Timeline of vaccines

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This is a timeline of vaccines , focusing especially on their release. One of the brightest chapters in the history of science is the impact of vaccines on human longevity and health.[1]

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times Inoculation against smallpox is practiced at least since the beginning of the Common era in China and India.
<18th century Variolation is likely practiced in Africa, India, and China.[2]
18th century The history of vaccines starts late in the century.[1] The first smallpox vaccine is achieved.
19th century Late in the century, vaccines start being developed in the laboratory.[1] Another important discovery is that immunogenicity can be retained if bacteria are carefully killed by heat or chemical treatment.[1]
20th century In the 20th century, it becomes possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. Chemical inactivation is also applied to viruses, with the influenza vaccine becoming the first successful inactivated virus vaccine.[1]
1890–1950 Bacterial vaccine development proliferates, including the Bacillis-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, which is still in use today.[3] By 1900, there are already two human virus vaccines, against smallpox and rabies, and three bacterial vaccines against typhoid, cholera, and plague.[4] By the end of the 1920s, vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and tuberculosis are all available.[5] By the 1940s, virologists understand that attenuation can be achieved by passage in abnormal hosts.[1]
1950–1985 Viral tissue culture methods develop, leading to the advent of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine and the Sabin (live attenuated oral) polio vaccine.[3] Vaccine development starts being based on rational choices since the mid century, when immunology advances to the point of distinguishing protection mediated by antibody and that mediated by lymphocytes, and when passage in cell culture permits the selection of attenuated mutants.[1]
Late 1970s–1980s Period of increasing litigation and decreased profitability for vaccine manufacture, leading to a decline in the number of companies producing vaccines.[3]
21th century In the current century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.[1] Historically deemed to be “only for children”, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary.[6]

Recommended vaccines

Vaccines for children[6]

Time period Recommended vaccines Additions Removals
Late 1940s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
Late 1950s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (IPV) Polio (IPV)
Late 1960s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (OPV), measles, mumps, rubella Measles, mumps, rubella Polio (IPV)
Late 1970s Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (OPV), measles, mumps, rubella Smallpox
1985–1994 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (OPV), Hib Hib
1994–1995 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (OPV), Hib, hepatitis B Hepatitis B
2000 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (IPV), Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A. varicella, hepatitis A, polio (IPV) Polio (OPV)
2005 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, influenza. Pneumococcal, influenza
2010 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, influenza, rotavirus Rotavirus

Vaccines for adolescents[6]

Time period Recommended Vaccines Catch-up Sub-groups
2000 Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) vaccine MMR, hepatitis B, varicella hepatitis A
2005 Td MMR, hepatitis B, varicella hepatitis A, pneumococcus, influenza
2010 Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, HPV, meningococcus, influenza MMR, hepatitis B, varicella, polio hepatitis A, pneumococcus

