Timeline of the rationalist movement

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This is a timeline of the rationalist movement, which refers to a philosophical and intellectual endeavor that emphasizes the use of reason, critical thinking, and evidence-based inquiry to understand and explain the world. Rooted in skepticism of traditional religious and supernatural beliefs, the movement promotes the importance of empirical observation and rational analysis in exploring natural phenomena and societal issues. Rationalism encompasses perspectives that rely on intellectual and deductive reasoning, rather than sensory perception or religious doctrines, as the basis for acquiring knowledge or providing justification.[1] The rationalist movement would evolve over time, beginning with ancient Greek philosophers emphasizing reason and empirical inquiry. Throughout its history, the rationalist movement would advocate for critical thinking, science, and secular values.

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Time period Development summary More details
Pre-5th Century BCE Ancient Roots Greek thinkers such as Thales, Pythagoras, and Democritus play a pivotal role in shaping rational thought and empirical investigation. These philosophers stress the importance of observation, reason, and seeking natural causes to explain various phenomena, departing from traditional mythological interpretations. Their focus on evidence-based inquiry marks a significant shift toward a more rational and scientific approach to understanding the world, setting the stage for the Enlightenment era and the eventual rise of modern scientific thinking.
17th-18th Century Enlightenment Era This period witnesses a profound rise in rationalist thought, championed by luminaries including René Descartes, Isaac Newton, and John Locke. Scientific breakthroughs and philosophical progress encourage the prioritization of reason, skepticism, and the application of human intellect to comprehend the universe. These rationalist principles shape the evolution of democratic systems, individual liberties, and the separation of religion from governance. The Enlightenment lays the foundation for a society centered on knowledge, critical thinking, and the pursuit of truth, fundamentally influencing the trajectory of modernity.[1]
19th Century Emergence of Secularism The emergence of secularism sees a notable ascent of freethought and skepticism, questioning established religious beliefs and endorsing the division between organized religion and governmental affairs. Influential figures such as Robert Ingersoll and Charles Albert Watts play pivotal roles in advancing rationalist concepts, culminating in the establishment of platforms like the Rationalist Press Association (RPA) in 1899. These endeavors facilitate the dissemination of rationalist principles, fostering a more secular outlook and promoting the importance of reason and evidence in shaping societal norms and policies.
20th Century Modern Rationalism The modern rationalist movement experiences global growth, advocating for science, rationality, and secular values. The Humanist Manifestos I (1933) and II (1973) articulate core humanist beliefs, emphasizing reason, ethical values, and a non-religious perspective. Skeptical organizations like the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), established in 1976, critically examine pseudoscientific assertions and paranormal phenomena, promoting a more evidence-based approach to understanding the world. This period witnesses the consolidation and expansion of rationalist ideals, fostering a broader recognition of the significance of reason, skepticism, and secularism in contemporary society.
Late 20th Century - Present Rationalism in the Digital Age Rationalism experiences a rapid expansion due to the internet. Online platforms, including blogs, podcasts, and social media, facilitate the widespread dissemination of rationalist ideas, connecting skeptics, atheists, and freethinkers worldwide. This era witnesses a surge in the prominence of rationalist voices, enabling easy access to resources promoting critical thinking. Amidst the digital landscape, rationalist movements persist in confronting challenges posed by pseudoscience, religious fundamentalism, and anti-intellectual tendencies, emphasizing the continued relevance of reason, evidence, and skepticism in shaping contemporary discourse.

