofgreen.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  84. "Gypsum Recycling". gypsumrecycling.biz. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  85. 85.0 85.1 OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Japan 2010. OECD. 
  86. "TerraCycle in the news". terracycle.com. Retrieved 15 February 2020. 
  87. Promotional Strategies and New Service Opportunities in Emerging Economies (Nadda, Vipin, Dadwal, Sumesh, Rahimi, Roya ed.). 
  88. "Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE)". recyclingproductnews.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  89. "CARE 2012 Annual Report" (PDF). carpetrecovery.org. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 Electronic Hazardous Waste. (2010). Retrieved from Department of Toxic Substances Control website: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/ewaste/
  91. "The Recycling Partnership". cancentral.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  92. "The Recycling Partnership". cancentral.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  93. "Curbside Value Partnership changes name". recyclingtoday.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  94. "The Freecycle Network: Good for the Planet (and Your Wallet)". aarp.org. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  95. "A Decade of Sharing: The Freecycle Network Turns 10". earth911.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  96. "Freecycle" (PDF). anjr.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  97. Michael Norton (2007). 365 Ways To Change the World: How to Make a Difference – One Day at a Time. Simon & Schuster. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-1-4165-4832-4. 
  98. "What are R2 and e-Stewards Certifications?". greencitizen.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  99. "e-Stewards". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  100. "Friends of the Earth - "Recycling Bill success!"". 
  101. "Exploration of the Role of Extended Producer Responsibility for the circular economy in the Netherlands" (PDF). Retrieved 3 March 2020. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 Grey, Eva. "Aircraft recycling: up to the challenge". airport-technology.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  103. "Aircraft Fleet Recycling Association Accredits Two More Recyclers". recyclingtoday.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  104. Chea, Jia; Jeong-soo, Yu; Roy Serrona, Kevin. "End-of-life vehicle recycling and international cooperation between Japan, China and Korea: Present and future scenario analysis". doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(11)61103-0. 
  105. "World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association". wr3a.net. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  106. "World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association". morebooks.de. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  107. "Frequently Asked Questions about Fair Trade Recycling". ingenthron.net/. Retrieved 14 February 2020. 
  108. "EU agrees battery recycling law". BBC Online. 3 May 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  109. Tsioulcas, Anastasia (14 September 2016). "From Trash To Triumph: The Recycled Orchestra". NPR. Washington, D. C. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  110. "Landfill Harmonic: The Recycled Orchestra: making music on a landfill site". www.classicfm.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  111. "Stuart Gold is making money from turning Ghana's trash to tourists' treasure". pulse.com.gh. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  112. "Trashy Bags". trashybags.org. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  113. "Ghana's pure water irony: Trashy bags it's solution?". modernghana.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  114. "BuyMyTronics.com". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  115. "USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program". officeschoices.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  116. Nicholas Dege: The Technology of bottled water, p. 431, John Wiley & Sons, 2011
  117. "Rubicon". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  118. "Zimring, Carl A. Cash for your trash : Scrap recycling in America" (PDF). scielo.br. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  119. "SIRUM". linkedin.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  120. "SCRAP METAL RECYCLING 101 – A GUIDE FOR COMPLETE BEGINNERS". verichek.net. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  121. "CONCRETE RECYCLING". yannuzzigroup.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  122. "Upcycling Becomes a Treasure Trove for Green Business Ideas". Entrepreneur Magazine. March 22, 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  123. "National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme". environment.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2020. 
  124. "What is Single Stream Recycling?". charlevoixcounty.org. Retrieved 21 February 2020. 
  125. "OFEV". bafu.admin.ch. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  126. "How It Works: Inside The Machine That Separates Your Recyclables". Popular Science. Retrieved 21 February 2020. 
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 "America's new recycling crisis, explained by an expert". vox.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  128. "Why the world's recycling system stopped working". ft.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  129. "Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures". thebalancesmb.comd. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  130. "Frequently Asked Questions: Benefits of Recycling". lbre.stanford.edu. Retrieved 9 February 2020. 
  131. "Ploughing on tyrelessly". thehindu.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  132. "16-YO Anubhav Wadhwa Has The Perfect Alternative To Disposing Old Tyres Without Burning Them". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 20 February 2020. 
  133. "Recycling Basics". epa.gov. Retrieved 9 February 2020. 
  134. "Paintback". paintback.com.au. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  135. "Paintback". recyclingnearyou.com.au. Retrieved 8 March 2020. 
  136. "COULD THE CHINESE NATIONAL SWORD INSPIRE GLOBAL RECYCLING INNOVATION?". recycling.tomra.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  137. "Global Recycling Day 2020 to focus on recycling heroes". recyclingtoday.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  138. "DEPOSIT-BASED SYSTEM". palpa.fi. Retrieved 21 April 2020. 
  139. "The World Has an E-Waste Problem". time.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  140. "RecyclePaperZA". recyclepaper.co.za. Retrieved 15 February 2020. 
  141. "Sortation by the numbers". Resource Recycling News. 2018-10-01. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  142. "How American Recycling Is Changing After China's National Sword". citylab.com. Retrieved 11 February 2020.