Timeline of H-1B

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This timeline covers the history of the H-1B visa and associated work status. The timeline incorporates some content from H-1B visa#Changes to legal and administrative rules and Premium Processing Service#Pre-announced delays for processing cap-subject petitions. Although much of the copied content was added by the author of the current Timelines wiki page, it also incorporates edits from others. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

Visual data

Google Trends

The graph below shows Google Trends data from 2004 (the start of availability of data) to the present.[1]

H-1B visa Google Trends.png

Interest peaks annually during the H-1B filing season, which is during the calendar months of March and April. Interest was higher in 2017 (corresponding to filing for Fiscal Year 2018) due to proposals for major rule changes after the election of Donald Trump.

Wikipedia pageviews

The graph below shows Wikipedia pageviews for the H-1B visa from December 2007 (the start of availability of data) to July 2017.[2]

H-1B visa Wikipedia views.png

Interest peaks annually during the H-1B filing season, which is during the calendar months of March and April. Interest was higher in 2017 (corresponding to filing for Fiscal Year 2018) due to proposals for major rule changes after the election of Donald Trump.

Full timeline

When inline citations are missing, this is usually because the Wikipedia article for the subject of that row has adequate detail and its own citations.

Year Month and date (if available) Event type Event name Actors Effect on fees Effect on cap Effect on LCA attestations and DOL investigative authority Effect on adjudication process Details
1952 June 27 Legislation Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 82nd United States Congress, President Harry S. Truman (vetoed but overridden) Creates the H-1 and H-2 visa categories for skilled and unskilled workers; the H-1 would give rise to the modern H-1B visa.
1982 INS/USCIS guidance In response to Matter of Srinivasan N/A N/A N/A N/A An internal memo of the Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS, the precursor to United States Citizenship and Immigration Services) provides guidance regarding issuance of B-1 in lieu of H-1.[3][4]
1990 November 29 Legislation Immigration Act of 1990 101st United States Congress, President George H. W. Bush Only a base filing fee Set an annual cap of 65,000 on new 3-year H-1Bs, including transfer applications and extensions of stay. Set up the basic rules for the Labor Condition Application Defines adjudication process The old H-1 visa is split into the H-1A visa for nurses (which would be discontinued and replaced by the H-1C visa, which would also be discontinued) and the H-1B visa. Additionally, the Immigration Act of 1990 also creates the employment-based (EB) immigration category for permanent immigration. The H-1B and EB would play an important symbiotic role.
1998 October 21 Legislation American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) 105th United States Congress, President Bill Clinton Additional $500 fee to train U.S. workers to reduce the shortage of skilled workers, and therefore reduce the need for H-1B Temporary increase in caps to 115,000 for 1999 and 2000 Introduces the concept of H-1B-dependent employer and required additional attestations about non-displacement of U.S. workers from employers who were H-1B-dependent or had committed a willful misrepresentation in an application in the recent past. Also gives investigative authority to the United States Department of Labor No change The legislation is mostly a victory for restrictionists and labor advocates, with the main concession to expansionists being the temporary quota increase
2000 October 17 Legislation American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) 106th United States Congress, President Bill Clinton Increase of fee for training U.S. workers from $500 to $1000 Increase in caps to 195,000 for Fiscal Years 2001, 2002, and 2003.
Creation of an uncapped category for non-profit research institutions.
Exemption from the cap for people who had already been cap-subject. This includes people on cap-subject H-1Bs who are switching jobs, as well as people applying for a 3-year extension of their current 3-year H-1B. Also, people with pending green card applications on EB-1,2,3 statuses can keep extending their H-1B (without being cap-subject) while waiting
No change No change The legislation paves the way for a significant de facto expansion of the H-1B program, despite no permanent increase in the annual cap.
2001 July 30 INS/USCIS guidance Premium Processing Service launch Additional fee of $1000 for using the Premium Processing Service; those not using it see no fee change No change No change Those who pay for the Premium Processing Service should receive an initial adjudication in 15 calendar days from the later of the time of petition receipt or time of Premium Processing Service filing and fee receipt.[5]