Full timeline

Year Event type Details
1596 Notable birth René Descartes is born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye, Touraine, France.[2] He would become a major rationalist figure in the history of philosophy. He would be best known for his famous statement "I think, therefore I am" (cogito, ergo sum), which is often considered the starting point of modern philosophy. Descartes would also make significant contributions to mathematics and science. He would develop the Cartesian coordinate system, which is still used today in mathematics and physics. He would also make important contributions to optics and geometry.[1]
1632 Notable birth Baruch Spinoza is born. He would become a key figure in 17th-century Rationalism, expanding upon Descartes' principles. He would assert that God is the sole substance with thought and extension attributes. All aspects of the natural world, including humans, are modes of this substance and can only be understood through pure thought. This contrasts with Empiricism, emphasizing sensory experience for knowledge. Spinoza's ideas would contribute to the Enlightenment's French Rationalism, with Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. Rationalism aims for a framework of philosophical discourse outside religious beliefs, and its influence persists through figures like Kant and 20th-century organized Rationalism with empirical leanings.[1]
1646 Notable birth Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is born. A 17th-century Rationalist, he would merge Descartes' ideas with Aristotle's form and his concept of monads. Innate ideas exist virtually in the intellect, becoming actualized through introspection. He would seek solutions beyond Descartes' work. Rationalism, a movement emphasizing intellectual reason over sensory experience, would flourish during the Age of Reason. Leibniz's unique approach aims to reconcile rationalism with other philosophies.[1]
1694 Notable birth François-Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire, is born. A prominent 18th-century French philosopher and writer, is would be celebrated for his courageous opposition to tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. His critical and satirical works would champion progress and influence European civilization during a transitional era from classicism to revolution. Voltaire's legacy would evoke both criticism and admiration, with his teachings promoting clear thinking and a blend of precision and generosity in an evolving world. Today, he remains an essential philosopher, notably impacting Enlightenment ideals amid changing societal landscapes.[3]
1712 Notable birth Jean-Jacques Rousseau is born.[4]
1809 Notable birth Charles Darwin is born.[5]
1856 Notable birth George Bernard Shaw is born.[6]
1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.[7]
1859 Literature English philosopher John Stuart Mill publishes On Liberty. It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.
1860 Literature Herbert Spencer publishes Education Intellectual, Moral and Physical. It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.[8]
1866 Notable birth H. G. Wells is born.[9]
1871 Britain abolishes religious texts for universities. Universities Tests Act 1871.[10]
1872 Notable birth Bertrand Russell is born.[11]
1885 Organization The Rationalist Press Association is established by freethinkers seeking a more intellectual focus than the British secularist movement. It aims to publish anti-religious literature overlooked by mainstream publishers. Renamed in 2002 as Rationalist Association, it gains momentum after 1902 by reprinting scientific works and creating the Thinker's Library series. Membership peaks in 1959, but popularity would lead to mainstream competition, causing a decline. The association continues to publish the New Humanist magazine. Its history reflects efforts to promote rationalism amidst changing times and publishing landscapes.[12]
1892 Notable birth J. B. S. Haldane is born.[13]
1896 Literature Constance Plumptre publishes Mind as controlled by matter.[14]
1897 Literature Grant Allen publishes The Evolution of the Idea of God.[15] It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.
1899 Literature Ernst Haeckel publishes The Riddle of the Universe at the Close of the Nineteenth Century. It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.[16]
1902 Notable birth Karl Popper is born.[17]
1908 Literature H. G. Wells publishes First and Last Things. It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.[18]
1913–1922 Herbert Leon serves as president of the Rationalist Association.
1922 Literature H. G. Wells publishes A Short History of the World. It would be included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.
1923 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes Daedalus; or, Science and the Future.[19]
1926–1929 Graham Wallas serves as president of the Rationalist Association.
1929–1933 Harold Laski serves as president of the Rationalist Association. A notable English political theorist and economist, he would chair the British Labour Party from 1945 to 1946 and teach at the London School of Economics from 1926 to 1950. Initially advocating pluralism and local voluntary communities, his views would shift towards advocating a workers' revolution, which would cause controversy within the Labour Party. He would play a key role in Marxist intellectual circles and influence leaders of newly independent nations in Asia and Africa. Despite his influence, he would face skepticism from moderate Labour politicians and would be never given significant government positions or a peerage. Laski's legacy is mixed, with his ideas resonating in various contexts and his impact felt in India and beyond.
1929 Literature Thinker's Library[20]
1929 Literature Thinker's Library publishes Humanity's gain from unbelief: And other selections from the works of Charles Bradlaugh.[21]
1929 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes The origin of life in the Rationalist Annual.
1933–1940 Harry Snell, 1st Baron Snell serves as president of the Rationalist Association.
1934 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes Fact and Faith.[22]
1934 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes Human Biology and Politics.[23]
1937 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes View on race and eugenics: propaganda or science?.
1938 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes Heredity and Politics.[24]
1940–1947 C. Marsh Beadnell serves as president of the Rationalist Association.[25]
1947 Literature J. B. S. Haldane pulishes The Limitations of Rationalism.
1948–1949 C. D. Darlington serves as president of the Rationalist Association. An accomplished English biologist and geneticist, he is known for his discovery of chromosomal crossover's role in evolution. His research on genetics would greatly contribute to the modern evolutionary synthesis. Darlington would hold the Sherardian Chair of Botany at the University of Oxford from 1953 to 1971. However, his legacy is marred by controversial views on eugenics, racism, and social Darwinism. He would engage in public debates about science and politics, vehemently opposing Lysenkoism and advocating for genetic insights in understanding human history. Despite his significant contributions to genetics, his divisive perspectives would spark ongoing discussions about his legacy.
1949–1954 Archie Edward Heath serves as president of the Rationalist Association. A philosopher and influential professor of philosophy, he would be known for his role in the 'Swansea School of Philosophy.' A mentor of notable philosophers like Rush Rhees and Peter Winch, he would also edit "Scientific Thought in the Twentieth Century," featuring contributions from prominent thinkers. He would emphasize rationality and lived values. His funeral, conducted by H. J. Blackham, would celebrate his dedication to understanding human complexity.
1949 Organization The Indian Rationalist Association is founded[26] as the "Rationalist Association of India," it would changed its name later. Notably, it would undertake campaigns against miraculous claims, supported by leaders like Sanal Edamaruku, who would become its president in 2005. The organization would be involved in opposing superstitions related to various phenomena, challenging influential godmen, and conducting campaigns against pseudoscience. The Indian Rationalist Association would significantly contribute to promoting rational and scientific thinking in the country. Today, with around 100,000 members, it actively promotes scientific skepticism and critiques supernatural claims in India. It organizes seminars, publishes books and magazines, and features representatives in media to expose superstitions.
1951 Literature Sir Leslie Stephen publishes An Agnostic's Apology, and Other Essays . It is included in the Thinker's Library series of the Rationalist Press Association.
1952 Literature J. B. S. Haldane pulishes A Rationalist Approach to the Problem of Sexual Relations.[27]
1954 Literature J. B. S. Haldane pulishes essay A Rationalist with a Halo.[27]
1955–1970 Bertrand Russell serves as president of the Rationalist Association.[28]
1959 Having Bertrand Russell as President, membership of the Rationalist Association peaks with more than 5000 members.
1965 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes On Being Finite.
1968 Literature J. B. S. Haldane publishes Science and Life.[29]
1970–1973 Barbara Wootton, Baroness Wootton of Abinger serves as president of the Rationalist Association.
1973–1981 Ritchie Calder serves as president of the Rationalist Association.
1982–1999 Hermann Bondi serves as president of the Rationalist Association.

