Timeline of vaccines

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This is a timeline of vaccines, focusing especially on their release. One of the most remarkable achievments in the history of science is the impact of vaccines on human longevity and health.[1]

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are the different vaccine types mentioned in this timeline?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Vaccine type (when applicable)".
  • What are some notable medical developments related to immunization?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Medical development".
  • How did the development of vaccines evolve over time based on vaccine introduction for public use?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Vaccine introduction".
  • What are some massive vaccination programs having been conducted throughout the world?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Program launch".
  • What are some examples of immunization coverage having attained?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Coverage".
    • You will see some cases of vaccination coverage rate.
  • What are some successful cases of eradication of diseases through massive vaccination?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Eradication".
  • What are some notable or illustrative events in the development of the anti-vaccination movement?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Anti-vaccination movement".
    • You will see the emergence of some organizations as well as publications advocating anti-vaccination.
  • How did the vaccine delivery system evolve?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Delivery system".
  • Other events are described under the following types: "Adoption", "Background", "Infrastructure", "Market trend", "Notable case", "Policy", "Public opinion", "Publication", "Storage system", and "Vaccine trial".

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times Inoculation against smallpox is practiced at least since the beginning of the Common era in China and India.
16th century The concept of giving yourself a mild form of the disease to immunize against a harsher form exists already in China. The first mention of preventative inoculations against smallpox is also written in China in this century.[2][3]
18th century The history of vaccines starts late in the century, when the first smallpox vaccine is achieved.[1]. Ivory-handled lancets with box are introduced.[4]
19th century The vaccinator with metal carrying tube is introduced.[4] An important discovery in this century is that immunogenicity can be retained if bacteria are carefully killed by heat or chemical treatment.[1] Later in the century, vaccines start being developed in the laboratory.[1] By the end of the century, bacterial vaccine development starts proliferating.[5]
20th century In the 20th century, it becomes possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. Chemical inactivation is also applied to viruses, with the influenza vaccine becoming the first successful inactivated virus vaccine.[1] By 1900, there are already two human virus vaccines, against smallpox and rabies, and three bacterial vaccines against typhoid, cholera, and plague.[6] By the end of the 1920s, vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and tuberculosis are all available.[7] By the 1940s, virologists understand that attenuation can be achieved by passage in abnormal hosts.[1] The diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine becomes routinely used in the 1940s.[8] In the 1950s, the attenuation of live organisms, as first attempted by Louis Pasteur, is adapted to modern vaccine technology.[9] Viral tissue culture methods develop, leading to the advent of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine and the Sabin (live attenuated oral) polio vaccine.[5] Vaccine development starts being based on rational choices since the mid century, when immunology advances to the point of distinguishing protection mediated by antibody and that mediated by lymphocytes, and when passage in cell culture permits the selection of attenuated mutants.[1] In the 1970s, the discovery of the expression of proteins in plasmids and the ability to sequence DNA pave the way to the era of genetic engineering. These techniques would be used to develop the first recombinant vaccine, the hepatitis B vaccine, in 1986.[9] The late 1970s towards the 1980s is a period of increasing litigation and decreased profitability for vaccine manufacture, leading to a decline in the number of companies producing vaccines.[5] Another major advance in the 1980s is in the area of adjuvantation. Adjuvants are used to improve the presentation of an antigen to the immune system or to enhance its immunogenicity.[9] In the 1990s, scientists begin exploring how to simplify vaccines by using mRNA, finding that it can create a stronger type of immunity.[10] By the late 1990s, the progress of international immunization programs stalls.
21th century Since about the late 1990s, the progress of international immunization programs stalls, with dozens of millions of children in developing countries not fully immunized against deadly diseases, and many others not immunized at all, as the result of developing countries not being able to afford vaccines.[11] In the current century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.[1] Historically deemed to be “only for children”, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary.[12]