2004 January 1 Treaty or trade agreement Singapore–United States Free Trade Agreement United States and Singapore governments; President George W. Bush and 108th United States Congress on the United States side No change H-1B cap reduced by the number of H-1B1 visas issued No change No change The Singapore–United States Free Trade Agreement (signed May 6, 2003, ratified July 24, 2003) includes provisions for the H-1B1 visa category for Singapore
2004 January 1 Treaty or trade agreement Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement United States and Chile governments; President George W. Bush on the United States side No change H-1B cap reduced by the number of H-1B1 visas issued No change No change The Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement (signed June 6, 2003, active starting January 1, 2004) includes provisions for the H-1B1 visa category for Chile
2004 December 6 Legislation H-1B Visa Reform Act of 2004, part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 108th United States Congress, President George W. Bush Increase of fee for retraining US workers to $1500 for companies with 26 or more employees, reduction to $750 for small companies. Addition of anti-fraud fee of $500 Bachelor's degree cap returns to 65,000 with added 20,000 visas for applicants with U.S. postgraduate degrees. Additional exemptions for non-profit research and governmental entities. Expands the Department of Labor's investigative authority, but also provides two standard lines of defense to employers (the Good Faith Compliance Defense and the Recognized Industry Standards Defense). No change The first affected cap season is Fiscal Year 2006 (starting October 1, 2005; petitions in April 2005).
2005 May 5 INS/USCIS regulation 70 FR 23775 - ALLOCATION OF ADDITIONAL H-1B VISAS CREATED BY THE H-1B VISA REFORM ACT OF 2004 USCIS; contact point Kevin J. Cummings, Adjudications Officer, Business and Trade Services Branch/Program and Regulation Development No change According to the regulation, petitions received before the date it hits the cap are always adjudicated. Petitions received on the day it hits the cap are subjected to a lottery that selects enough petitions to just hit the cap. These processes apply to both the regular 65,000 and the Masters degree 20,000 caps; however, after the Masters degree 20,000 cap is attained, additional petitions in the Masters degree category are simply treated as ordinary petitions No change No change USCIS issues an updated regulation clarifying what petitions it will adjudicate if it hits the cap for a given fiscal year. The new regulation is necessary to clarify the implementation of the new setup where ther are two caps: 65,000 for regular H-1Bs and 20,000 for people with U.S. masters degrees.[6][7]
2007 April 18 Proposed legislation SKIL Bill (christened "SKIL Act of 2007") John Shadegg (in the 110th United States Congress) No change Proposed:
Immediate cap increase from 65,000 to 115,000, and provision for 20% increase next year if the cap is met in a given year.
Expands the master's exemption (to include not just people with U.S. Masters degrees but people with foreign STEM masters degree and three years of related U.S. work experience) and some other cases.
Removes the limit on the master's exemption, from 20,000 to unlimited
No change No change After being introduced on April 18, 2007, the bill is referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law on June 4, 2007.[8] There is no further progress.
2008 April 8 INS/USCIS guidance Extending Period of Optional Practical Training by 17 Months for F-1 Nonimmigrant Students With STEM Degrees and Expanding Cap-Gap Relief for All F-1 Students With Pending H-1B Petitions Federal Register Volume 73, Number 68 (Tuesday, April 8, 2008) Michael Chertoff (Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary); USCIS and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are under DHS No change No change No change No change Two new ways of extending Optional Practical Training (OPT) are introduced, both of which make it easier for people to transition from OPT to H-1B status. The first, the STEM extension, allows students in STEM fields an extra 17 months of OPT under some additional conditions. The second, the cap-gap, allows for OPT to be extended if there is a corresponding pending cap-subject petition.[9]
2009 February 17 Legislation Employ American Workers Act, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 111th United States Congress, President Barack Obama No change No change All recipients of Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) or Federal Reserve Act Section 13 are required to file the additional attestations required of H-1B-dependent employers, for any employee who had not yet started on a H-1B visa. No change Sunset after two years, on February 17, 2011.
