Timeline of transhumanism

From Timelines
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of transhumanism. Topics directly related to transhumanism, including extropianism, life extension and eradication of suffering, are also described.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some prominent transhumanists?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Conference".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1960s The term “cyborg” (or “cybernetic organism”) is coined by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline.[1]
1970s A Futurist subculture emerges. Futurists begin to seriously use the term “transhuman” to refer to the technological transcendence of the human condition.[2]
1980s The first formal self-proclaimed Transhumanist meetings begin at the University of California, Los Angeles, which becomes the main center of Transhumanist thinking. Toward the late decade, British philosopher Max More creates Extropianism, a hyper-optimistic philosophy revolving around a system of values that aims to overcome every limit, and, in particular, that of mortality. Life extension becomes a common term for technological approaches to immortality.[2]
1990s The explosion of the Internet allows Transhumanists to forge closer contact with each other through forums and mailing lists, finally taking full consciousness of themselves as a movement. In the late decade, Transhumanist Declaration is authored by a group of activists, stating various ethical positions related to the use of and planning for technological advances.
2000s Anti-aging medicine becomes the fastest-growing medical specialty in the United States.[3] From the second half of the decade, Transhumanism begins to take increasing root in Silicon Valley.

Numerical and visual data

Google Scholar

The table below summarizes mentions of transhumanism on Google Scholar as of July 14, 2022.

Year Mentions
1990 10
1992 4
1994 17
1996 14
1998 31
2000 70
2002 70
2004 138
2006 200
2008 301
2010 453
2012 739
2014 1,110
2016 1,590
2018 2,110
2020 2,780
Transhumanism google scholar.PNG

Google trends

The chart below shows Google Trends data for transhumanism (topic) from January 1, 2004 to July 3, 2022, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[4]

Transhumanism gt.png

Google Ngram viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for transhumanism from 1950 to 2019.[5]

Transhumanism ngram.PNG

Wikipedia views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia page Transhumanism, on desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015 to June 2022.[6]