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External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Rationalism - By Movement / School - The Basics of Philosophy". www.philosophybasics.com. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  2. "Rene Descartes | Biography, Ideas, Philosophy, 'I Think, Therefore I Am,' & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  3. "Voltaire | Biography, Works, Philosophy, Ideas, Beliefs, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  4. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Biography, Education, Philosophy, Achievements, Beliefs, Social Contract, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  5. "Charles Darwin | Biography, Education, Books, Theory of Evolution, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 11 September 2022. 
  6. "George Bernard Shaw | Biography, Plays, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  7. "1859: Darwin Published On the Origin of Species, Proposing Continual Evolution of Species". Genome.gov. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  8. Spencer, Herbert (1860). Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical. D. Appleton. 
  9. "H.G. Wells | Biography, Books, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  10. "Universities Tests Act 1871". legislation. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  11. "Bertrand Russell | Biography, Essays, Philosophy, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  12. "Rationalist Association". rationalist.org.uk. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  13. "J.B.S. Haldane | British geneticist | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  14. "LW - The Rationalists of the 1950s (and before) also called themselves "Rationalists" by Owain Evans - The Nonlinear Library - Podcast en iVoox". iVoox (in español). Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  15. Allen, Grant (29 May 2022). The Evolution of the Idea of God: An Inquiry Into the Origins of Religions. DigiCat. 
  16. August, Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp (19 February 2015). The Riddle of the Universe: At the Close of the Nineteenth Century - Scholar's Choice Edition. Creative Media Partners, LLC. ISBN 978-1-296-32686-9. 
  17. "Karl Popper | Biography, Books, Theory, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 September 2022. 
  18. Wells, H. G. (1938). First and Last Things: A Confession of Faith and Rule of Life. Watts & Company. 
  19. "J. B. S. Haldane's Daedalus, or Science and the Future is published in the To-day and To-morrow Series". The Eugenics Archives. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  20. "Thinker's Library – A Series of Series". seriesofseries. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  21. Bradlaugh, Charles (1929). Humanity's Gain from Unbelief and Other Selections from the Works of Charles Bradlaugh, Etc. 
  22. "Fact and Faith by J.B.S. Haldane: (1934) | Books on the Web". www.abebooks.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  23. "JBS Haldane-Human Biology and Politics". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  24. Haldane, J. B. S. (1938). "Heredity and Politics". philpapers. Routledge. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  25. "Bantu Beliefs and Magic. With a Particular Reference to the Kikuyu and Kamba Tribes of Kenya Colony; Together with some Reflections on East Africa After the War. by Hobley, C.W.: (1922) | Inanna Rare Books Ltd.". www.abebooks.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  26. Quack, Johannes (1 January 2012). "Disenchanting IndiaOrganized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India". doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812608.003.0007. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Gouz, Simon (29 March 2018). J.B.S. Haldane, la science et le marxisme: La vision du monde d'un biologiste (in français). Éditions Matériologiques. ISBN 978-2-919694-12-9. 
  28. "The Russell Family". uudb.org. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 
  29. "Science and Life: Essays of a Rationalist". amazon. Retrieved 15 September 2022.