2010 January 8 INS/USCIS guidance Determining Employer-Employee Relationships for Adjudication of H-1B Petitions, Including Third-Party Site Placements Donald Neufeld (Associate Director, Service Center Operations) No change No change No change Memo updates Adjudication Field Manual (AFM) Chapter 31.3(g)(15) (AFM Update 10-24) with clearer guidance on determining if petitioner and beneficiary have an employer/employee relationship The memo uses the employer's "right to control" as a key criterion for an employer/employee relationship. USCIS also publishes a FAQ on the memo.[10][11][12]
2010 August 13 Legislation Public Law 111-230 (Section 402) 111th United States Congress, President Barack Obama Additional fee of $2,000 for employers with more than 50 employees and more than 50% of their workforce either H-1B or L-1 No change No change No change The fee would apply only to petitions on postmarked on or after August 14, 2010, and until September 30, 2014.[13][14] See H-1B-dependent employer#Additional fees for more.
2010 November Fee increase Fee increases across the board as part of a regular fee increase.[15] No change No change No change
2011 January 2 Legislation Public Law 111-347 (Section 302) 111th United States Congress, President Barack Obama No change No change No change No change The end date for the increased fees imposed by P.L. 111-230 is extended from September 30, 2014 to September 30, 2015.[16][17]
2011 January 24 Proposed legislation STAPLE Act (full name: Stopping Trained in America PhDs From Leaving the Economy Act) Jeff Flake (in the 112th United States Congress) No change Proposed: People with United States STEM Ph.D. degrees are exempt from the numerical H-1B caps No change No change The bill is referred on February 7, 2011 to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement. There is no further progress.[18][19][20] Similar bills would be introduced in subsequent Congresses.[21]
2011 February 23 Lawsuit Palmer v. Infosys Technologies Limited (Alabama) Jack Palmer (represented by Kenneth J. Mendelsohn), lawsuit against Infosys N/A N/A N/A N/A In the lawsuit, Infosys employee Jack Palmer accuses the company of misusing the B-1 in lieu of H-1B, including misleading immigration authorities, underpaying taxes, and overbilling clients.[22] He is represented by Greg Mendelsohn and the suit is filed in the Circuit Court of Lowndes County, Alabama.[22] This happens two months after Palmer tried to raise the same issues internally within the company and was not heeded.[23][24][25] On August 20, 2012, a federal judge in Alabama dismisses the lawsuit.[26] However, federal prosecutors later pursue Infosys based on Palmer's alllegations, resulting in a $34 million settlement in October 2013 with the government, with Palmer getting part of the settlement per a federal false claims law.[27]
2011 March 3 Proposed regulation Registration Requirement for Petitioners Seeking to File H-1B Petitions on Behalf of Aliens Subject to the Numerical Limitations USCIS No change Proposed: No numerical effect, but lottery would now be run before submission of full petition No change No change USCIS proposes that petitioners complete an online registration describing petitions they want to file prior to the start of the filing season. If the number of such petitions exceeds the cap, USCIS runs its lottery before petitions are actually submitted, and informs employers whose petitions have passed the lottery, so they can then submit the full petition. The 60-day comment period for this Notice of Proposed Regulation published in the Federal Register ends on May 2.[28][29] The American Immigration Lawyers Association responds with critical comments, suggesting that the proposed regulation be put on indefinite hold until the USCIS Transformation to a paperless system is complete, and that the USCIS carefully beta test the new approach and collect stakeholder feedback before launching it widely.[30] There appears to be no further action on this proposal after May 2.
2013 March 15 Proposed legislation STAPLE Act (full name: Stopping Trained in America PhDs From Leaving the Economy Act) Erik Paulsen (in the 113th United States Congress) No change Proposed: People with United States STEM Ph.D. degrees are exempt from the numerical H-1B caps No change No change The bill is referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration And Border Security on April 15, 2013. There is no further progress.[21][31] A similar bill had been introduced in the 112th United States Congress,[18] and similar bills would continue to be introduced in subsequent Congresses.
2013 March 18 Proposed legislation H-1B and L-1 Visa Reform Act (Bill) of 2013 Chuck Grassley, Sherrod Brown (in the 113th United States Congress No change No change Proposed:
Annual Department of Labor audits of companies with large number of H-1B employees
200 additional employees to administer, oversee, investigate, and enforce programs
Revised wage determination requirements
Internet posting required
Longer U.S. worker displacement protection
Prohibition on employer advertising that makes a position available only to, or gives priority to, H-1B nonimmigrants
Limit on number of H-1B and L-1 employees that an employer with 50 or more workers may hire