Full timeline

Year Event type Details
1670 Immunization Circassian traders introduce variolation to the Ottoman Empire.[2]
1714 Immunization The Royal Society of London receives a letter from Emanuel Timoni describing the technique of variolation, which he witnessed in Istanbul.[2]
1721 Immunization The regular practice of variolation reaches the New World.[2]
1796 Vaccine English physician Edward Jenner tests vaccination inoculating a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrates immunity to smallpox.[7] Jenner is considered the founder of vaccinology in the Western World.[3]
1798 Vaccine The first smallpox vaccine is developed.[3]
1803 Organization The Royal Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Smallpox founded in London.[5][8]
1877 Scientific development Louis Pasteur propounds germ theory of disease and develops techniques to create vaccines.[7][9]
1879 Vaccine Louis Pasteur creates the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine (chicken cholera).[9]
1884 Vaccine Louis Pasteur develops the first live attenuated viral vaccine (rabies), using dessicated brain tissue inactivated with formaldehyde.[9]
1885 Vaccine Louis Pasteur first uses the rabies vaccine in humans.[9]
1890 Vaccine German bacteriologist Emil von Behring, working in the laboratory of Robert Koch, discovers the tetanus vaccine.[10][5]
1896 Vaccine The typhoid fever vaccine is introduced.[11]
1897 Vaccine The plague vaccine is introduced by Russian bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine.[9]
1901 Award Emil von Behring is awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine, for his work on the development of a diphtheria antitoxin.
1907 Vaccine Several cities in Europe and the United States begin immunization programs to administer the toxin–antitoxin (TAT) complex against diphtheria.[12]
1921 Vaccine The tuberculosis vaccine is first used in humans, offering only hit-or-miss protection, ranging from 14 percent to 80 percent effectiveness in preventing tuberculosis.[13]
1923 Vaccine French veterinarian Gaston Ramon, at the Pasteur Institute in France, develops the diphtheria toxoid vaccine.[14]
1923 Scientific development British immunologist Alexander Glenny perfects a method to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde.[3]
1926 Vaccine The whole cell killed pertussis vaccine becomes available.[15]
1929 Scientific development The utility of protein conjugation of polysaccharides is shown by Avery and Goebel. This discovery would prove useful later when Schneerson, Robbins, and coworkers make a conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.[1]
1932 Vaccine Andrew Sellards, from Harvard University, and Jean Laigret, from the Pasteur Institute, develop the so called French vaccine against yellow fever.[16]
1936 Vaccine South African virologist Max Theiler develops his vaccine against yellow fever.[17]
1937 Vaccine Tetanus toxoid is first licensed as a vaccine.[18]
1938 Vaccine Herld Cox develops the first successful typhus vaccine, using the yolk sac of the chick embryo to grow Rickettsia rickettsii.[19]
1941 Vaccine The first vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis is prepared in the brains of mice.[20]
1942 Vaccine Bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of influenza B.[21]
1945 Vaccine The first influenza vaccine is approved for military use in the United States.[22]
1948 Vaccine A whole cell vaccine against pertussis is first licensed for use in the United States.[3]
1948 Vaccine An inactivated mumps vaccine is developed. However, this vaccine would produce only short-lasting immunity.[23]
1951 Award Max Theiler is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing a vaccine against yellow fever.
1953 (March 26) Vaccine American medical researcher Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis.[24]
1954 Vaccine A mouse brain derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine is first licensed in Japan.[25]
1954 Vaccine The first anthrax vaccine is developed, derived from an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate of an aerobic culture of B antliracis.[26]
1956 Program The World Health Organization (WHO) decides to try to eradicate smallpox across the world. This is the first attempt to use the smallpox vaccine on a global scale.[5]
1957 Vaccine The first adenovirus vaccine is commercially available. It is used primarily in the United States military.[27]
1962 Vaccine Albert Sabin develops an oral polio vaccine that cost less, is easier to administer, and reduces the multiplication of the virus in the intestine.[28]
1963 Vaccine The measles vaccine is first introduced.[29]
1963 Organization The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) is established as an independent expert advisory committee.[30]
1964 Publication World Health Organization recommendations for the production and quality control of diphtheria vaccines are first formulated.[31]
1965 Program United States President Lyndon B Johnson establishes the CDC Smallpox Eradication program, establishing a legacy of US leadership in global immunization.[17]
1968 Vaccine American microbiologist Maurice Hilleman develops a weak measles vaccine. This vaccine is estimated to prevent 1 million deaths worldwide every year.[32][33]
1969 Vaccine The first rubella vaccines are licensed.[34]
1971 Vaccine The Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is introduced, resulting from the combination of the three vaccines (for mumps , measles, and rubella).[35]
1973 Program The World Health Organization starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.[21]
1974 Program The World Health Organization launches the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with the initial goals to ensure that every child receive protection against six childhood diseases (i.e. tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles) by the time they were one year of age, and to give tetanus toxoid vaccinations to women to protect them and their newborns against tetanus.[4]