Full timeline

Year Disease/infection Vaccine type (when applicable) Event type Details
1000 Smallpox Medical development Cowpox pus is used to protect people against smallpox in China. This practice is also found to be common in many civilizations.[10]
1100s Medical development The variolation technique is developed, involving the inoculation of children and adults with dried scab material recovered from smallpox patients. Variations of variolation are noted in Turkey, Africa, China, and Europe.[13]
1670 Medical development Circassian traders introduce variolation to the Ottoman Empire.[3]
1713 Medical development Greek physician Emmanuel Timonis publishes the first European article about variolation.[3][14]
1721 Medical development The practice of variolation is introduced in Great Britain, with the endorsement of English aristocrat Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. However, variolation would be later met with public outcry after finding that 2-3% of people died after inoculation.[15] Its regular practice also reaches the New World.[3][16][11]
1796 Smallpox Live, attenuated[17] Medical development English physician Edward Jenner tests vaccination inoculating a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrates immunity to smallpox.[18] Jenner is considered to be the founder of vaccinology in the Western World.[19][5]
Edward Jenner
1800 Smallpox Live, attenuated Vaccine introduction American physician Benjamin Waterhouse performs the first smallpox vaccinations on his four children.[10] In this year, smallpox vaccination becomes commonplace.[20]
1803 Smallpox Organization The Royal Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Smallpox is founded in London.[7][21]
1813 Smallpox Organization The United States Vaccine Agency is established with the purpose to encourage vaccination against smallpox.[10][22]
1844 Delivery system Irish physician Francis Rynd invents the hollow metal needle.[23]
1853 Delivery system Scottish physician Alexander Wood and French surgeon Charles Gabriel Pravaz virtually simultaneously invent the first devices recognizable as hypodermic syringes.[23]
1877 Scientific development French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur proposes the germ theory of disease and develops techniques to create vaccines.[18][24]
Louis Pasteur
1879 Chicken cholera Live attenuated bacterial Vaccine introduction Louis Pasteur creates the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine (chicken cholera).[24]
1879 Anti-vaccination movement The Anti Vaccination Society of America is founded, following a visit to the United States by leading British anti-vaccinationist William Tebb.[25]
1882 Anti-vaccination movement The New England Anti Compulsory Vaccination League is founded.[25]
1882 Anti-vaccination movement The Anti-vaccination League of New York City is founded.[25]
1884 Rabies Live attenuated[26] Vaccine introduction Louis Pasteur develops the first live attenuated viral vaccine (rabies), using dessicated brain tissue inactivated with formaldehyde.[24] In 1885 he first uses the rabies vaccine in humans.[24] This partially inactivated rabies virus, which is cultured in rabbit spinal cords, would lay the foundations of immunization with inactivated virus preparations.[27] Pasteur's rabies vaccine is the first laboratory vaccine to make an impact on human disease.[28]
1885 Cholera Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Spanish bacteriologist Jaume Ferran i Clua develops a live, attenuated cholera vaccine.[29] It is the first such vaccine to immunize against a bacterial disease in humans.[19][10]
Jaume Ferran Clua
1886 Delivery system A safe method for the storage of sterile injectates was provided by Limousin’s ampoule. Later safe methods would be introduced by the emergence of multi-dose containers.[23]
1886 Cholera Inactivated[17] Scientific development The first report of “virus” inactivation for vaccine purposes is described when Daniel Elmer Salmon and Theobald Smith manage to immunize pigeons with what they think is a heat-killed hog cholera “virus”, but in reality is a cholera-like bacterium. However, this discovery would seeded the scientific community with evidence that immunization with inactivated pathogens can provide protection against infectious disease.[27]
1890 Diphtheria, tetanus Scientific development German bacteriologist Emil von Behring and Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato Shibasaburō publish an article reporting that they have developed "antitoxins" against both diphtheria and tetanus, more specifically, that graduated doses of sterilized brothcultures of diphtheria or of tetanus bacilli cause the animals to produce, in their blood, substances which could neutralize the toxins which these bacilli produced (antitoxins).[30][7][31]
1896 Typhoid fever Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction British bacteriologist Almroth Wright develops the first effective vaccine for typhoid, which is introduced for military use.[32]
1896 Cholera Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction Russian bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine at the Pasteur Institute develops an anticholera vaccine. This vaccine would be used in Japan in 1902 with over 80% efficiency.[33][34]
1896 Typhoid fever Inactivated Vaccine introduction Richard Pfeiffer and Wilhelm Kolle develop a vaccine for typhoid, using whole killed (inactivated) bacteria.[19]
1897 Plague Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction Waldemar Haffkine introduces a KWC vaccine, following an outbreak of plague in Bombay in 1896.[35]
1897 Rinderpest Live Scientific development German physician and microbiologist Robert Koch develops the first form of a rinderpest vaccine when he notes that animals could be protected from the disease by injecting them with blood and bile from an infected animal.[28]
1900 Delivery system Ivory vaccination points in glass carrier with wood shell are introduced.[4]
1901 Diphtheria Scientific development Emil von Behring is awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine, for his work on the development of a diphtheria antitoxin.[36]
1901 Diphtheria Notable case Twenty children become ill and fourteen die in Staint Louis, Missouri, following receipt of equine diphtheria antitoxin contaminated with tetanus toxin. This event leads to the passage of the Biologics Control Act of 1902, which includes license requirements for biological products and their manufacturing facilities, authority to conduct unannounced inspections, the requirement for accurate product labels, and penalties for noncompliance including revocation of license.[37]
1907 Diphtheria Program launch Several cities in Europe and the United States begin immunization programs to administer the toxin–antitoxin (TAT) complex against diphtheria.[38]
1910 Poliomyelitis Scientific development American pathologist Simon Flexner conducts studies on poliomyelitis by inoculating monkeys with the virus. Flexner finds that the antibodies that form could be used to counteract the virus, an important step in the development of a vaccine.[39]
1911 Pneumococcal disease Whole-cell Medical development (vaccine trial) The first pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine is tested among young gold miners in South Africa. Eventually, despite early claims that it is protective, careful analysis would show it is not efficacious.[40]
1911 Dysentery Scientific development An early scientific paper reporting on the vaccination of infants is published by Lucas et al. in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. To determine whether vaccination would have an impact on infant morbidity or mortality from dysentery, the authors vaccinated 95 infants with an overnight culture of Bacillus dysenteriae, along with antiserum. In general, the approach is reported to be well-tolerated, providing some protection against dysentery.[41]
1914 Pertussis Whole-cell Vaccine introduction The first whole-cell pertussis vaccines are licensed in the United States. These vaccines are suspensions of killed bacteria and would be further improved before being combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids to produce DTP vaccine.[42]
1914 Typhoid fever Inactivated Vaccine introduction The heat-inactivated phenol-preserved typhoid vaccine is licensed in the United States. It would be later presumed that the routine use of typhoid vaccine contributed troops of the US Army to have the lowest reported incidence of typhoid fever among the various nations whose armies were major combatants in World War I.[43]
1918 Influenza Background The Spanish flu pandemic kills between 25 and 50 million people worldwide.[20]
1920 Diphtheria, tetanus Inactivated Medical development Emil von Behring, with the collaboration of French biologist Gaston Ramon, describe an efficacious vaccine against both diphtheria and tetanus, composed of the inactivated toxins, with alumina to improve efficacy.[44]
1921 Tuberculosis Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction The BCG vaccine is developed by French bacteriologists Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin, who name the product Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, or BCG. Produced with an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, the vaccine is administered shortly after birth only in infants at high risk of tuberculosis.[45][46][47] The tuberculosis vaccine is first used in humans, offering only hit-or-miss protection, ranging from 14 percent to 80 percent effectiveness in preventing tuberculosis.[48]
1923 Diphtheria Vaccine introduction French veterinarian Gaston Ramon, at the Pasteur Institute in France, develops the diphtheria toxoid vaccine.[49]
Gaston Ramon
1923 Tetanus Toxoid Scientific development British immunologist Alexander Glenny perfects a method to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde.[5]
Alexander Thomas Glenny
1923 Diphtheria Toxoid Scientific development Alexander Thomas Glenny and Gaston Ramon, while working separately, develop the same method for inactivating the diphtheria toxin. The inactivated toxin, known as a toxoid, does not poison, but triggers the body into making antibodies.[50]
1925 Scientific development Gaston Ramon discovers the use of adjuvants to stimulate the immune response and increase the level of circulating antibodies.[51]
1926 Pertussis Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for pertussis (whooping cough) becomes available. It is developed by American pediatrician Leila Denmark and colleagues.[52]
1926 Scientific development The use of aluminum-containing adjuvants originate with the observations of Glenny et al. that an alum-precipitated diphtheria vaccine has greater antigenic properties than the standard diphtheria vaccine.[53] In the same year, the term "adjuvant" (from the Latin adjuvare, meaning to help) is coined by Gaston Ramon for a substance used in combination with a specific antigen that produces a stronger immune response than the antigen could if used alone.[37]
1926 Scientific development Kofoed concludes that vaccination during the incubation phase or during the clinical disease does not provide protection, but is efficacious if it is completed prior to exposure.[51]
1927 Tetanus Subunit (protein/polysaccharide)[26] Vaccine introduction The first successful vaccine for tetanus is developed, based on research Emil von Behring conducted in the 1890s.[54]
1929 Haemophilus influenzae Subunit (polysaccharide) Scientific development The utility of protein conjugation of polysaccharides is shown by Oswald Avery and Walther Goebel. This discovery would prove useful later when Schneerson, Robbins, and coworkers make a conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.[1]
1929 Subunit (protein/polysaccharide) Scientific development The principle that conjugation of proteins to polysaccharides could enhance the immunogenicity of the polysaccharide antigen is in rabbits using pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides antigens.[14]
1930 Influenza Inactivated Scientific development Inactivated fractionated influenza vaccines start being produced in embryonated eggs, which are still used today.[44]
1930 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Scientific development William S. Tillett and Thomas Francis discover that purified pneumococcal polysaccharides could induce specific anti-capsular antibodies in humans.[40]
1932 Yellow fever Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction Andrew Sellards, from Harvard University, and Jean Laigret, from the Pasteur Institute, develop the so called French vaccine against yellow fever.[55]
1935 Poliomyelitis Inactivated Scientific development Maurice Brodie attempts to modify the poliovirus by exposing it to formaldehyde, thus creating a formalin inactivated “vaccine” which is first tried with 20 monkeys, then with 3000 children. The results are poor and Brodie’s vaccine would be never used again. [56]