No direct change, but more information-sharing with Department of Labor on fraud The Bill is referred to the Committee on the Judiciary but does not proceed further.[32][33]
2015 April 30 Proposed legislation STAPLE Act (full name: Stopping Trained in America PhDs From Leaving the Economy Act) Erik Paulsen (in the 114th United States Congress No change Proposed: People with United States STEM Ph.D. degrees are exempt from the numerical H-1B caps No change No change The bill is referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security on June 1, 2015. There is no further progress.[34][35] Similar bills had been introduced in the 112th and 113th Congress.[18][21]
2015 December 18 Legislation Public Law 114-113, part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 114th United States Congress Additional fee of $4,000 for employers with more than 50 employees and more than 50% of their workforce either H-1B or L-1 No change No change No change This applies to all petitions postmarked on or after December 18, 2015 and until September 30, 2025.[36][37] It replaces a similar $2,000 fee that applied till September 30, 2015. See H-1B-dependent employer#Additional fees for more.
2016 January 25 Lawsuit Perrero v. Disney and HCL Leo Perrero (plaintiff), Disney and HCL (defendants) N/A N/A N/A N/A Leo Perrero, a former Disney World employee, files a lawsuit in Florida against Walt Disney World and HCL for Disney firing him and other workers and using HCL to replace them, with HCL filling its labor needs using H-1B visas.[38] On May 13, Disney and HCL file motions for dismissal.[39][40] On October 13, 2016, Judge Gregory A. Presnell of the United States District Court in Orlando dismisses the lawsuit, as well as a similar lawsuit by Dena Moore filed against Disney and Cognizant Technology Solutions.[41]
2016 May 20 Lawsuit AILA v. USCIS, also known as the FOIA lawsuit American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA) and American Immigration Council (AIC) (plaintiffs), USCIS (defendant) N/A N/A N/A N/A The American Immigration Lawyers Association files a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)-based lawsuit against USCIS seeking more transparency into the H-1B lottery process.[42][43][44] USCIS responds on August 1, 2016, with three affirmative defenses.[43][45]
2016 June 2 Lawsuit Tenrec v. USCIS, also known as the H-1B lottery lawsuit Tenrec Inc. (employee Sergii Sinienok) and Walker Mary LLC (employee Xiaoyang Zhu) (plaintiffs), Brent Renison (plaintiff's attorney), USCIS and DHS (defendants) N/A N/A N/A N/A The lawsuit challenges the USCIS' use of a lottery to determine what filed H-1B petitions to adjudicate. Instead, it says that a lawful interpretation of the statute would require giving priority in the next year to people who applied in a given year but could not be selected due to a cap. It is filed as a class action lawsuit on behalf of anybody who has failed to be selected in at least one lottery since 2013.[46][47][48][49] In September 2016, U.S. District Court Judge Michael Simon in Oregon rejects the USCIS' motion to dismiss the lawsuit.[48] On March 17, 2017, the case is decided against the plaintiffs.[46][49] Although the plaintiffs appeal the decision with the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, it turns out that both plaintiffs succeed in the H-1B lottery this time, and no other employer is willing to become the lead plaintiff. A stipulated motion for voluntary dismissal of appeal is filed by all parties on June 21, 2017, and the order of dismissal is issued on June 23, 2017.[46]
2017 January 24 Proposed legislation High-Skilled Integrity and Fairness Act of 2017 Zoe Lofgren (in the 115th United States Congress) No change 20% of the cap reserved for employers with 50 or fewer full-time employees, including parent, subsidiary, and other affiliated entities. Proposed:
Wage tiers established (200% of prevailing wage, 150% of prevailing wage, 100% of prevailing wage).
Changes to penalties for employers
Petitions considered based on wage tier (so all petitions where the wage is above 200% of prevailing wage get first preference, then petitions where it is above 150%, then petitions where it is above 100%) Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security on February 8, 2017. Not yet passed.[50][51][52][53][54]
2017 March 3 INS/USCIS guidance Temporary Suspension of H-1B Premium Processing USCIS Premium Processing Service no longer available, so that fee component does not apply No change No change Premium Processing Service no longer applies, so all petitions are processed in the order they are received (see USCIS processing times for more).[55][56] Petitioners can still make discretionary expedite requests subject to the usual constraints on such requests.[55][57] The suspension of Premium Processing is believed to be related to work under President Donald Trump to change the regulations and procedures surrounding immigration, as well as legislation under discussion that would alter the working of the H-1B program.[58][59][60]