Transhumanism wv.png

Full timeline

Year Category Event type Details Location
1909 Futurism Futurism originates in Italy as an artistic and social movement, with the publication of the Futurist Manifesto by poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who explains the principles underlying his view of art, in search for a style representing technology and machines.[7] Italy
1910 Filippo Tommaso Marinetti publishes L'Uomo Moltiplicato ed il Regno della Macchina.[7] Italy
1915 Futurism A text by Giacomo Balla and Fortunato Depero titled Ricostruzione futurista dell’universo, introduces the terms superhuman and demiurgical tendencies.[7] Italy
1948 Cryonics American academic Robert Ettinger publishes a short story in Startling Stories, called The Penultimate Trump, in which he proposes, for the first time, the paradigm of cryonics.[7] United States
1951 English mathematician Alan Turing talks about the possibility that, one day, machines might overcome human intellectual abilities.[7] United Kingdom
1956 Intelligence amplification Concept development British scholar W. Ross Ashby introduces the concept of intelligence amplification in his work Introduction to Cybernetics.[8] United Kingdom
1957 Transhumanism Concept development English evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley coins the term transhumanism to capture what he earlier called evolutionary humanism, or scientific humanism.[2] Huxley writes:
I believe in transhumanism: once there are enough people who can truly say that, the human species will be on the threshold of a new kind of existence, as different from ours as ours is from that of Peking man. It will at last be consciously fulfilling its real destiny.[9]
1959 Concept development German-American scientist Arthur R. von Hippel coins the term “molecular engineering”.[7] United States
1960 Literature American computer scientist Joseph Licklider writes Man-Computer Symbiosis, a famous technical article which hypothesizes that associating human beings and computers would allow the various aspects of the two members of the couple to compensate each other.[10] United States
1964 Cryonics Literature Robert Ettinger publishes The Prospect of Immortality, which promotes the practice of freezing clinically dead people to guarantee them a possible future resuscitation. Ettinger is known as "the father of cryonics".[7][11] United States
1965 Early development British mathematician Irving John Good speaks for the first time of an intelligence explosion,[7] arguing that artificial intelligence development would lead to it.[11] United Kingdom
1965 Intel co-founder Gordon Moore publishes a paper describing how the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits doubled every year between 1959 and 1965. Moore suggests that the trend might continue indefinitely.[12] United States
1966 Literature American historian Gerald Gruman publishes A History of Ideas About the Prolongation of Life, which retraces the history of the search for immortality until the Nineteenth Century.[7] United States
1966 Transhumanism Early development Belgian-born Iranian-American futurist Fereidoun M. Esfandiary outlines a vision of an evolutionary transhuman future, while teaching classes in “New Concepts of the Human” at the New School for Social Research in New York.[11] A prominent early transhumanist, in the mid-1970s Esfandiary would legally change his name to FM-2030.[13] Today, he is regarded as a forerunner of contemporary transhumanism.[2] United States
1967 Cryonics At the Alcor facilities, 73-year-old professor of psychology James Bedford becomes the first person to be cryo-suspended.[14] United States
1969 Cryonics Organization The American Cryonics Society is founded.[7] United States
1969 Cryonics Cryonicist Jerome White speaks of “specifically programmed viruses.”[7]
1970 Literature Fereidoun M. Esfandiary publishes Optimism One. The emerging radicalism.[15] United States
1971 Concept development Philip Brickman and Donald Campbell public Hedonic Relativism and Planning the Good Society, an essay introducing the concept of hedonic treadmill, also known as hedonic adaptation.[16]
1972 Transhumanism Literature Robert Ettinger publishes Man into Superman, which proposes what would considered a Transhumanist proposal; this is, a number of improvements to the standard human being.[7] United States
1972 Cryonics Organization Alcor Life Extension Foundation is founded.[17] United States
1973 Organization Claude Vorilhon founds Raëlism as a UFO religion. This movement might recall Transhumanism, though it has nothing to do with it.[7] Raëlians believe aliens created humans.[18]
1973 Life extension Literature American anthropologist Ernest Becker publishes The Denial of Death,[7] whose basic premise is that human civilization is ultimately an elaborate, symbolic defense mechanism against the knowledge of mortality.[19] United States
1974 Nanotechnology Concept development Japanese scholar Norio Taniguchi coins the definition of "nanotechnology".[7]
1976 Cryonics Organization The Cryonics Institute is founded by Robert Ettinger.[20] United States
1980 Transhumanism American strategic designer Natasha Vita-More (born as Nancie Clark)[2] presents her experimental film Breaking Away.[7] United States
1982 Transhumanism Literature (manifesto) Natasha Vita-More writes the Transhuman Manifesto, followed by the Transhumanist Arts Statement.[11][7] According to Vita-More, the manifesto is about overcoming human limitations, biological limitations, disease and ageing, and intellectual inabilities, memory conflicts, certain levels of sadness, and a need for a more humane society.[21] United States
1983 Singularitarianism Concept development American science fiction author Vernor Vinge publishes an article journal Omni, in which he uses, for the first time, the term “Singularity” in relation to artificial intelligence.[7]
1984 Zimbabwean philosopher and AI scholar Aaron Sloman promotes the idea that there might be more than one kind of mind and attempts to describe the possible structures hosted by this conceptual space.[7]
1985 Cyborgism Literature (manifesto) American scholar Donna Haraway publishes her Cyborg Manifesto,[2] which by some is considered the inauguration of this subgenre.[22] Haraway introduces the cyborg as “a matter of fiction and lived experience that changes what counts as women’s experience in the late twentieth century”.[2] United States
1985 Scientific development (fullerene) The first fullerene or buckminsterfullerene molecule is prepared by Richard Smalley, Robert Curl and Harold Kroto at Rice University.[7]
1986 Literature American engineer K. Eric Drexler publishes Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which would be considered a reference point of all nanotechnologists in the Transhumanist area. The book assumes the possibility of building so-called “nano-machines”.[7] United States