1936 Influenza Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction The influenza type B virus is isolated and an Australia scientist discovers that the virus could be grown in embryonic hen eggs. These discoveries fuel an interest in the development of an influenza vaccine that would reduce mortality in future epidemics and pandemics.[17][57]
1937 Yellow fever Live attenuated Vaccine introduction South African virologist Max Theiler develops an attenuated virus vaccine against yellow fever.[58][59] In 1951, Theiler would be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing the vaccine.[60]
Max Theiler
1937 Tetanus Toxoid[61] Vaccine introduction An adsorbed form of tetanus toxoid is first licensed as a vaccine in the United States.[62][15]
1937 Tick-borne encephalitis Vaccine introduction The first vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis is developed in the Soviet Union, where outbreaks of TBE (then called Russian Spring and Summer Encephalitis) are of considerable public health concern at the time.[63]
1937 Influenza Live virus Scientific development Anatol Smorodintsev and colleagues in the Soviet Union report on the administration of the Wilson Smith strain to humans, using dosages that are lethal when given to mice. This vaccine is considered to be the first live human influenza virus vaccine, and, although it would not receive a passing grade by today's standards (20% of vaccinees developed febrile influenza), it absolutely demonstrates the role of the virus in the development of influenza.[64]
1938 Influenza Inactivated[65] Vaccine introduction Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis create the world's first modern influenza vaccine, using fertilized chicken eggs. This vaccine would be given to U.S. soldiers during World War II.[66][67]
1938 Yellow fever Program launch Fred L. Soper of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Brazilian government develop and implement a plan for the first mass immunization campaign in Brazil. By the end of the year, nearly one million inhabitants of the country would have received the yellow fever vaccine.[51]
1938 Typhus Inactivated[26] Vaccine introduction American bacteriologist Herald Rea Cox develops the first successful typhus vaccine, using the yolk sac of the chick embryo to grow Rickettsia rickettsii.[68] United States
H. R. Cox
1941 Tetanus Toxoid (inactivated toxin) Program launch The first large-scale use of tetanus toxoid begins in the form of mass administration for American military forces. A record of tetanus toxoid doses administered is stamped on soldiers’ identification tags, as well as in paper records. In contrast, the German Army, relying on treatment with tetanus antitoxin, would suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality from tetanus.[43]
1941 Tick-borne encephalitis Scientific development The first vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis is prepared in the brains of mice.[69] Some 20 years later, TBE vaccines derived from chicken embryo fibroblast cells would be developed and used in humans in the former Soviet Union. Later, a purified, inactivated virus vaccine would be developed, proving to be more immunogenic than previous TBE vaccines.[70]
1942 Influenza Inactivated[71] Vaccine introduction A bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of influenza B.[72]
1943 Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction The first commercial influenza vaccines are approved for use in the United States, and consist of inactivated virus grown in chicken eggs.[42]
1945 Influenza Vaccine introduction The first influenza vaccine is approved for military use in the United States.[73] In the following year, the vaccine is approved for civilian use.[10][74]
1945 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Scientific development Macleod, Heidelberger and colleagues show that a 4-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV4) containing serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 is protective against pneumococcal disease caused by the same serotypes.[75]
1946 Plague Inactivated Vaccine introduction The Army Vaccine is produced as an iteration of the Haffkine KWC vaccine against plague. Like KWC vaccine formulations, it is a sterile suspension of killed Yersinia pestis (1.8 – 2.2 x 109 organisms per ml), suspended in aqueous medium incorporating a preservative such as phenol.[35]
1948 Pertussis Whole cell Vaccine introduction A whole cell vaccine against pertussis is first licensed for use in the United States.[5][44]
1948 Mumps Inactivated Vaccine introduction An inactivated mumps vaccine is developed. However, this vaccine produces only short-lasting immunity.[76]
1949 Scientific development Tissue culture technology enables the production of virus vaccines against polio, measles, mumps, and rubella.[44]
1952 Dengue fever Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Albert Sabin and Walter Schlesinger report the first successful dengue vaccine, by attenuating the "Hawaiian" strain of DENV-1 in mouse brain by serial passage, and then using this mouse brain vaccine to protect 16 volunteers against the bites of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.[14]
1953 Poliomyelitis Inactivated Vaccine introduction American medical researcher Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested an inactivated vaccine against poliomyelitis.[77][78]
Jonas Salk
1953 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis Inactivated[79] Vaccine introduction Triple antigen vaccine diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) is introduced. It is administered by intramuscular injection.[80]
1954 Japanese encephalitis Inactivated Vaccine introduction An inactivated mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine is first licensed in Japan. This vaccine would be modified in the 1960s and 1980s.[81][82][83]
1954 Anthrax Vaccine introduction The first anthrax vaccine is developed, derived from an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate of an aerobic culture of B antliracis.[84] An acellular vaccine for humans, it is used in the first U.S. efficacy study of human anthrax vaccine. This product would be later modified, resulting in anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA).[85]
1955 Poliomyelitis Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction The inactivated polio vaccine becomes available as a shot.[86][87]
1955 Poliomyelitis Inactivated Notable case In what would be known as the Cutter incident, more than 200 000 children in five Western and mid-Western USA states receive a polio vaccine in which the process of inactivating the live virus proves to be defective, as some batches of the vaccine given to the public contain live polio virus, even though they passed required safety testing. Within days, cases of paralysis are reported, and within a month the first mass vaccination program against polio is abandoned. Subsequent investigations would reveal that the vaccine, manufactured by Cutter Laboratories, caused 40,000 cases of polio, leaving 200 children with varying degrees of paralysis and killing 10.[88]
1956 Smallpox Program launch The World Health Organization decides to try to eradicate smallpox across the world. This is the first attempt to use the smallpox vaccine on a global scale.[7]
1956 Adenovirus Inactivated Vaccine introduction An injectable adenovirus vaccine is developed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, just three years after the identification of adenoviruses. This vaccine protects against two forms of adenovirus infection, types 4 and 7.[89]
1957 Adenovirus[90] Live virus Vaccine introduction The first adenovirus vaccine is commercially available, and is used primarily in the United States military. It is administered by mouth.[91]
1957 Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus Program launch The Netherlands starts its national vaccination program using the combined diphtheria pertussis and tetanus DPT vaccine produced by the State Institute for Public Health.[92]
1959 (December) Poliomyelitis Program launch Hungary introduces the Sabin vaccine into its national immunization program, a campaign putting the country in the front line of polio vaccination with live virus vaccines along with the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, where the Sabin vaccine is tested.[92]
1959–1960 Poliomyelitis Trial A landmark study of large-scale oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) use in Mexico demonstrated an additional benefit of OPV, the temporary displacement of other enteric pathogens, especially nonpolio enteroviruses, in the vaccinated population, therefore decreasing the interference of such agents with OPV take.
1960s Side effect Antibody-dependent enhancement is found in a later-rejected vaccine developed for measles in the United States.[93]
1960 Poliomyelitis Eradication Czechoslovakia becomes the first country in the world to practically eradicate polio.[92]
1962 Poliomyelitis Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction Polish-American medical researcher Albert Sabin develops an oral polio vaccine that cost less, is easier to administer, and reduces the multiplication of the virus in the intestine.[94]
Albert Sabin
1962 Poliomyelitis Live attenuated Program launch A national campaign with oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) in Cuba rapidly eliminate wild poliovirus transmission in the country.[43]
1963 Poliomyelitis Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Trivalent OPV (tOPV) is licensed in the United States. This vaccine is developed primarily on programmatic grounds (a single vaccine greatly facilitates stock keeping and recording in vaccination sites), and contains a balanced formulation of the three Sabin strains.[43]
1963 Measles Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction American biomedical scientist John Enders and colleagues turn the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus into a vaccine, and license it in the United States.[95] The measles vaccine is first introduced.[96][19][51]
1963 Organization The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) is established in the United Kingdom as an independent expert advisory committee.[97]
1964 Diphtheria Publication World Health Organization recommendations for the production and quality control of diphtheria vaccines are first formulated.[98]
1964 Smallpox Side effect (idiopathic inflammatory myopathy) The first report of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy following vaccination is published when Bitum et al. report a series of 13 cases of children with dermatomyositis, one of whom develops it following smallpox vaccination. Since then, several cases would be reported, associating different vaccines with the development of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.[99]
1965 Smallpox Program launch United States President Lyndon B Johnson establishes the CDC Smallpox Eradication program, establishing leadership for this country in global immunization.[58]
1965 Yellow fever Notable case Senegal experiences one of the largest epidemics of yellow fever on record 5 years after suspending immunization of children.[51]
1966 Smallpox Program launch The World Health Organization launches a determined global vaccination program against smallpox.[92]
1967 Mumps Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction A live, attenuated mumps vaccine (Jeryl Lynn strain) is licensed for use in the United States.[100][17] This vaccine is a Jeryl Lynn strain of a live-attenuated mumps virus. It confers lifelong protection in most individuals.[99]
1967 Program launch A critical shortage of vaccine occurs in West Africa. This event stimulates the discovery and rigorous implementation of a "surveillance and containment" strategy, which would result in extensive savings in vaccine, time, and labor, resulting in more efficient campaigns.[53]
1967 Side effect Antibody-dependent enhancement is found during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine trials on children in the United States.[93]
1967 Malaria Live attenuated Scientfic development Nussenzweig et al.[101] first demonstrate that mice immunized with radiation-attenuated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei are protected against challenge with fully infectious sporozoites. These findings would be rapidly extended to humans, with sterile protection against sporozite-induced falciparum malaria (i.e., absence of blood stage infection) first reported in 1973 by Clyde et al.[102][35]
1968 Delivery system Bifurcated needles are invented, allowing for use of less vaccine and the ability to be sterilized and reused.[4]
1968 Measles Live attenuated Vaccine introduction American microbiologist Maurice Hilleman develops a weak measles vaccine. This vaccine is estimated to prevent 1 million deaths worldwide every year.[103][104]
Maurice Hilleman
1969 Rubella Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction The first rubella vaccine is licensed, developed by Maurice Hilleman, using rubella virus obtained from Division of Biologics Standards scientists Paul Parkman and Harry Meyer.[105][106]