1977 Vaccine The first pneumococcal vaccine is licensed in the United States.[36]
1978 Vaccine The United States become the first to license a vaccine to help protect against 4 of the 5 major serogroups of meningococcal bacteria.[37]
1978 Vaccine The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.[21]
1979 Eradication The World Health Assembly officially declares smallpox eradicated.[4][5]
1980 Vaccine United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.[38]
1981 Vaccine The first hepatitis B vaccine is approved in the United States.[39]
1984 Vaccine A varicella vaccine is first licensed in several countries in Europe.[40]
1985 Vaccine The first vaccine to protect against Hib diseases is introduced in the United States.[41]
1985 Program Rotary Club International launches PolioPlus, a campaign with the purpose of getting rid the world of poliomielitis. Since then, the organization and its partners would help reduce the number of cases from 350,000 annually to fewer than 400 in 2014, remaining committed until the disease is eradicated.[42]
1987 Vaccine The hepatitis B Vax II (recombinant) vaccine is introduced.[43]
1989 Vaccine Q-Vax is licensed in Australia, for Q fever.[44]
1989 Vaccine Hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, is approved.[17]
1990 Coverage By this time, vaccination protects over 80% of the world's children from the six main EPI diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles), and other new vaccines are continually being added to the EPI programmes in many countries.[4]
1990 Vaccine Ipol, an enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine, by Pasteur Méérieux Vaccins et Serums, is licensed.[45]
1991 Vaccine The world's first hepatitis A vacine is approved in Switzerland and Belgium.[46]
1991 Organization Every Child By Two is founded in the United States as a non-profit health advocacy organization, which advocates for vaccinations.[47]
1993 Organization The Sabin Vaccine Institute is founded in the United States as a non-profit organization promoting global vaccine development, availability, and use.[48]
1997 Organization The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) is founded as an international nonprofit organization on the belief that the health of children in developing countries can be dramatically improved by the use of new and improved vaccines. IVI is involved in all areas of the vaccine spectrum, working in collaboration with the international scientific community, public health organizations, governments, and industry.[49]
1998 Vaccine The United States Food and Drug Administration approves Lymerix, the world's first Lyme vaccine.[50]
1998 Vaccine The first rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, is licensed and recommended for routine childhood immunization. However, it would be witdrawn in 1999 due to safety concerns.[51]
1999 Organization The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is created to extend the reach of the Expanded Program on Immunization and to help the poorest countries introduce new and under-used life-saving vaccines into their national programs.[4]
2000 Organization The Brighton Collaboration launches as an international volun­ta­ry collaboration of scientific experts, launched. It facilitates the development, evaluation and dissemination of high-quality information about the safety of human vaccines.[52]
2000 Organization Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance launches as a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.[53]
2001 Program The Meningitis Vaccine Project launches with the task to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa.[54]
2003 Vaccine The United States FDA first licenses FluMist –an intranasally administered influenza vaccine, for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 5–49 years.[55]
2004 Vaccine Flumist is approved as an intranasal flu vaccine.[17]
2006 Vaccine A new rotavirus vaccine becomes available.[51]
2006 Vaccine A shingles vaccine is first licensed under generic name Zoster Vaccine (tradename Zostavax).[56]
2006 Organization The Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery is founded when the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation donates US$287 million to promote HIV vaccine research. The organization is an international network of scientists, research organizations, and promoters of HIV vaccine research.[57]
2007 (February 9) Program Five countries (Canada, Italy, Norway, Russia, the United Kingdom), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commit US$1.5 billion to launch the first Advance Market Commitment (AMC) with the purpose of accelerating access to vaccines against pneumococcal disease.[58]
2009 (September) Vaccine The United States FDA approves four vaccines against the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1.[9]
2009 (October) Vaccine The United States FDA approves Cervarix, by GlaxoSmithKline, for the prevention of cervical cancer.[9]
2012 Vaccine A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is licensed in the United States.[59]
2013 Vaccine The United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Flublok (Protein Sciences), developed through recombinant DNA technology.[60]
2015 Vaccine The RTS,S/AS01 (trade name Mosquirix) becomes the world's first licensed malaria vaccine. Approved for use by European regulators.[61]
2016 Vaccine A partially effective dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) becomes commercially available in 11 countries: Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, and Singapore.[62][63]
2016 (December) Vaccine A study finds the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola virus disease to be 95-100% effective, making it the first proven vaccine against the disease.[64][65]

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See also

External links

References

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