1986 Organization The Foresight Institute is founded by K. Eric Drexler. It promotes the creation and use of molecular assemblers, the nano-machines capable of manipulating matter at the atomic and molecular level theorized by Drexler.[7] United States
1986 Concept development American scholar Lewis Mancini originally coins the term “abolitionism” in an article published in the journal Medical Hypotheses, which proposed the idea that science and technology should be used to abolish any kind of involuntary suffering. This idea would be quickly adopted by the Transhumanists.[7] United States
1988 Literature Austrian-born Canadian computer scientist Hans Moravec publishes Mind Children, which discusses the forthcoming development of intelligent machines.[7] Moravec predicts that robots with computation power superior to that of the human brain will eventually supersede humans.[12]
1988 Extropianism Literature (magazine) English/Californian philosopher Max More publishes the first issue of Extropy Magazine. The term “extropy” represents a concept contrary to that of entropy, indicating that Transhumanists pursue a growth of order rather than chaos.[7][11] The principles of extropy enumerated by More include: “perpetual progress, self transformation, practical optimism, intelligent technology, open society in terms of information and democracy, self-direction, and rational thinking.”[3] United States
1988 Posthumanism Literature Steve Nichols publishes the Post-Human Manifesto, in which he argues that, in relation to the past, modern men can already be considered posthuman.[23]
1988 Notable comment American author David Zindell states:
To be what you want to be: isn't this the essence of being human?
1989 Literature FM-2030 publishes Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World[24], which defines a transhuman as a “transitional human,” whose use of technology, way of living, and values marked them as a step toward posthumanity.[11] United States (Warner Books)
1990 Life extension Organization The Geron Corporation is founded. Based in Menlo Park, it is the first biotech company officially aimed at finding a “cure” for aging. United States
1990 Extropianism Literature The first version of the Principles of Extropy is published, in which the first fully developed transhumanist philosophy is defined.[11]
1990 Transhumanism Literature (essay) Max More publishes essay titled Transhumanism: Toward a Futurist Philosophy, to which Transhumanism as an ideological term can be dated.[2]
1991 Nanotechnology Literature K. Eric Drexler, Chris Peterson and Gayle Pergamit publish Unbounding the Future, which attempts to explain what nanotechnology is and how it will revolutionize life in the future.[25]
1991 Concept development Donna Haraway introduces the cyborg as “a matter of fiction and lived experience that changes what counts as women’s experience in the late twentieth century”.[26][2]
1991 Singularitarianism Concept development The term “Singularitarian” is originally coined by Mark Plus (real name, Mark Potts), an Extropic thinker, Mark Plus.[7]
1992 Extropianism Conference The Extropy Institute begins organizing the first conferences on Transhumanism.[7]
1993 Literature Gregory Stock publishes Metaman: The Merging of Humans and Machines into a Global Superorganism.[27] United States (Simon & Schuster)
1993 Mind uploading Website launch Joe Strout creates the Mind-Uploading Home Page, the first website dedicated to mind uploading.[7]
1993 Singularitarianism Notable comment Vernon Vinge says that he would be surprised if technological singularity occurs before 2005 or after 2030.[11]
1993 Organization A group of activists, among them, Michael Darwin, leave Alcor and found the CryoCare Foundation,[7] a non-profit[28] that offers cryonics services.[29] United States
1994 Notable comment American cognitive and computer scientist Marvin Minsky writes:
Once we know what we need to do, our nanotechnologies should enable us to construct replacement bodies and brains that won't be constrained to work at the crawling pace of "real time." The events in our computer chips already happen millions of times faster than those in brain cells. Hence, we could design our "mind-children" to think a million times faster than we do. To such a being, half a minute might seem as long as one of our years, and each hour as long as an entire human lifetime.[30]
1995 Natasha Vita-More's Transhumanist Arts Statement is signed by 301 artists.[7]
1995 Conference Extro-1 is held as perhaps the first explicitly and exclusively transhumanist conference.[11]
1995 Concept development Alexander Chislenko defines a functional cyborg or "fyborg" as a biological organism supplemented with technological extensions.[12]
1995 Posthumanism Literature Robert Pepperell publishes The Posthuman Condition.[7]
1995 Eradication of suffering Literature British philosopher David Pearce publishes The Hedonistic Imperative.[7] a manifesto attempting to outline a strategy to eradicate suffering in all sentient life.[31] Pearce advocates a form of negative utilitarianism that sees as the ultimate goal of all human action the abolition of all suffering.[2] Pierce writes:
We will have the chance to enjoy modes of experience we primitives cruelly lack. For on offer are sights more majestically beautiful, music more deeply soul-stirring, sex more exquisitely erotic, mystical epiphanies more awe-inspiring, and love more profoundly intense than anything we can now properly comprehend.
United Kingdom
1995 Eradication of suffering David Pearce launches BLTC Research, a website that collects and proposes materials related to biochemical and biotechnological methods for the abolition of suffering.[7]
1998 Organization The World Transhumanist Association (WTA) is founded by Nick Bostrom and David Pearce.[32] At the same time, the Transhumanist Declaration is originally crafted as the founding document of WTA[2] by an international group of authors: Doug Baily, Anders Sandberg, Gustavo Alves, Max More, Holger Wagner, Natasha Vita-More, Eugene Leitl, Bernie Staring, David Pearce, Bill Fantegrossi, den Otter, Ralf Fletcher, Kathryn Aegis, Tom Morrow, Alexander Chislenko, Lee Daniel Crocker, Darren Reynolds, Keith Elis, Thom Quinn, Mikhail Sverdlov, Arjen Kamphuis, Shane Spaulding, and Nick Bostrom.[33] WTA also drafts the Transhumanist FAQ for the first time, which provides a widely recognized definition of transhumanism.[2]
1998 Concept development Erik Davis coins the term ‘‘techgnosis’’ for what he characterizes as a contemporary, secular version of Gnosticism, in which intelligence or information replaces spirituality as the ideal state, and technology replaces the role of God or Christ as savior.[12]
1998 Conference The first TransVision conference is held in Weesp, Holland.[7] Netherlands