1970 Anthrax Vaccine introduction Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) is licensed and is recommended for use by a small population of textile mill workers, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, and other workers with occupational risk of exposure to anthrax.[107]
1971 Measles, mumps, rubella Live attenuated[108] Vaccine introduction The Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is introduced by Merck, resulting from the combination of the three vaccines (for mumps , measles, and rubella). The vaccine is developed by Maurice Hilleman.[109][110][111]
1973 Program launch The World Health Organization starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.[72]
1974 Program launch The World Health Organization launches the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with the initial goals to ensure that every child receive protection against six childhood diseases (i.e. tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles) by the time they were one year of age, and to give tetanus toxoid vaccinations to women to protect them and their newborns against tetanus.[6]
1974 Meningococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide)[17] Vaccine introduction The first monovalent (group C) polysaccharide vaccine is licensed in the United States for meningococcal disease.[112][17]
1974 Medical development The application of liposomes as a vaccine delivery vehicle is first reported. Since then, liposome-based vaccines against hepatitis A (Epaxal) and influenza (Inflexal V) would be approved for human use.[113]
1975 Typhoid fever Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Ty21a is introduced as an oral typhoid vaccine, developed through the chemical mutagenesis of pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2. This vaccine would be used for many years to combat typhoid fever.[114][115]
1976–1877 Influenza Side effect Following the mass vaccination of people in the United States with the swine influenza vaccine, it is found a Guillain-Barré syndrome incidence of about 1 case/60,000 doses. By comparison, on average, the Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs after administration of the influenza vaccine at a frequency of about 1 case per million doses.[116] This side effect would result in several deaths from pulmonary complications.[26]
1977 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide)[17] Vaccine introduction The first licensed pneumococcal vaccine, a polysaccharide vaccine, is introduced by Merck when the United States FDA approves a 14-valent PPV (PPV14), which contains capsular polysaccharide serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6A, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 12F, 14, 18C, 19F, 20 and 23F.[117][118][119][40]
1977 Smallpox Eradication After 10 years of intensified country activities to eradicate smallpox, the last naturally occurring chain of human-to-human smallpox transmission occurs in Somalia.[51][43]
1977 Program launch The World Health Organization begins its monitoring of global immunization performance. A central Expanded Program on Immunization information system is developed, with computer software for monitoring, at the national and regional levels, immunization coverage, surveillance data, and cold-chain equipment. The data generated permits the first systematic estimates of developing country immunization coverage, thus facilitating the targeting of international technical and donor assistance.[14]
1977 Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccine, poliomyelitis, measles, tuberculosis Program launch The World Health Assembly resolves to provide four vaccines (multi-antigen, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine; trivalent oral polio vaccine; measles; and BCG) to children throughout the world.[43]
1977 Hepatitis B Vaccine introduction Dr Chung Young Kim in South Korea develops a hepatitis B vaccine, which becomes known as "Kim's vaccine", using serum from the blood of HBV-infected patients.[92]
Late 1970s Storage system The World Health Organization’s Expanded Program on Immunization begins working with manufacturers to produce low-cost equipment for storing and transporting vaccines. The technological solutions that are found include ice-lined refrigerators designed to protect vaccines against interruptions in the electricity supply, and small, robust refrigerators for remote health centers operating on kerosene, gas, and solar energy.[14]
1978 Meningococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Vaccine introduction A quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine is licensed in the United States against meningococcal disease.[120][112]
1978 Influenza Vaccine introduction The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.[72]
1978 Common cold Side effect (dermatomyositis) Ehrengut reports a case of a 47-year-old patient who develops dermatomyositis after taking what is called “cold vaccine”, which consists in a mixture of killed bacteria (mainly Pneumococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Haemophilus sp., and Micrococcus sp.) and is prescribed as a prophylaxis for “common cold” at the time. The vaccine would no longer be used.[99]
1979 Scientific development The effectiveness of polymeric controlled release technology for immunization is first demonstrated in mice.[53]
1979 Smallpox Eradication The World Health Assembly officially declares smallpox eradicated.[6][7] It is the first infectious disease eradicated by vaccination[20], and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements in the twentieth century.[116]
1979 Scientific development Preis and Langer produce one of the first demonstrations of the concept of single-shot immunization, using a nondegradable polymer, polyethylene-vinyl acetate.[53]
1979 Storage The World Health Organization establishes a network of laboratories to evaluate new vaccine equipment, and publishes the first edition of the WHO/UNICEF product information sheets (PISs), detailing the immunization equipment that meet WHO specifications, and could be recommended for use in developing countries.[14]
1980 Influenza Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.[121]
1980 Rinderpest Live attenuated Vaccine introduction An attenuated virus vaccine begins to be applied against rinderpest.[44]
1980 Adenovirus Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction An adenovirus vaccine is introduced.[17]
1980 Rabies Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction Human diploid cell rabies vaccine Imovax Rabies (Sanofi Pasteur) is licensed for use in the United States.[122]
1980–2003 Diphtheria Toxoid Coverage It is estimated that the proportion of infants worldwide who have received three doses of diphtheria toxoid in combination with tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine rose from ~20% in 1980 to 78% worldwide, with infant coverage is lowest in Southeast Asia (~70%) and sub-Saharan Africa (~55%).[43]
1981 Hepatitis B Subunit Vaccine introduction The first hepatitis B vaccine is approved in the United States.[123] This “inactivated” type of vaccine involves the collection of blood from hepatitis B virus-infected (HBsAg-positive) donors.[124][99]
1981 Publication The World Health Organization Expert Committee on Biological Standardization publishes its first guideline on national control of vaccines, mandating a "national control authority" for all countries.[37]
1981 Tick-borne encephalitis Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction A tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is introduced.[17]
1982 Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus Anti-vaccination movement A documentary titled DPT: Vaccination Roulette is released. It describes alleged adverse reactions to the immunization and minimizes the benefits.[25]
1982 Market trend The value of the vaccine market is estimated at US$2 billion at this time.[14]
1983 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Vaccine introduction A 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is developed to provide protection against 80% to 90% of the pneumococcal capsular serotypes causing disease.[125][40]
1983 Typhoid fever Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction TY21a is first licensed in Europe. It is an orally administered, live-attenuated Ty2 strain of Salmonella Typhi.[126]
1983 Rotavirus Scientific development Ruth Bishop et al. show the importance of immunity in protection against subsequent rotavirus disease. Bishop finds that neonates infected during the first month of life are not protected against rotavirus reinfection but are protected against moderate-to-severe disease following reinfection.[51]
1983 Tetanus Side effect (vasculitis) The first case of medium-vessel vasculitis related to vaccine exposure is described by Guillevin et al., who report an exacerbation of pulmonary manifestations in the course of polyarteritis nodosa following the administration of tetanus and BCG vaccines in a 19-year-old man.[99]
1983 Program launch The Mexican government launches National Vaccination Days. Shortly afterwards it introduces National Vaccination Weeks, which eventually evolve into the nationwide Universal Vaccination Program.[92]
1984 Delivery system The original glass syringes and open boiling equipment of the Expanded Program on Immunization are replaced with sterilizable syringes and portable steam sterilizers, which are developed specifically for WHO for use in field conditions.[14]
1984 HIV Scientific development HIV vaccine development is initiated just after the virus discovery. As of today, the vaccine development is still in process.[113]
1984 Varicella Live-attenuated[127] Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for chicken pox, produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories[128], is first licensed in several countries in Europe.[129]
1985 Haemophilus influenzae type B Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction The first vaccine to protect against Hib diseases is introduced in the United States.[130][131]
1985 Poliomyelitis Program launch Rotary Club International launches PolioPlus, a campaign with the purpose of getting rid the world of poliomyelitis. Since then, the organization and its partners would help reduce the number of cases from 350,000 annually to fewer than 400 in 2014, remaining committed until the disease is eradicated.[132]
1985 Measles Program launch The WHO region of the Americas adopts a resolution to eliminate measles in all member states, which would be achieved by conducting massive ‘‘catch-up’’ campaigns, raising routine immunization coverage, introducing case-based measles surveillance, and establishing regular ‘‘follow-up’’ campaigns.[37]
1986 (May) Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine introduction Hepatitis B vaccine Recombivax HB (Merck) is first approved for marketing in West Germany, and two months later by the United States FDA.[133][134] This is the first genetically engineered vaccine[20], a recombinant vaccine resulting from two key discoveries, the expression of proteins in plasmids and the ability to sequence DNA. It is administered by intramuscular injection.[135][136][9] Posology consists in 3 doses (0.5 mL each) at 0, 1, and 6 months for infants, children, and adolescents 0–19 years of age (Pediatric/adolescent formulation), 2 doses (1.0 mL each) at 0 and 4–6 months for adolescentsb 11 through 15 years of age (adult formulation); 3 doses (1.0 mL each) at 0, 1, and 6 months for adults ≥20 years of age (Adult formulation); and 3 doses (1.0 mL each) at 0, 1, and 6 months for predialysis and dialysis patients (dialysis formulation).[137]
1986 Hepatitis A Scientific development Provost et al. successfully prepare a killed hepatitis A vaccine, using virus grown in cell culture that is safe and protective in marmosets. Lewis et al. subsequently report development and early clinical testing of vaccine made from killed attenuated CR326 virus grown and purified from cell cultures of MRC-5 strain human diploid fibroblasts. The vaccine is more than 95% pure and is inactivated by formaldehyde and formulated in alum adjuvant.[51]
1986 Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus Program launch The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is created by the United States Congress, in response to a threat to the vaccine supply due to a 1980s scare over the DPT vaccine.[138][139]
1987 Haemophilus influenzae type B Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction The application of conjugation as a method of adjuvantation leads to the approval of the first improved Hib vaccine, a conjugate vaccine, first licensed in the United States.[131][140][9]
1987 Program launch The vaccine prequalification system is formally put in place within the World Health Organization to provide advice to United Nations procuring agencies on the quality, safety, and efficacy of vaccines for purchase.[14]
1987 Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine introduction The hepatitis B Vax II (recombinant) vaccine is introduced.[80]
1987 Smallpox Side effect A single case report describes the development of discoid lupus erythematosus in a smallpox vaccination scar. However, no other cases would be reported since, probably due to the uncommon use of the smallpox vaccination in the general population.[99]
