Timeline of telephony in Norway
This is a timeline of telephony in Norway, attempting to describe important events related to the development of the telephony in the country. Much of the history of telephony in Norway is the history of Telenor, which provides telecommunications in the country since 1855.
|Time period||Development summary|
|1850s||The telegraph service is introduced in Norway, upon the foundation of Telegrafvæsenet.|
|1880s||The development of the telephone service starts in Norway.|
|1930||The telephone is introduced in Norway. The original company Telegrafvæsenet is now Telegrafverket.|
|1970s||Norway progresses to its first computer- controlled phone exchange by the mid decade and launches a national satellite system (NORSAT) linking North Sea oil explorers with Norway's mainland. Telegrafverket is now Televerket.|
|1980s||The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), the world’s first fully automatic mobile phone system, is launched in the country.|
|1990s||Norway enters the decade with the highest rate of mobile communications penetration in the world. The country also becomes one of the first with a fully digitalized telecommunications network. Televerket becomes Telenor.|
|2000s||Telenor emerges as one of the most geographically diversified of Europe's major telecom groups.|
|1855||Organization||Telegrafvæsenet begins as a state-operated monopoly provider of telegraph services. The first telegraph line is opened in Norway and the Norwegian Telegraph Administration is created.|
|1857||Organization||Telegrafvæsenet changes its name to Den norske Statstelegraf.|
|1867||Network||A cable connection to Denmark is established.|
|1869||Network||A cable connection to the United Kingdom is established.|
|1870||Network||The telegraph reaches Vardø in northern Norway and thus the whole country is covered in longitude.|
|1877||Technology||The first known public demonstration of the Bell phone in Norway takes place in Bergen in June.|
|1878||Network||The towns of Arendal and Tvedestrand are connected with a telephone line.|
|1880||Technology||The first official telephone exchange opens in Norway. Telephone systems are installed in the country. The international Bell Company begins telephone traffic in Oslo.|
|1886||Organization||Bell and Christiania Telefonforening merge into the company Christiania Telefonselskap.|
|1893||Network||A telephone connection is established between Oslo and Stockholm.|
|1893||Coverage||Norway is already one of the countries with the highest density of telephones per habitant in the world.|
|1896||Organization||Den norske Statstelegraf changes its name to Den Norske Rikstelegraf.|
|1900||Organization||Den Norske Rikstelegraf changes its name to Det Norske Telegrafvæsen.|
|1901||Policy||The Telegraph Act is passed, giving the Norwegian state exclusive rights to run telephone services in the country.|
|1905||Organization||Det Norske Telegrafvæsen changes its name to Norges Telegrafvæsen.|
|1906||Network||Different parts of the country become connected by radio telegraphy for the first time.|
|1909||Service||An office phone reception service is established.|
|1918||Technology||The first automatic telephone exchange is established.|
|1920||Scandinavia's first automatic telephone switch is established in Skien. Automation of telephone systems begins in the country.|
|1920||Organization||Norges Telegrafvæsen changes its name to Norges Telegrafvesen.|
|1928||Infrastructure||Telephone connection opens between Norway and the United States.|
|1932||Infrastructure||The first red telephone booths are introduced Norway.|
|1932||Organization||Norges Telegrafvesen changes its name to Telegrafverket.|
|1932||Technology||The "speaking" clock (known to all as "Miss Clock") is introduced in Norway as a new and popular telephone service.|
|1946||Service||A telecommunications service is established.|
|1955||Coverage||Norway has 27 coast radio stations, 12 being equipped with radiotelephony and 15 being equipped with both radiotelegraphy and radiotelephony.|
|1965||Network||Satellite telephone connection opens between Norway and the United States.|
|1966||Network||Direct international distance dialling from Norway is enabled.|
|1966||System||A manual mobile phone system (OLT-Offentlig landmobiltjeneste [public land mobile service]) is introduced in Norway.|