1998 Extropianism Max More publishes his Extropian Principles, where he states “We advocate using science to accelerate our move from human to a transhuman or posthuman condition.”[34][2]
1998 Literature (journal) The Journal of Transhumanism is launched. In 2004, it would be renamed the Journal of Evolution and Technology.[7]
1998 Movement launch Cyberpunk science fiction writer Bruce Sterling founds the Viridian Design Movement, which according to the Transhumanist thinker James Hughes, is an example of Technogaianism. Sterling would close the Viridian Design Movement in 2008, as his ideas would become a consolidated part of ecological thinking.[7]
1998 Conference American biophysicist Gregory Stock organizes a conference on life sciences at UCLA dedicated to the theme of Engineering the Human Germline. This fundamental conference is attended by prominent people, such as James Watson.[7] United States
1999 Life extension Conference Gregory Stock organizes Milestones on Aging at UCLA, another important conference helping scientifically legitimize research into the significant extension of human longevity.[7] United States
1999 Literature Ray Kurzweil publishes The Age of Spiritual Machines, which describes the advances that would inexorably result in computers exceeding the memory capacity and computational ability of the human brain by the year 2020.[35]
1999 Literature American postmodern literary critic N. Katherine Hayles publishes How We Became Posthuman, which represents a direct critique of Transhumanist thought.[7] United States
1999 Life extension Literature Aubrey De Grey publishes The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging, which claims that the removal of the damage suffered by mitochondrial DNA could significantly extend the lifespan.[36] United States (Landes Bioscience)
2000 (February) Notable comment English engineer Kevin Warwick states:
I was born human. But this was an accident of fate - a condition merely of time and place. I believe it's something we have the power to change.[37]
United Kingdom
2000 Transhumanism Artistic representation Four act opera Facing Goya premieres. Composed by Michael Nyman with a libretto by Victoria Hardie, it suggests rather an anti-transhumanist standpoint. It is considered a rather explicit example of transhumanist reflections.[2]
2000 Life extension Organization Aubrey De Grey and David Gobel found the Methuselah Foundation,[38] a non-profit medical charity that seeks to extend the healthy human lifespan by "making 90 the new 50" by 2030.[39] United States
2000 Organization The Machine Intelligence Research Institute is founded in Berkeley, California. It stands out among think tanks dedicated to the technological singularity.[7] United States
2000 Conecpt development The term whole brain emulation is introduced. Since then, several important developments would make substrate-independent minds a feasible project in the foreseeable future.[11]
2001 Transhumanism Website launch Betterhumans starts as an educational website. Launched as a resource for all things Transhumanist, it would cease such activities in 2008, becoming a nonprofit Transhumanist bio-medical research organization based in Florida.[7] United States
2001 Notable comment Ray Kurzweil asserts:
We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression.[12]
2001 Literature (fiction) Irish writer Alan Glynn publishes The Dark Fields.[40] United States (Little, Brown and Company)
2002 Life extension, nanotechnology Organization American lawyer and entrepreneur Martine Rothblatt (born Martin) launches the Terasem Movement Foundation, which aims to educate the public on the need to extend human life through nanotechnology and “personal cyber-consciousness”. Based in Melbourne Beach, Florida, the Terasem Movement would be joined in 2004 by the Terasem Movement Foundation, a parallel organization.[7] United States
2002 Literature Gregory Stock publishes Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future,[7] which describes the process of permanently altering the genetic code of an individual so that the changes are passed on to the offspring.[41] United States (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Learning Technology)
2002 Notable comment American political scientist Francis Fukuyama predicts that if genetic engineering of children is allowed, the most wealthy families will surely extend their advantages, thereby perfecting aristocracy.[12]
2002 Eradication of suffering Organization David Pearce founds the Abolitionist Society, in order to promote his own Transhumanist view of suffering.[7]
2002 Conservatism Research According to Stock, people want to be healthier, smarter, stronger, faster, more attractive, but most people are technology pragmatists rather than technophiles, also tending toward conservatism when it comes to the human body.[12]
2002 Organization The Center for Responsible Nanotechnology is founded by biologist Mike Treder and nanotechnologist Chris Phoenix, as a think tank with the aim of analyzing the social implications and risks associated with nanotechnology.[42] United States
2002 Literature David Pulver publishes Transhuman Space.[43]
2002 Designer baby Francis Fukuyama states that a genetics arms race would impose special burdens on people who for religious or other reasons do not want their children genetically altered.[12]
2002 Life extension Organization The Immortality Institute is founded by Bruce Klein.[44] An international foundation investigating the possibility of ending aging as an inescapable cause of death,[45] it has the purpose to reverse and to cure chronic medical illnesses. It is based in Houston,Texas.[46] United States
2003 Organization The Acceleration Studies Foundation is founded.[47]
2003 Literature Sarah Kembler publishes Cyberfeminism and Artificial Life, Sarah Kembler includes a Post-humanist discourse describing artificial intelligence and the discipline of “artificial life” as an attempt to build computer simulations that reproduce the logic of life and evolution.[7]
2003 Human enhancement Literature Bill McKibben publishes Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age. McKibben predicts that the first enhanced child will "see a gap between himself and human history" and "[h]e'll be marooned forever on his own small island, as will all who follow him."[12][48] United States (St. Martin's Publishing Group)
2003 Humanism Notable comment Elaine Graham calls transhumanism the "high-tech heir to Enlightenment humanism".[12]
2003 German philosopher Jürgen Habermas asserts that democracy works as long as citizens accept the right of fellow citizens to participate, and alleges that if transhumans, and then posthumans, become cognitively or emotionally distinct from humans, commonality will cease and democracy will fracture. Habermas also warns that genetically-designed children would be governed by the "irreversible intentions of third parties", and would not be perceived as autonomous actors.[12]