1988 Haemophilus influenzae Subunit (polysaccharide)[141] Vaccine introduction Subunit (conjugate)d Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine HibTITER (Wyeth-Lederle) is licensed.[15]
1988 Poliomyelitis Program launch The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is launched by the World Health Assembly,[14] which resolves to eradicate polio by 2000.[43]
1989 Q fever Inactivated[142] Vaccine introduction Coxiella burnetii vaccine Q-Vax is licensed in Australia, for Q fever.[143] It is given by injection under the skin, usually in the upper arm.[144]
1989 Hepatitis B Subunit Vaccine introduction Hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, is approved.[58] A noninfectious recombinant DNA vaccine containing hepatitis B surface antigen,[145] it is administered by intramuscular injection.[146]
1989 mRNA vaccine Medical development mRNA as a therapeutic is first promoted.[147]
1989 Program launch New WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization goals are established, going beyond the raising of routine immunization coverage to include the eradication of poliomyelitis, the elimination of neonatal tetanus, and the reduction of measles mortality and morbidity by 90% and 95%, respectively. The international political importance of these ambitious goals would increase substantially in 1990 when they become endorsed at the World Summit for Children.[14]
1990 Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and tuberculosis Coverage By this year measles, 75% of the world’s children received the "basic six" vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and tuberculosis.[14]
1990 DNA vaccine Medical development The concept of a DNA vaccine is first proposed.[148]
1990 Coverage By this time, vaccination protects over 80% of the world's children from the six main EPI diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles), and other new vaccines are continually being added to the EPI programmes in many countries.[6][149]
1990 Infrastructure The World Health Organization estimates that only 15% of the 69 vaccine producing countries at this time have an independent and functional vaccine regulatory system.[37]
1990 Hepatitis B Program launch Catalonia in Spain starts a program of vaccination against hepatitis B, which would prove to be very successful with an attained coverage rate of over 90% and resulting in a reduction of ~80% in the incidence of hepatitis B in the 10–19 year age group over an 8-year follow-up.[43]
1990 Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is released.
1990 Poliomielitis Inactivated Vaccine introduction Ipol, an enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine, by Pasteur Méérieux Vaccins et Serums, is licensed.[150]
1990 Hantaan orthohantavirus Inactivated Vaccine introduction Formalin-inactivated HTNV hantavirus vaccine Hantavax, grown in suckling mouse brains, is marketed in South Korea.[151]
1990 Haemophilus influenzae Protein conjugate Vaccine introduction Protein conjugate Hib vaccines are licensed for infant use, with widespread introduction. As a result, invasive Hib disease would almost disappeared from the industrialized world.[14]
1990 Scientific development The development of mRNA vaccines has its roots in the demonstration in this year of protein production from synthetic mRNA administrated in mice.[152]
1991 Hepatitis A Inactivated Vaccine introduction Havrix (by GlaxoSmithKline) is approved in Switzerland and Belgium. It is the world's first hepatitis A vacine.[153][154]
1991 Scientific development Computational T-cell vaccine design begins when peptide motifs are first identified in major histocompatibility complex class I antigens by Hans-Georg Rammensee’s group in Germany.[113]
1991 Organization Every Child By Two is founded in the United States as a non-profit health advocacy organization, which advocates for vaccinations.[155]
1991 Poliomyelitis Eradication Poliomyelitis is eliminated from the Americas with the last case in Junin, Peru.[51]
1991 Anti-vaccination movement Harris Livermore Coulter and Barbara Loe Fisher publish A Shot in the Dark, which outlines potential risks of vaccination.[25]
1991 Measles Program launch The Caribbean subregion becomes the first to establish a rubella elimination goal in the Western Hemisphere. As part of the measles eradication resolution, measles surveillance is established. Since 1999, no rubella or congenital rubella syndrome cases would be confirmed. One of the lessons learned from this program is that the mass campaigns must be completed within one month, as numerous campaigns lasting over several months result in fatigue of health care staff and interruption of the routine health care system.[43]
1991 Subunit Scientifric development Lai, et al conduct the first successful attempt at a subunit vaccine to protect against lethal vaccinia virus, by intraperitoneally injecting purified vaccinia virus A27 protein (a mature virus (MV) protein) generated in Escherichia coli and finding that the antibody response generated is both MV neutralizing in vitro and 100% protective against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge with vaccinia virus.[14]
1991 Hepatitis B Recommendation The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend HBV vaccination for all infants and adults.[42]
1992 Cholera Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction A whole-cell killed vaccine WC-Rbs (marketed as "Dukoral") is first licensed. Manufactured by French vaccine company Valneva, it is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit.[156]
1992 Japanese encephalitis Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction A Japanese encephalitis (mouse brain) vaccine is introduced.[17]
1992 Measles, mumps, rubella Side effect (meningitis) A laboratory-based study involving an active retrospective search for cases of aseptic meningitis identifies an increased rate after vaccination with licensed MMR vaccine containing the Urabe strain of the mumps virus. These vaccines would be replaced by ones containing the Jeryl-Lynn strain of mumps.[116]
1992 Program launch China begins the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with the purpose to prevent 12 vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) through routine immunization.[157]
1992 Hepatitis B Scientific development A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) becomes one of the first vaccine candidates made in plants. This would be followed by many other candidates made in plants.[158]
1992 Scientific development Protein-PS conjugate vaccines are described for the first time.[14]
1993 Organization The Sabin Vaccine Institute is founded in the United States as a non-profit organization promoting global vaccine development, availability, and use.[159]
1993 Program launch The World Health Organization announces a “birth-control vaccine” for “family planning”.[160]
1993 Cholera Recombinant[17] Vaccine introduction A cholera (recombinant toxin B) vaccine is introduced.[17]
1994 Poliomyelitis Eradication The WHO region of the Americas is certified polio-free.[161]
1994 Plague Inactivated Vaccine introduction The Cutter USP vaccine against plague is introduced as an iteration of the Haffkine KWC vaccine.[35]
1994 Cholera Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction A typhoid (Vi) polysaccharide vaccine is introduced.[17]
1995 HIV Organization The AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition is founded.[162]
1995 Hepatitis A Inactivated Vaccine introduction Vaqta (Merck) is introduced in the United States. It is initially made available to children living in high-risk areas of exposure. It is administered through intramuscular injection.[163][164]
1995 Influenza Scientific development The completion of the first bacterial genome, that of Haemophilus influenzae, is achieved, catalyzing a new revolution in vaccine development. This is considered to be the begining of the genome era. Advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics would result in an exponential growth of genome sequence information.[165]
1995 Varicella Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction A varicella vaccine, developed by Maurice Hilleman, becomes available in the United States.[166][17] Branded Varivax by Merck & Co., it is licensed for use in healthy individuals greater than 12 months of age.[42]
1995 DNA vaccine Scientific development DNA vaccination is proposed to be the vaccine of the future.[167]
1996 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B.[168] Vaccine introduction A branded formulation of the DTP-HepB vaccine, Tritanrix-HepB manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, is granted marketing approval in the United States. It is administered by intramuscular injection.[169]
1996 Hepatitis A Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction The inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine Avaxim (Sanofi Pasteur) is introduced for immunization of adults and children 2 years and over. This virus inacivated vaccine is administered through intramuscular injection.[170]
1996 Pertussis Vaccine introduction The acellular pertussis vaccine is licensed in the United States. This vaccine would be later only available in combination with diphtheria and tetanus in the United States.[42]
1996 Measles Vaccine trial A randomized, controlled trial of response to revaccination in 4327 South African schoolchildren show that previously vaccinated children given aerosol EZ measles vaccine (5,000 pfu/dose) have significantly better booster responses than those given comparable doses of EZ or Schwarz vaccines by injection at 1 month and 1 year after revaccination. Recontact of most of these children at 2 years postvaccination demonstrate better antibody persistence in the group receiving aerosolized vaccine.[43]
1997 Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B Inactivated (hepatitis A) and recombinant (hepatitis B) Vaccine introduction Hepatitis A and B vaccine Twinrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) is first marketed. It is administered through intramuscular injection.[171]
1997 Malaria Scientific development The use of adenoviruses to induce protective immunity against Plasmodium yoelii malaria is reported.[14]
1997 Organization The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) is founded as an international nonprofit organization on the belief that the health of children in developing countries can be dramatically improved by the use of new and improved vaccines. IVI is involved in all areas of the vaccine spectrum, working in collaboration with the international scientific community, public health organizations, governments, and industry.[172]
1997 Publication The Food and Drug Administration issues a Guidance for Industry for The Evaluation of Combination Vaccines for Preventable Diseases: Product, Testing and Clinical Studies, with the purpose to assist industry in the manufacture and testing of combination vaccines.[14]
1997 Measles, autism Scientific development The Lancet publishes research claiming to have found a link between the measles vaccine and autism. This would spark strong vaccine hesitancy in the following years among the public. While this research is later debunked, the number of measles cases would skyrocket in countries with strong public opinion against vaccination.[173]
1998 Lyme disease Recombinant[17] Vaccine introduction The United States Food and Drug Administration approves Lymerix, the world's first Lyme vaccine.[174] It is administered by intramuscular injection.[175]
1998 Rotavirus Live attenuated Vaccine introduction The first rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, is licensed and recommended for routine childhood immunization. However, this multivalent live oral reassortant vaccine would be witdrawn in 1999 due to safety concerns.[176][177]
1998 HIV DNA vaccine Medical development (trial) The first human trial of a DNA vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is reported.[178]
1998 Meningococcal disease Scientfic development A Novartis research begins a large-scale genome project. To develop a universal vaccine against meningococcus B, the genome of a MenB isolate (MC58 strain) is sequenced and used to discover novel antigens, a process that would take the research team 18 months to achieve.[165]
1998–1999 Rotavirus, intussusception Side effect A rotavirus vaccine, registered for use in the United States in 1998, is withdrawn in 1999 after administration to 1.5 million children, because of an unacceptable level (about one case per 10,000 recipients in some areas) of intussusception, a condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section immediately ahead of it.[116]
1999 Meningococcal disease Vaccine introduction The first meningococcal conjugate vaccines are introduced.[179]
1999 Toxoid (inactivated toxin) Vaccine introduction Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) vaccine Infanrix is introduced for infants from 2 months of age to 4 years of age inclusive.[80] It is administered by intramuscular injection.[180]