|1969||Organization||Nordic Telephone companies join to create the NMT standard (1G). Cooperation between the Nordic countries creates a common standard resulting in Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT).|
|1969||Organization||The Norwegian Telegraph Administration (Telegrafverket) changes its name to Norwegian Telecommunications (Televerket).|
|1974||Organization||Andebu Telephone Association, the last private telephone company in Norway, is taken over by Norwegian Telecom (Televerket).|
|1975||Technology||NMT is approved as a technical standard at the Nordic Telecommunications Conference.|
|1976||Network||Televerket opens satellite connection from mainland to oil installations in the North Sea.|
|1979||94,000 names in the country are on the waiting list for a phone subscription.|
|1981||Technology||The telefax is introduced in Norway.|
|1981||Network||The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), the world’s first fully automatic mobile phone system, is launched in Oslo.|
|1983||Organization||Alcatel Telecom Norway STK (a Norwegian company then owned by ITT) is chosen to be the developer and supplier of the digital network in Norway.|
|1985||Coverage||The NMT system coverage reaches the entire country. The Norwegian telephone network is completed. Automation of the Norwegian telecommunications network is completed.|
|1988||Coverage||Norway has the world’s highest density of mobile phones with 33 units per 1000 inhabitants. Sweden and Iceland rank in second place with 24 per 1000.|
|1988||Policy||The end of monopoly of sale of telephone sets is mandated in Norway.|
|1989||Coverage||Norway has the highest rate of mobile communications penetration in the world, with 32 subscribers per 1000 persons.|
|1993||Organization||Norwegian mobile phone operator Telia Norge is founded as NetCom AS.|
|1993||Network||Televerket launches GSM system in the country, setting a new international standard (2G).|
|1994||Network||ISDN (broadband) is introduced in Norway.|
|1994||Organization||Televerket becomes a public corporation.|
|1995||Organization||Televerket (Norwegian Telecommunications) changes its name to Telenor.|
|1997||The Norwegian telecommunications network is fully digitalized, one of the first in the world.|
|1998||Product||Telenor launches the first of its IP telephony products in Norway.|
|1998||Policy||The Norwegian telecommunications market opens up to full competition, marking the end of Telenor monopoly in Norway.|
|1999||Organization||Norwegian mobile virtual network operator Chess Communication is founded.|
|1999 (December 16)||Organization||The Norwegian and Swedish states decide to intervene in the merger of Telenor and Telia Company. Mobile service WAP is introduced.|
|2000||Organization||Telenor is partially privatized.|
|2000||Organization||Tele2 becomes operational. It is the first service provider to offer pre-paid cards in Norway.|
|2000 (April)||Service||Netcom AB announces the launch of mobile telephony services in Norway.|
|2001 (November)||Service||Mobile number portability is introduced in Norway.|
|2002||Facility||The new Telenor Group headquarters opens at Fornebu.|
|2002||System||The first trial of UMTS (3G) takes place in the country.|
|2003||Network||Fibre optic cable connects Svalbard with the mainland.|
|2004||Network||Telenor opens the first UMTS mobile network in Norway.|
|2006||Organization||Network Norway is founded by a small group of people from Telenor and NetCom.|
|2007||Network||The digital terrestrial network opens in the country.|
|2007||System||Telenor Norway is granted a licence in the 2.6 GHz band for 4G.|
|2011||Network||Telenor Svalbard celebrates 100 years and launches the northernmost 4G network.|
|2011||Infrastructure||Telenor runs network swap in the country, replacing equipment at 6500 locations and wins the InfoWorld Green Award for clever handling 1500 tons of used network equipment.|
|2012||Network||Telenor launches its fourth-generation mobile network (4G) in 11 cities and towns across the country.|
|2014||Service||Telenor launches mobile payment solution Valyou.|
|2016||Telenor has over 19.000 employees, becoming one of the world’s largest mobile operators.|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
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