2004 Organization Nick Bostrom and James Hughes launch the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET),[7] which would become one of the most important transhumanist platforms, promoting what they call technoprogressivism as a liberal-democratic form of transhumanism.[2] United States
2004 Literature American sociologist and bioethicist James Hughes publishes Citizen Cyborg, offering a vision of transhumanity, which is meant to be consistent with secular humanism and the Enlightenment project of using science and technology for the collective good. Hughes envisions future democratic societies that are hospitable to humans and transhumans by "expanding the bounds of tolerance and equality" and guaranteeing the "right of all persons to control their own body and mind."[49][12]
2004 Transhumanism Notable comment Francis Fukuyama publishes an essay identifying transhumanism as “the world’s most dangerous idea.”[1]
2004 Life extension Literature Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman publish Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, whose basic premise is that if middle aged people can live long enough, until approximately 120 years, they will be able to live forever, as humanity overcomes all diseases and old age itself.[50] United States (Penguin Publishing Group)
2005 Organization The Future of Humanity Institute is founded by Nick Bostrom. Connected to the Philosophy Department of the University of Oxford and the Oxford Martin School,[7] its academics make use of mathematics, philosophy and social sciences to draw big-picture questions about humanity and its prospects.[51] United Kingdom
2005 Ray Kurzweil likens environmentalist "Luddites" to Islamic extremists in that both groups wish to impede or repeal progress. Kurzweil states that for relinquishment to work it would have to be "totalitarian relinquishment," a massive social control system that would effectively end democracy.[12]
2005 Organization KrioRus is founded a group of cryonicists near Moskow.[52] Russia
2005 Invention, innovation Notable comment Max More states that the advancement of civilization could not have happened without taking risk. More writes:
If the precautionary principle had been widely applied in the past, technological and cultural progress would have ground to a halt. Human suffering would have persisted without relief, and life would have remained poor, nasty, brutish, and short: No chlorination and no pathogen-free water; no electricity generation or transmission; no X-rays; no travel beyond the range of walking.[12]
2005 Singularitarianism Literature Ray Kurzweil publishes The Singularity is Near, which describes Kurzweil's law of accelerating returns as an attempt to predict the exponential increase in technologies like computers, genetics, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence.[53] United States (Viking Books)
2006 Extropianism Organization The Extropy Institute closes, after considering its mission “essentially completed”.[7]
2006 Research Simon Young identifies in human beings the "will to evolve" toward "ever-increasing survivability and well-being." He pronounces Homo cyberneticus to be the next stage in human evolution, tracing cyberneticus to the Greek, kubernetes, or steersman of a ship. Young asserts, "The body may want to self-destruct—but does the mind? No. Yet our genes insist upon it, against our will."[12]
2006 Transhumanism Organization The Mormon Transhumanist Association is founded.[7] According to Ranisch and Sorgner, Mormonism exhibits the most positive attitude toward transhumanism.[2] United States
2006 Transhumanism, libertarianism Political trend A political struggle within World Transhumanist Association, largely between the libertarian right and the liberal left, ends with the victory of the latter, whose ideals would characterize its activity from then on.[7]
2006 Transhumanism Simon Young refers to "New Enlightenment" as the general appeciation by transhumanists for modern society, economy, science, and technology and their imagination that social life will only improve as the ensemble matures and its full potential is realized.[12]
2006 Nanotechnology Scientific development (nanomedicine) A report by Nature Materials finds that there are one hundred and thirty drugs and systems of administration based on nanotechnologies under development in the world at the time.[7]
2007 Transhumanism Organization The World Transhumanist Association establishes its headquarters in Palo Alto.[7]
2007 Literature John Harris publishes Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People.[54] Considered a bioliberal, Harris argues that no “enhancement however dramatic […] implies lesser (or greater) moral, political, or ethical status, worth, or value”.[2] United States (Princeton University Press)
2007 Life extension Literature Aubrey De Grey and Michael Rae publish Ending Aging, which describes their biomedical technology strategies they claim are required to eliminate aging-derived debilitation and death entirely.[55]
2007 Literature Gerald Berthoud publishes The Techno-Utopia of 'Human Performance Enhancement'. According to Berthoud, by and large, all transhumanists are optimists regarding the future of humanity, tending to believe that everything will be for the best if humanity commits to scientific and technological progress.[2][56]
2008 Organization The World Transhumanist Association changes its name to Humanity+, and launches h + Magazine.[7]
2008 Literature h + Magazine is launched by Humanity+.[7]
2009 Life extension Organization The SENS Research Foundation is founded by Aubrey de Grey.[57] United States
2009 Singularitarianism Organization Singularity University is founded by Peter Diamandis and Ray Kurzweil. In spite of the name, it is registered as charity.[7] United States
2009 Life extension Literature Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman publish Transcend: Nine Steps to Living Well Forever, which discusses steps to slow the aging process until technology allowng humans to live much longer arrives.[58] United States (Rodale Books)
2010 Organization The Brain Preservation Foundation is founded by Kenneth Hayworth and John Smart.[59] United States
2010 Transhumanism Notable comment According to James Hughes, progressivism, which is shown in transhumanist’s Enlightenment roots, can be found in most varieties of transhumanism.[2]
2010 Extropianism Literature (manifesto) Breki Tomasson and Hank Hyena publish the Extropist Manifesto, launching Extropism as a similar derivative movement from Extropianism.[7]
2011 Transhumanism Literature Ronald Cole-Turner publishes Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement.[60]