1999 Rotavirus Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction A rotavirus reassortants vaccine is introduced.[17]
1999 Hepatitis B Program launch 85 states, primarily high and middle income, implement the World Health Organization recommendation for universal childhood immunization against hepatitis B. However, the vaccine would remain unavailable in most of the poorest countries, which harbor the highest burden of the disease.[14]
1999 Influenza Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction A cold-adapted influenza vaccine is introduced.[17]
1999 Medical development The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists vaccines as the most important public health achievement of the 20th century.[181]
2000 Poliomyelitis Inactivated Adoption The United States switches to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).[182]
2000 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is licensed in the United States.[183] It is the first conjugated pneumococcal vaccine.[184][185]
2000 Pneumococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Vaccine introduction The first 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV) is licensed for infants.[186][187][9]
2000 Organization The Brighton Collaboration launches as an international volun­ta­ry collaboration of scientific experts, launched. It facilitates the development, evaluation and dissemination of high-quality information about the safety of human vaccines.[188]
2000 Organization The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) launches as a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.[189][11] is is created to extend the reach of the Expanded Program on Immunization and to help the poorest countries introduce new and under-used life-saving vaccines into their national programs.[6]
2000 Varicella Side effect Wise et al. describe the development of rashes after administration of a varicella vaccine. This side effect would be also later reported by Chaves et al. (2008), Galea et al. (2008), and Sharrar et al. (2001).[42]
2000 Tick-borne encephalitis Inactivated Vaccine introduction A new, albumin-free formulation of Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine (Ticovac) is released by Baxter. This formulation elicits severe vaccination side effects in the form of high fever in more than 1% of vaccinated children.[35]
2000–2007 Market trend The estimated global vaccine market grows from US$6 billion in 2000 to over US$17 billion in 2007.[14]
2001 Anti-vaccination movement The Institute of Medicine’s Immunization Safety Review Committee issues a report concluding that there is not enough evidence to prove or disprove claims that thimerosal in childhood vaccines causes autism, attention deficit hypersensitivity disorder, or speech or language delay.[190] This is in response to a widespread belief that vaccines cause autism.
2001 Influenza Vaccine introduction The first nasal influenza vaccine is introduced. However, it would be later withdrawn from the market due to potential toxicity problems.[113]
2001 Coverage In this year, UNICEF procured vaccines for 40% of the world’s children in over 100 countries.[14]
2001 Meningococcal disease Program launch The Meningitis Vaccine Project launches with the task to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa.[191]
2002 (August) Meningococcal disease Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine NeisVac C is introduced.[80] Posology consists in two doses (0.5 ml each) for infants from 2 months up to 4 months of age, and one dose (0.5ml) for infants from 4 months of age, older children, adolescents and adults.[192]
2002 Program launch The World Health Organization, along with UNICEF and other partners develop the Reaching Every District (RED) strategy, with the purpose to focus on districts with poor access and utilization of immunization, and then make microplans to identify local problems and adopt corrective solutions. The five components of RED are reestablishing outreach, supportive supervision, linking services with the community, monitoring and using data for action, and planning and management of resources. Since 2003, 53 developing countries would start implementing the plan to various degrees, mostly in Africa and South- and Southeast Asia. Later analysis would show an impact of RED in the weakest districts, indicating that where the program is implemented, it can help to reduce gaps in immunization coverage, and in particular to bridge inequalities between districts.[14]
2002 Hepatitis B Coverage By the end of this year, more than 2 billion doses of Hepatitis B vaccine have been administered.[99]
2003 Meningococcal disease Subunit (polysaccharide) Recommendation Pneumococcal Meningococcus polysaccharide (PPV) immunization is recommended for all people aged 65 and over.[193]
2003 Influenza Live attenuated Vaccine introduction A live, attenuated, cold-adapted influenza virus (LAIV) is approved in the United States. Being cold-adapted (attenuated) it does not replicate in the warmer body temperature of the lower airways. This vaccine is capable of causing mild signs and symptoms of wild-type influenza infection.[42]
2003 Influenza Inactivated Recommendation Killed influenza vaccines are “recommended" for children with high-risk.[194]
2003 Hepatitis A Inactivated Vaccine introduction Virosome-formulated vaccine[195] Epaxal (Crucell) is introduced in Europe.[153]
2003 Argentine hemorrhagic fever Live attenuated[196] Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for Argentine hemorrhagic fever is introduced.[197]
2003 Influenza Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction The United States FDA first licenses FluMist Quadrivalent, an intranasally administered influenza vaccine, for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 5–49 years. It is the first nasal influenza vaccine approved in the country.[198][58]
2004 (July) Rotavirus Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction Rotarix is introduced by GlaxoSmithKline in Mexico as a new rotavirus vaccine composed of the single live rotavirus strain RIX4414. It is administered by oralsuspension.[199][200]
2005 Meningococcal disease Subunit (conjugate)[201] Vaccine introduction Menactra (Sanofi Pasteur) is introduced to prevent meningococcal disease (serogroups A, C, W, and Y), for ages ranging from 9 months to 55 years.[201][112]
2005 DNA vaccine Vaccine introduction The equine West Nile virus vaccine becomes the first DNA vaccine to be approved.[202] DNA vaccines start being licensed for use in veterinary vaccines.[203]
2006 Human papilloma virus Subunit (protein) Vaccine introduction After over 13 years of development[90], Merck's Gardasil is approved as a vaccine to protect against human papilloma virus.[9]
2006 (September) Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella Combined, attenuated, live virus vaccine[204] Vaccine introduction The MMRV vaccine ProQuad (Merck) is approved for medical use in the United States. It is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children 12 months through 12 years of age. It is administered by intramuscular injection.[205][206]
2006 Rotavirus Live attenuated Vaccine introduction A new rotavirus vaccine becomes available.[177][207]
2006 Shingles Live attenuated Vaccine introduction A shingles vaccine is first licensed under generic name Zoster Vaccine (tradename Zostavax). It is administered by subcutaneous injection.[208][209]
2006 HIV Organization The Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery is founded when the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation donates US$287 million to promote HIV vaccine research. The organization is an international network of scientists, research organizations, and promoters of HIV vaccine research.[210]
2006 Influenza Organization The Global action plan for influenza vaccines is launched as a 10-year initiative by the World Health Organization, with the purpose to reduce the global shortage and inequitable access to influenza vaccines in the event of an influenza pandemic.[211][212]
2006 Rotavirus Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Rotarix is introduced. It is a live, monovalent, human attenuated vaccine given in 2 oral doses (one course) at 2 and 4 months of age.[213]
2006 Rotavirus Live attenuated Vaccine introduction Liquid oral vaccine RotaTeq is licensed by the FDA for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants 6 weeks to 32 weeks of age. Produced by Merck & Co., it is a live, pentavalent (contains 5 live reassortant rotaviruses)[213], human–bovine reassortant vaccine given in 3 doses (one course) at 2, 4 and 6 months of age.[214][215][216][17]
2006 Zoster Live attenuated[17] Vaccine introduction The United States Food and Drug Administration approves Zoster Vaccine Live (Zostavax) for the prevention of herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults age 60 and over.[217][17]
2006 Human papillomavirus Subunit (protein)[17] Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Gardasil (HPV4), a Merck vaccine aimed to prevent the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 for more than 5 years, decreasing cervical cancer incidence. It is administered through intramuscular injection.[218] Gardasil is regarded as the first cancer vaccine in human history.[219]
2006 Program launch The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm) is introduced by GAVI as a new and unique funding mechanism in the form of a financing institution that uses pledges of future aid to raise money from international capital markets for immediate use. IFFIm would result in dramatic increases in resources, radically altering the scale and timeframe of GAVI’s operations.[14]
2007 (February 9) Pneumococcal disease Program launch Five countries (Canada, Italy, Norway, Russia, the United Kingdom), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commit US$1.5 billion to launch the first Advance Market Commitment (AMC) with the purpose of accelerating access to vaccines against pneumococcal disease.[220]
2007 (April) Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B Inactivated (Hepatitis A Vaccine), recombinant (Hepatitis B) Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Hepatitis A and B vaccine Twinrix for an accelerated dosing schedule that consists of three doses given within three weeks followed by a booster dose at 12 months.[221] Administered through intramuscular injection, adults and children usually receive the injection in the upper arm, and infants receive it in the upper thigh.[222]
2007 Mumps, measles, rubella Side effect Ward et al. conduct a self-controlled case series study in children (2 to 35 months of age) residing in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1998 and 2001. The authors conclude that administration of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine is associated with an increased risk of severe neurologic disease within 6 to 11 days of vaccination, but attributed the risk to the inclusion of cases with complex febrile seizures.[42]
2007 Organization The I-MOVE (Influenza – Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) network launches, with the purpose to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe. This project wouldconduct multicenter and other studies since the 2008–9 influenza season.[223]
2007 (September 1) Smallpox Live vaccinia virus[224] Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves ACAM2000 against smallpox, a vaccine that can be produced quickly upon need. Manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, it is a single-dose vaccine administered percutaneously.[225][226]
2009 (March 30) Japanese encephalitis Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction The Ixiaro vaccine is introduced to prevent Japanese Encephalitis. It is administered by injection into a muscle.[227]
2009 (September 15) Influenza Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves three are injectable vaccines to prevent influenza A virus subtype H1N1, made by CSL Limited, Novartis, and Sanofi Pasteur, and the nasal-spray vaccine made by MedImmune.[228]
2009 (September 15) Influenza Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves nasal-spray vaccine made by MedImmune to prevent influenza A virus subtype H1N1.[228]
2009 (October 16) Cervical cancer Subunit (protein) Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Cervarix, by GlaxoSmithKline, for the prevention of cervical cancer.[24]
2009 (November) Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Agriflu, a vaccine for intramuscular injection, for those aged 18 years and older, to prevent disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and B.[229]
2009 Scientific development The journal Pediatrics concludes that the largest risk among unvaccinated children is not the contraction of side effects, but rather the disease that the vaccination aims to protect against.[230]
2009 Policy The World Health Organization grants sublicenses to vaccine manufacturers in developing countries.[231]
2009 Cholera Inactivated[17] Vaccine introduction A whole-cell only cholera vaccine is introduced.[17]