2011 Transhumanism Literature American philosophy professor Allen Buchanan publishes Better Than Human: The Promise and Perils of Enhancing Ourselves, which seeks to demystify biomedical enhancements and advocates the use of biomedical technologies to fix human biological design flaws.[61] United States (Oxford University Press)
2011 Transhumanism Literature Martine Rothblatt publishes From Transgender to Transhuman: A Manifesto on the Freedom of Form.[62] United States
2011 Femtotechnology Literature Australian researcher Hugo de Garis publishes Searching for Phenomena in Physics that May Serve as Bases for a Femtometer Scale Technology, an article dedicated to femtotechnology.[7]
2011 Transhumanism Literature Russell Blackford, Nick Bostrom, and Jean-Pierre Dupuy publish H± Transhumanism and Its Critics, which brings together advocates and critics of transhumanism to debate the potential and risks of bioengineering an improved humanity.[3] United States (Metanexus Institute)
2011 Crionics Notable case Robert Ettinger, now known as the father of cryonics, dies and, in accordance with the vision he promoted, immediately undergoes cryonic suspension procedures.[7] United States
2012 (February 21) Literature Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler publish Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. United States
2012 Transhumanism Literature Charlie Blake, Claire Molloy, and Steven Shakespeare publish Beyond Human: From Animality to Transhumanism.[63] United Kingdom (A & C Black)
2012 Research German professor of philosophy Michael Hauskeller argues that transhumanism is without doubt a philosophy with strong utopian tendencies, both in motivation and in outlook.[64][2]
2012 Transhumanism, utopianism Literature (paper) Michael Hauskeller at the University of Liverpool publishes Reinventing Cockaigne: Utopian Themes in Transhumanist Thought, a paper arguing that transhumanism is a form of utopianism.[65] United Kingdom
2012 Transhumanism Literature Scott de Hart and Joseph P. Farrell publish Transhumanism: A Grimoire of Alchemical Agendas.[66] United States (Feral House)
2013 Transhumanism Literature Max More and Natasha Vita-More publish The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future.[67] United States
2013 Transhumanism Literature Stephen Lilley publishes Transhumanism and Society: The Social Debate over Human Enhancement.[12]
2013 Literature S. Fuller publishes Preparing for Life in Humanity 2.0.[68] According to Fuller, transhumanists still privilege humanity above animality.[2]
2013 Nanotechnology Literature K. Eric Drexler publishes Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization,[69] which recounts the history of nanotechnology, and explains its potential for the benefit of humanity.[70] United States (PublicAffairs)
2013 Transhumanism Literature American transhumanist Zoltan Istvan publishes philosophical science fiction novel The Transhumanist Wager. Istvan writes:
The bold code of the transhumanist will rise. That's an inevitable, undeniable fact. It's embedded in the undemocratic nature of technology and our own teleological evolutionary advancement. It is the future. We are the future like it or not. And it needs to molded, guided, and handled correctly by the strength and wisdom of transhumanist scientists with their nations and resources standing behind them, facilitating them. It needs to be supported in a way that we can make a successful transition into it, and not sacrifice ourselves—either by its overwhelming power or by a fear of harnessing that power. You need to put your resources into the technology. Into our education system. Into our universities, industries, and ideas. Into the strongest of our society. Into the brightest of our society. Into the best of our society So that we can attain the future.[71]
United States
2014 Transhumanism Literature Calvin Mercer and Derek F. Maher publish Transhumanism and the Body: The World Religions Speak.[72] United States (Springer)
2014 Transhumanism Notable comment According to Hughes, the great majority of transhumanists have a "this-worldly, materialist, naturalist, relationalist or immanent understanding of the world".[2]
2014 Transhumanism Literature Calvin Mercer and Tracy J. Trothen publish Religion and Transhumanism: The Unknown Future of Human Enhancement.[73] United States (ABC-Clio)
2014 Transhumanism Literature Ted Chu publishes Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision of Our Future Evolution, which examines human purpose in light of the accelerating developments of science and technology.[74]
2014 Literature Israeli historian Yuval Noah Harari publishes Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, a very successful book partly describing transhumanism and the technological singularity.
2014 Transhumanism Literature (fiction) Ben Bova publishes Transhuman: A Novel.[75] United States (Tom Doherty Associates)
2014 Transhumanism Literature Robert Ranisch and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner publish Post- and Transhumanism : An Introduction, which includes a number of articles by leading scholars of the field, and seeks to provide the first comprehensive introduction to debates beyond humanism.[76]
2015 Transhumanism Literature David Livingstone publishes Transhumanism: The History of a Dangerous Idea.[77]
2016 Posthumanism Literature Scott Jeffery publishes The Posthuman Body in Superhero Comics: Human, Superhuman, Transhuman, Post/Human.[78]
2017 (June 27) Conference Venezuelan-Spanish transhumanist José Luis Cordeiro gives a TED talk on human immortality.[79]
2019 (January 24) Virtual humans Literature David Burden and Maggi Savin-Baden publish Virtual Humans: Today and Tomorrow,[80] which explores the technical approaches to creating a virtual human, as well as emergent issues such as embodiment, identity, agency and digital immortality, with their resulting ethical challenges.[81] United States (CRC Press)
2019 Transhumanism Literature Melvin G. Hill publishes Black Bodies and Transhuman Realities.[82] United States (Lexington Books)
2021 Transhumanism Literature Elana Freeland publishes Geoengineered Transhumanism - How the Environment Has Been Weaponized by Chemicals, Electromagnetism & Nanotechnology for Synthetic Biology.[83]
2021 (July 15) Conference Anders Sandberg "OPENING CONFERENCE – Transhumanism and posthumanism: reality or fiction?"[84]
2029–2033 Life extension Prediction The Maximum Life Foundation has the mission of reverse the aging process by around this time.[7]
2045 Life extension Prediction According to Ray Kurzweil immortality would arrive by this year.[7]
2050 Digital immortality Prediction According to leading futurist Ian Pearson, human beings will be able to transfer their consciousness into computers, thus achieving virtual immortality, by this time.[7]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Base literature:

  • Transhumanism - Engineering the Human Condition, by Roberto Manzocco.[7]
  • The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future, by Max More and Natasha Vita-More[11]
  • Post- and Transhumanism: An Introduction, by Robert Ranisch and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner. [2]
  • Transhumanism and Society: The Social Debate over Human Enhancement, by Stephen Lilley.[12]
  • Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement, by Ronald Cole-Turner.[1]
  • H±: Transhumanism and Its Critics, by Russell Blackford, Nick Bostrom, and Jean-Pierre Dupuy.[3]

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cole-Turner, Ronald (29 September 2011). Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-58901-794-8. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 Ranisch, Robert; Sorgner, Stefan Lorenz (2014). Post- and Transhumanism: An Introduction. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-60662-9. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Blackford, Russell; Bostrom, Nick; Dupuy, Jean-Pierre (2011). H±: Transhumanism and Its Critics. Metanexus Institute. ISBN 978-1-4568-1565-3. 
  4. "Google Trends". Google Trends. Retrieved 4 July 2022. 
  5. "Google Books Ngram Viewer". books.google.com. Retrieved 4 July 2022. 
  6. "Wikipedia Views: results". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 4 July 2022. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.60 7.61 Manzocco, Roberto (11 March 2019). Transhumanism - Engineering the Human Condition: History, Philosophy and Current Status. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-04958-4. 
  8. Krippendorff, Klaus (February 2009). "Ross Ashby's information theory: a bit of history, some solutions to problems, and what we face today". International Journal of General Systems. 38 (2): 189–212. doi:10.1080/03081070802621846. 
  9. Julian Huxley Transhumanism in New Bottles for New Wine (1957) p. 13 - 17.
  10. "How does artificial intelligence compare to man-computer symbiosis?". Techopedia.com. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 More, Max; Vita-More, Natasha (5 March 2013). The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-55599-6. 
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 Lilley, Stephen (31 July 2012). Transhumanism and Society: The Social Debate over Human Enhancement. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-4981-8. 
  13. Martin, Douglas (11 July 2000). "Futurist Known as FM-2030 Is Dead at 69". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2022. 
  14. Purtill, Corinne (12 January 2017). "Fifty years frozen: The world's first cryonically preserved human's disturbing journey to immortality". Quartz. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  15. "Esfandiary, F. M.". worldcat. Retrieved 3 July 2022. 
  16. Brickman, P.; Campbell, D. (1971). "Hedonic relativism and planning the good society". undefined. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  17. "About". alcor. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  18. Aug 6, Debarun Borthakur /. "Inside the crazy world of Raelism, the cult which believes aliens created humans | Hyderabad News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 July 2022. 
  19. "Becker's Synthesis – Ernest Becker Foundation". ernestbecker.org. Retrieved 9 July 2022. 
  20. "History/Timeline | Cryonics Institute". www.cryonics.org. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  21. "History of Transhumanism w/ Max More & Natasha Vita-More". FUTURES Podcast. Retrieved 15 July 2022. 
  22. Kompatsiaris, Panos. "Significant Others, Companions and Comrades: Questioning Donna Haraway's Manifestos of 'Plural Relating' for Left Politics". 
  23. "Posthumanism". Antilogicalism. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  24. Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World. Warner Books. 1989. ISBN 978-0-446-38806-1. 
  25. Drexler, K. Eric; Peterson, Chris; Pergamit, Gayle (1991). Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution. Quill. ISBN 978-0-688-12573-8. 
  26. Haraway, D. (1991): A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. In: Haraway, D.: Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 149-181.
  27. PH.D, Director Science Technology and Society Program Gregory Stock; Stock, Gregory (1993). Metaman: The Merging of Humans and Machines Into a Global Superorganism. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-70723-1. 
  28. "CryoCare Foundation Company Profile | Management and Employees List". Datanyze. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  29. "CryoCare Foundation - Cryonics Services". www.cryocare.org. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  30. Marvin Minsky (1994) Will Robots Inherit the Earth? in Scientific American
  31. "The Hedonistic Imperative - Abstract". www.hedweb.com. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  32. "The ideas interview: Nick Bostrom". the Guardian. 9 May 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2022. 
  33. "Transhumanism". Humanity+. Retrieved 22 June 2022. 
  34. "1998 - The Extropian Principles 3.0 - Max More - Dominios, públicos y acceso". dpya.org. Retrieved 23 June 2022. 
  35. Kurzweil, Ray (1 January 2000). The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-028202-3. 
  36. Grey, Aubrey D. N. J. De (1999). The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging. Landes Bioscience. ISBN 978-1-57059-564-6. 
  37. Cyborg 1.0", Wired, pp.145-151, February 2000.
  38. "The Methuselah Foundation | Jason Hope". jasonhope. Retrieved 22 June 2022. 
  39. "Methuselah Foundation". Methuselah Foundation. Retrieved 9 July 2022. 
  40. Glynn, Alan (2004). The Dark Fields. Little, Brown Book Group Limited. ISBN 978-0-7515-3083-4. 
  41. Stock, Gregory (2003). Redesigning Humans: Choosing Our Genes, Changing Our Future. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-34083-5. 
  42. "Read "Emerging Technologies and Ethical Issues in Engineering: Papers from a Workshop" at NAP.edu". nap.nationalacademies.org. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  43. "Transhuman Space". amazon. Retrieved 14 July 2022. 
  44. "About | Imminst.org - Immortality Institute". www.imminst.org. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  45. "What is Immortality Institute | IGI Global". www.igi-global.com. Retrieved 13 July 2022. 
  46. "The Immortality Institute - Crunchbase Company Profile & Funding". Crunchbase. Retrieved 13 July 2022. 
  47. "Acceleration Studies Foundation". crunchbase. Retrieved 18 June 2022. 
  48. McKibben, Bill (February 2004). Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-7519-9. 
  49. Hughes, James (27 October 2004). Citizen Cyborg. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-7867-2291-4. 
  50. Kurzweil, Ray; Grossman, Terry (27 September 2005). Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-452-28667-2. 
  51. FHI, Future of Humanity Institute-. "Future of Humanity Institute". The Future of Humanity Institute. Retrieved 9 July 2022. 
  52. "Cryonics Wonks in Russia Want to Crack the Code of Immortality". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 7 July 2022. 
  53. Kurzweil, Ray (2005). The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-03384-3. 
  54. Harris, John (27 September 2010). Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-3638-3. 
  55. Grey, Aubrey de; Rae, Michael (4 September 2007). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. St. Martin's Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4299-3183-0. 
  56. Berthoud 2007, 295
  57. "SENS Research Foundation, co-founded by Aubrey de Grey, renews its commitment to the Longevity World Forum – Longevity World Forum". longevityworldforum. Retrieved 24 June 2022. 
  58. Kurzweil, Ray; Grossman, Terry (28 April 2009). Transcend: Nine Steps to Living Well Forever. Rodale Books. ISBN 978-1-60529-956-3. 
  59. "Donors – The Brain Preservation Foundation". brainpreservation. Retrieved 25 June 2022. 
  60. Cole-Turner, Ronald (29 September 2011). Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-58901-794-8. 
  61. Buchanan, Allen (4 October 2011). Better Than Human: The Promise and Perils of Enhancing Ourselves. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-979787-5. 
  62. Rothblatt, Martine Aliana (2011). From Transgender to Transhuman: A Manifesto on the Freedom of Form. Martine Rothblatt. ISBN 978-0-615-48942-1. 
  63. Blake, Charlie; Molloy, Claire; Shakespeare, Steven (8 March 2012). Beyond Human: From Animality to Transhumanism. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-7399-7. 
  64. Hauskeller, Michael (March 2012). "Reinventing Cockaigne: UTOPIAN THEMES IN TRANSHUMANIST THOUGHT". Hastings Center Report. 42 (2): 39–47. doi:10.1002/hast.18. 
  65. Hauskeller, Michael (March 2012). "Reinventing Cockaigne: utopian themes in transhumanist thought". The Hastings Center Report. 42 (2): 39–47. ISSN 0093-0334. doi:10.1002/hast.18. 
  66. Farrell, Joseph P.; Hart, Scott D. De (11 October 2012). Transhumanism: A Grimoire of Alchemical Agendas. Feral House. ISBN 978-1-936239-44-3. 
  67. More, Max; Vita-More, Natasha (5 March 2013). The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-55599-6. 
  68. Fuller, S. (30 October 2012). Preparing for Life in Humanity 2.0. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-27707-7. 
  69. Drexler, K. Eric (7 May 2013). Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-114-6. 
  70. "Radical Abundance: How a Revolution In Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization". Foresight. 1 January 2013. pp. 420–421. doi:10.1108/FS-05-2013-0021. Retrieved 13 July 2022. 
  71. Istvan, Zoltan (2013). The Transhumanist Wager. Futurity Imagine Media LLC. ISBN 978-0-9886161-1-0. 
  72. Trothen, Tracy J.; Mercer, Calvin (17 September 2017). Religion and Human Enhancement: Death, Values, and Morality. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-62488-4. 
  73. Mercer, Calvin; Trothen, Tracy J. (17 November 2014). Religion and Transhumanism: The Unknown Future of Human Enhancement: The Unknown Future of Human Enhancement. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3326-7. 
  74. Chu, Ted (March 2014). Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision for Our Future Evolution. Origin Press. ISBN 978-1-57983-024-3. 
  75. Bova, Ben (15 April 2014). Transhuman. Tom Doherty Associates. ISBN 978-1-4299-6542-2. 
  76. Ranisch, Robert; Sorgner, Stefan Lorenz (2014). Post- and Transhumanism: An Introduction. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-60662-9. 
  77. Livingstone, David (2 September 2015). Transhumanism: The History of a Dangerous Idea. David Livingstone. ISBN 978-1-5152-3257-5. 
  78. Jeffery, Scott (11 October 2016). The Posthuman Body in Superhero Comics: Human, Superhuman, Transhuman, Post/Human. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-54950-1. 
  79. "La muerte de la muerte | José Cordeiro | TEDxBosqueLaHerrería". youtube. Retrieved 29 July 2022. 
  80. Burden, David; Savin-Baden, Maggi (24 January 2019). Virtual Humans: Today and Tomorrow. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-351-36526-0. 
  81. "Virtual Humans: Today and Tomorrow". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 9 July 2022. 
  82. Hill, Melvin G. (2019). Black Bodies and Transhuman Realities: Scientifically Modifying the Black Body in Posthuman Literature and Culture. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-4985-8380-0. 
  83. Freeland, Elana (20 October 2021). Geoengineered Transhumanism: How the Environment Has Been Weaponized by Chemicals, Electromagnetics, & Nanotechnology for Synthetic Biology. Elana Freeland. ISBN 978-0-578-92705-3. 
  84. "OPENING CONFERENCE – Transhumanism and posthumanism: reality or fiction?". youtube. Retrieved 29 July 2022.