2009 (December 23) Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone High-Dose) for people ages 65 years and older.[232]
2010 (February 19) Meningococcal disease Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves licensure of Menveo (Novartis), indicated for active immunization for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y. It is approved for ages from 2 months to 55 years.[201][233]
2010 Cancer Vaccine introduction The first therapeutic cancer vaccine becomes available, with approval of an immune cell–based vaccine, sipuleucel-T.[234]
2010 (February 24) Pneumococcal disease Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves licensure of Pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), which replaces PCV7 and offers broader protections against Steptococcus pneumoniae infections.[235][236][193]
2010 (July) Smallpox Vaccine introduction The first smallpox vaccine for certain immune-compromised populations is delivered under Project BioShield.[237]
2010 (December 22) Human papillomavirus Subunit (protein) Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Gardasil HPV vaccine to include the indication for the prevention of anal cancer.[238]
2011 Program launch The Global Vaccine Action Plan is launched by the World Health Organization with the purpose to deliver universal access to immunization.[149]
2011 (July 8) Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis Inactivated Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Boostrix ( GlaxoSmithKline) to prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in older people.[239][240]
2011 Influenza Vaccine introduction United States FDA first authorizes the intradermal administration of Fluzone, as a result of developments in research into new vaccine delivery techniques.[241]
2011 Rinderpest Eradication Vaccine-induced eradication of rinderpest is announced.[44]
2012 (June) Meningococcal disease Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves HibMenCY (Menhibrix, GlaxoSmithKline), a new combination (meningococcal and Hib) vaccine for infants.[242]
2012 (April 1) Program launch The Shot@Life campaign is launched by the United Nations Foundation, with the purpose to ensure that children around the world have access to lifesaving vaccines.[243]
2012 Hepatitis E Recombinant Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for hepatitis E (HEV 239 vaccine, Hecolin) is introduced in China for ages 16 and above. This recombinant vaccine contains hepatitis E virus (HEV)-like particles prepared using a recombinant Escherichia coli expression system.[244][245][246]
2012 Influenza Inactivated[247] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Fluarix (GlaxoSmithKline), the first quadrivalent vaccine in the country.[241][248]
2012 Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is licensed in the United States.[249]
2012 (November 20) Influenza Inactivated (cell-based)[250] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves quadrivalent vaccine Flucelvax (Novartis), the first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology.[251] It is administered as a single 0.5 mL intramuscular injection preferably in the region of the deltoid muscle of the upper arm.[252]
2013 Influenza Vaccine introduction Swiss multinational pharmaceutical corporation Novartis develops in the lapse eight days a vaccine candidate in response to an avian flu outbreak in China for pre-clinical testing.[253]
2013 (January 25) Pneumococcal disease Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves use of Prevnar 13 vaccine in older children and teens (6-17 years).[254]
2013 Influenza Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Flublok (Protein Sciences), developed through recombinant DNA technology.[255][256][241] For intramuscular injection only, it s administered as a single 0.5-mL dose.[257]
2013 (June 7) Influenza Inactivated vaccine[258] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur) as the third quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed for use in the country.[259]
2013 Scientific development A study published in the journal PLOSOne claims that successful shots typically take more than a decade to develop.[260]
2013–2015 Statistics According to the World Health Organization, the global vaccine market is valued at US$24 billion in 2013, and more than $41 billion in 2015.[261]
2014 (October 29) Meningococcal disease Protein[201] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Trumenba for ages 10–25 years, to prevent serogroup B meningococcal disease.[262][201] As of 2021, the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends a 2-dose schedule when given to healthy adolescents and young adults aged 16 through 23 years who are not at increased risk for meningococcal disease; and a 3-dose schedule for persons aged ≥10 years, who are in a MenB outbreak situation or at increased risk for meningococcal disease.[263]
2014 Influenza Statistics By this time, 45% of countries globally have established a seasonal influenza vaccine program that targets older adults.[264]
2014 Ebola Subunit Vaccine introduction Chinese company CanSino develops an adenovirus type 5 vector-based vaccine for Ebola. A Phase II study shows that the vaccine induces an antibody response 4 weeks after injection. The vaccine is apporoved in China in 2017, but only for emergency use and national stockpiling.[265]
2014 (December 10) Human papillomavirus Subunit (protein) Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves the use of Gardasil 9 (Merck) 9-valent HPV vaccine in the country.[266]
2014 (December 11) Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves quadrivalent formulation of Fluzone Intradermal inactivated influenza vaccine.[267]
2015 Malaria Subunit (recombinant)[268] Vaccine introduction The RTS,S/AS01 (trade name Mosquirix) becomes the world's first licensed malaria vaccine. Approved for use by European regulators.[269]
2015 (January 23) Meningococcal disease Protein[201] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves the use of Bexsero, the second vaccine licensed in the country to prevent serogroup B meningococcal disease. It is approved for ages ranging from 10 to 25 years.[270] It is administered by deep intramuscular injection, preferably in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh in infants or in the deltoid muscle region of the upper arm in older subjects.[271] As of 2021, recommended posology consists in 3 doses for ages 6 weeks to 5 months (8 weeks between 1st and 2nd doses; 3rd dose at 12 months of age or 8 weeks after 2nd dose, whichever is later), 3 doses for ages 6–11 months (8 weeks between 1st and 2nd doses; 3rd dose at 12 months of age or 8 weeks after 2nd dose, whichever is later), and 2 doses for ages 12–23 months (8 weeks between doses).[272]
2015 (March 24) Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis Toxoid Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves Quadracel (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) as a sterile suspension for intramuscular injection. It is a new combination for use in children from age 4 to 6 years old.[273]
2015 (April 29) Rubella Eradication The Pan American Health Organization declares rubella eliminated in the Americas.[274]
2015 Enterovirus 71 Vaccine introduction The first vaccine for enterovirus 71 is introduced.[275]
2015 (September) Poliomyelitis Eradication The eradication of wild type 2 poliovirus is announced.[44]
2015 (November 24) Influenza Vaccine introduction FDA in the United States approves new injectable influenza vaccine, Fluad, for use in people age 65 years and older.[276]
2016 (January 14) Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Hiberix [Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus ToxoidConjugate)] for injection, for intramuscular use.[277]
2016 Dengue fever Live attenuated Vaccine introduction A partially effective dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) becomes commercially available in 11 countries: Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, and Singapore. It is administered through subcutaneous injection.[278][279]
2016 Dengue fever Side effect (antibody-dependent enhancement) Antibody-dependent enhancement is found during a dengue fever vaccine deployment in the Philippines.[93]
2016 Diphtheria Statistics About 86% of the world population was vaccinated as of year.[280]
2016 (June 10) Cholera Live attenuated[281] Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves attenuated bacterial vaccine Vaxchora for the prevention of cholera.[282][283]
2016 (September 27) Measles Eradication The WHO Region of the Americas (AMR) becomes the first in the world to have eliminated measles, after two decades of effort involving mass vaccination throughout the continent.[284]
2016 (November 18) Influenza Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves extending the age range for use of FluLaval Quadrivalent to include children 6 to 35 months of age.[285]
2017 Melanoma mRNA vaccine Medical development (trial) mRNA vaccine is found to be effective against melanoma, after BioNTech clinical trial is performed in Germany.[10]
2017 (October 20) Shingles Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves shingles vaccine Shingrix (GlaxoSmithKline) for use in adults age 50 and older.[286]
2017 Program launch 194 countries endorse the new resolution on strengthening immunization, which includes reinforcing national immunization pograms, expanding immunization beyond infancy, and mobilizing domestic financing.[149]
2017 (November 9) Hepatitis B Vaccine introduction United States FDA licenses hepatitis B vaccine Heplisav-B (Dynavax), for use in adults age 18 and older.[287]
2017 Orgnization The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) is launched at Davos as a global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organizations, with the purpose to accelerate the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases and enable equitable access to these vaccines for affected populations during outbreaks.[11]
2018 (October 25) Human papillomavirus Recommendation The American Dental Association adopts a policy to support the use and administration of HPV vaccine for the prevention of oral HPV infection.[288]
2018 (December 21) Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B Vaccine introduction United States FDA approves hexavalent vaccine Vaxelis (proper name: Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine), by MCM Vaccine, a European joint venture formed between Sanofi Pasteur and Merck. This is aimed for use in children from 6 weeks to 4 years of age.[289] [290] It is administered by intramuscular Injection.[291]
2019 (November 4) Influenza Vaccine introduction United States FDA licenses Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent HD-IIV4 (Sanofi Pasteur) for use in persons aged over 65 years.[292] [293]
2019 (October) Ebola Subunit (recombinant) Vaccine introduction Viral vector vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV is approved in the European Union as the first proven vaccine against Ebola, after study finds that it is 95-100% effective. In December it is approved by the United States FDA.[294][295][296][297] United States FDA approves the vaccine in December.[298][299]
2020 (February 21) Influenza Inactivated Vaccine introduction The United States FDA approves Fluad (Seqirus, an inactivated influenza virus vaccine indicated for the prevention of seasonal influenza in people 65 years of age and older.[300]
2020 (March 11) COVID-19 Background The World Health Organization declares COVID-19 a pandemic.[301]
2020 Meningococcal disease Subunit (conjugate) Vaccine introduction Subunit (conjugate) vaccine MenQuadfi is introduced for ages 2 years and older. It is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y.[201] Its posology consists in primary vaccination for individuals 12 months of age and older (one single dose of 0.5 mL), and a booster vaccination of a single 0.5 mL dose recommended for subjects who have previously received a meningococcal vaccine containing the same serogroups.[302]
2020 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Medical development mRNA-based vaccines hit the headlines after the quick development of two candidates to protect against SARS-CoV-2.[303]
2020 mRNA vaccine Medical development As of early year, about a dozen RNA vaccine candidates have been tested in humans.[304]
2020 (December) COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Vaccine introduction The United States FDA grants Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) approval to both Pfizer and Moderna for the first COVID-19 vaccine.[305][306]
2020 (December) Public opinion A poll in the United States finds 12% of Americans incorrectly believe there is evidence that vaccinations cause autism, and 37% are not sure.[307]
2021 (March) COVID-19 Scientific development As of date, 308 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in various stages of development, with 73 in clinical research, including 24 in Phase I trials, 33 in Phase I–II trials, and 16 in Phase III development.[308]

Tabular data

The table below shows recommended vaccines for children across time.[12]

Time period Recommended vaccines Additions Removals
Late 1940s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
Late 1950s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (IPV) Polio (IPV)
Late 1960s Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (OPV), measles, mumps, rubella Measles, mumps, rubella Polio (IPV)
Late 1970s Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (OPV), measles, mumps, rubella Smallpox
1985–1994 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (OPV), Hib Hib
1994–1995 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (OPV), Hib, hepatitis B Hepatitis B
2000 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio (IPV), Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A. varicella, hepatitis A, polio (IPV) Polio (OPV)
2005 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, influenza. Pneumococcal, influenza
2010 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, Hib, hepatitis B, varicella, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, influenza, rotavirus Rotavirus

The table below shows recommended vaccines for adolescents.[12]

Time period Recommended Vaccines Catch-up Sub-groups
2000 Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) vaccine MMR, hepatitis B, varicella Hepatitis A
2005 Td MMR, hepatitis B, varicella Hepatitis A, pneumococcus, influenza
2010 Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, HPV, meningococcus, influenza MMR, hepatitis B, varicella, polio Hepatitis A, pneumococcus

The table below shows studies on virus inactivation.[309]

Year Virus Reagent Reference
1949 Influenza Formaldehyde Lauffer and Wheatley
1956 Poliovirus Formaldehyde Timm et al.
1958 Poliovirus Formaldehyde Lycke
1980 Rabies virus Binary Larghi and Nebel
1991 Influenza Propiolactone Budowsky et al.
1991 Influenza Binary King

The two tables below shows vaccines approved for use in Japan and the United States between 1985 and 2006.[310]

Approval year Japan United States
1985 Hepatitis B (1)
1987 Live attenuated varicella Hib
1987 IPV
1988 Pneumococcal (2)
1988 Recombinant Hepatitis B
1988 MMR (3)
1991 aP (acellular pertussis) (5)
1992 DTaP
1992 Japanese encephalitis (6)
1993 DTap-Hib
1994 Plague
1995 Hepatitis A Varicella (7)
1996 Hib-Hepatitis B
1996 Inactivated Hepatitis A
2000 PCV for children (8)
2001 Hepatitis A/B combination
2002 DTap-IPV-B
2003 Live intranasal influenza
2003 DTP for adults
2005 MR (4) MMR-Varicella
2005 Meningococcal (conjugate)
2006 Rotavirus

1. Approved in the USA, 1982.

2. Approved in the USA, 1977.

3. Approved in the USA, 1971 and launched in Japan in 1989.

4. MR is MMR without the mumps vaccine. It was reapproved as a two-vaccine combination following adverse reactions to the mumps vaccine.

5. Approved in Japan in 1981 and exported to the USA.

6. Developed in Japan and approved in 1976.

7. Technology transfer from Japan.

8. 7-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine for Children.

Vaccine Japanese approval US approval
Hib (haemophilus influenzae type B) January 2007 1985
HPV (human papillomavirus) October 2009 2006 (Gardasil)
PCV (pneumococcal conjugate) October 2009 2002
Rotavirus October 2011 1988 (RotaShield)

The table below shows the evolution of morbidity of diseases combated with vaccines along the 20st century.[41]

Disease 20th Century Morbidity 1998 Morbidity Percent Decrease
Smallpox 48,164 0 100
Dipththeria 175,885 1 99.99
Pertussis 147,271 6,279 95.7
Tetanus 1,314 34 97.4
Poliomyelitis (paralytic) 16,316 0 100
Measles 503,282 89 99.99
Mumps 152,209 606 99.6
Rubella 47,745 345 99.3
Haemophilus influenzae type B 20,000 54 99.7

Numerical and visual data

Mentions on Google Scholar

The table below summarizes per-year mentions of vaccine types (entries without quotation marks) on Google Scholar as of May 10, 2021.

Year Inactivated vaccine Subunit vaccine Recombinant vaccine Polysaccharide vaccine Conjugate vaccine Toxoid vaccine Viral vector vaccine DNA vaccine RNA vaccine mRNA vaccine
1980 1,040 205 239 400 200 420 114 660 555 179
1985 1,450 555 1,030 702 453 698 294 1,550 929 377
1990 1,840 1,140 2,660 762 881 910 812 3,130 1,710 994
1995 2,460 1,810 4,590 1,080 1,400 1,160 1,480 4,980 2,790 1,670
2000 5,530 4,970 11,000 2,300 3,060 1,980 4,310 15,900 8,890 5,250
2002 5,750 6,230 13,100 2,960 4,170 2,610 5,290 19,600 9,870 5,620
2004 7,220 7,250 15,900 4,120 4,500 3,050 6,630 25,200 13,700 7,990
2006 8,130 7,890 17,200 4,250 4,970 2,750 6,750 28,700 14,900 8,010
2008 9,380 9,500 20,000 5,640 5,930 2,910 8,790 32,800 19,000 9,220
2010 10,600 10,600 21,000 6,010 8,180 3,000 9,480 38,400 21,000 10,700
2012 12,700 11,800 23,800 7,420 8,540 3,660 11,000 44,400 26,500 13,500
2014 13,600 11,900 24,400 7,350 9,770 3,590 12,400 44,900 28,400 13,700
2016 13,600 11,900 23,800 6,460 8,840 3,680 12,600 42,500 29,500 13,500
2017 13,400 12,100 23,400 6,560 9,050 3,780 12,200 41,300 29,300 14,100
2018 13,600 12,200 23,300 6,850 9,390 3,610 12,000 39,600 29,800 14,000
2019 13,700 12,500 23,200 7,300 9,680 3,640 12,300 37,200 29,800 14,600
2020 19,000 18,200 27,100 7,660 9,660 3,730 16,700 35,800 34,300 19,600
Vaccine tipe.png

The table below summarizes per-year mentions of pipeline vaccines (entries without quotation marks) on Google Scholar as of May 11, 2021.

Year Chagas vaccine Chikungunya vaccine Dengue vaccine Cytomegalovirus vaccine HIV vaccine Leishmaniasis vaccine Malaria vaccine Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine Hookworm vaccine Schistosomiasis vaccine
1980 40 22 79 207 92 66 380 164 39 149
1985 68 24 131 457 181 155 687 275 52 280
1990 103 22 217 568 2,180 319 1,100 406 74 414
1995 144 38 304 768 3,970 624 1,450 587 72 550
2000 287 105 736 2,490 9,160 1,330 3,030 1,300 188 929
2002 423 95 1,030 2,670 10,800 1,430 3,780 1,630 219 1,080
2004 534 149 1,380 3,050 12,500 2,130 4,740 2,150 286 1,310
2006 642 221 1,690 3,340 15,400 1,890 5,450 2,340 414 1,520
2008 873 424 2,440 3,670 18,400 2,340 7,210 3,410 575 1,880
2010 970 1,060 3,040 4,340 21,400 2,520 7,840 3,190 514 1,860
2012 1,250 811 3,710 4,570 25,300 3,180 8,980 3,810 688 2,380
2014 1,390 1,300 4,980 4,850 26,800 3,770 9,120 4,160 760 2,400
2016 1,530 2,610 6,640 5,310 26,900 3,420 10,800 4,410 735 2,330
2017 1,650 2,660 6,620 5,000 26,200 3,580 10,800 4,490 740 2,380
2018 1,670 2,700 6,850 4,940 26,900 3,510 10,800 4,570 694 2,450
2019 1,580 2,940 7,150 5,150 26,000 3,490 10,700 4,950 663 2,480
2020 1,980 4,170 11,300 6,860 31,000 4,260 16,200 9,320 732 2,910
Vaccine disease.png

Efficacy in the USA of Some Childhood Vaccines

Disease agent Before vaccination Number of cases (yr) Before vaccination Vaccine (yr) After vaccination Number of cases (1997) After vaccination Decrease in desease incidence (%)
Diptheria 206,919 (1921) 1942 5 99.99
Measles 894,134 (1941) 1963 135# 99.98
Mumps 152,209 (1971) 1971 612 99.6
Rubella 57,686 (1969) 1971 161 97.9
Pertussis 265,269 (1952) 1952 5519 97.9
Poliomyelitis (paralytic) 21,269 (1952) 1952 0 100
(total) 57,879
H. influenzae 20,000 (1984) 165 99.2
(Hib) 1984


Google Trends

The chart below shows Google Trends data for Vaccine (Topic), from January 2004 to April 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[311]

Vaccine gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The comparative chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data Vaccination, vaccine and inoculation, from 1700 to 2019.[312]

Vaccination, vaccine and inoculation ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Vaccine, on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to Mach 2021.[313]

Vaccine wv.png

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

  • Suggestions for expansion (from Vipul):
    • Cover single-dose versus multi-dose
    • Role of "inactivated" or "attenuated" to distinguish vaccines from variolation, any events related to different forms of inactivation
    • Distinguish different kinds of vaccines: attenuated, inactivated, inactivated with antibodies, mRNA✔
    • Is there a distinction between vaccines on type of pathogen (virus, bacteria, protist e.g. malaria, fungus/worm)? Or based on mode of transmission (insects, water, air, human-to-human)
    • Cutter incident (polio vaccine that wasn't properly inactivated)✔
    • Risk of vaccines causing more severe form of the disease later due to antibody-dependent enhancement✔
    • How vaccine effectiveness is measured, and effectiveness estimates
    • Role of mass vaccine rollouts in curbing epidemics (?)✔ (Sebastian:some examples mentioned, such as the successful global eradication program against measles, as well as minor programs such as that against hepatitis B in Catalonia).
    • Evolution of the process of testing vaccines
    • Classification of vaccines based on style of administration (arm or hip injection, oral vaccine?)✔
    • Anti-vaccine movements and vaccine mandates✔

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


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