H-1B annual cycle dates

Data Fiscal Year 2006 onward (after the H-1B Visa Reform Act of 2004; no major legislative changes)

The annual caps for H-1B (65,000 regular cap-subject, 20,000 for people with U.S. Masters degrees) apply every Fiscal Year. A Fiscal Year begins on October 1 of the previous calendar year and ends on September 30 of the same calendar. For instance, Fiscal Year 2004 is from October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2004.

The H-1B petition is filed using Form I-129, and any Form I-129 petition can be submitted at most six months in advance of the indicated start date. Therefore, cap-subject petitions in a given Fiscal Year start on the first weekday of April (usually April 1, sometimes April 2 or April 3) of the preceding calendar year. Early April is sometimes called "H-1B season", "H-1B cap season", "H-1B filing season", or "H-1B petition season", and is the subject of much informal discussion among petitioners, beneficiaries, and commentators.

Starting with Fiscal Year 2006, USCIS has implemented a lottery to determine what petitions to adjudicate if it hits the cap. According to this regulation, all petitions received before the date the USCIS hits its cap are processed, but petitions received on the day it hits the cap are run through a lottery that selects the number necessary to just hit the cap.[6]

For Fiscal Year 2008, USCIS had to close petitions after just two days of receiving petitions.[61] The heavy pressure on service centers and overnight courier services[49] at the start of cap season led to USCIS changing its process somewhat starting Fiscal Year 2009. USCIS would now wait at least the first five working days of April to receive petitions, and, if enough petitions were received in the first fivedays, it would put all petitions received in the first five days (not just those on the last day) through its lottery to determine which petitions would be adjudicated.[49][62] USCIS has achieved its cap after five days in every fiscal year starting Fiscal Year 2014 onward (see table below).

Due to the huge influx of petitions right around April 1, USCIS delays the countdown start for Premium Processing for cap-subject petitions received at the beginning of the filing season. Prior to Fiscal Year 2014, the delayed start date was announced retroactively, after the first week of receiving petitions; from Fiscal Year 2014 to 2017, the delays were pre-announced.

Fiscal Year Date of announcement for delay in processing cap-subject petitions Date of delayed start for the 15-day countdown for Premium Processing Service Date that the USCIS opened applications Last date the USCIS accepted cap-subject petitions Last date the USCIS accepted petitions for the 20,000 masters degree positions Lottery used to select petitions for processing?
Fiscal Year 2006 (begins October 1, 2005) N/A N/A April 1, 2005 August 10, 2005[63] January 17, 2006[64] No
Fiscal Year 2007 (begins October 1, 2006) N/A N/A April 3, 2006 May 26, 2006[65] July 26, 2006[64] Yes
Fiscal Year 2008 (begins October 1, 2007) N/A N/A April 2, 2007[61] April 3, 2007[61] April 30, 2007[66] Yes
Fiscal Year 2009 (begins October 1, 2008) N/A N/A April 1, 2008[62] April 7, 2008[62] April 7, 2008[62] Yes
Fiscal Year 2010 (begins October 1, 2009) April 20, 2009[67] April 7, 2009[67] April 1, 2009[68] December 21, 2009[69] July 9, 2009[64] No
Fiscal Year 2011 (begins October 1, 2010) April 8, 2010[70] April 7, 2010[70] April 1, 2010[71] January 26, 2011[72] December 22, 2010[64] No
Fiscal Year 2012 (begins October 1, 2011) April 8, 2011[73] April 7, 2011[73] April 1, 2011[74] November 22, 2011[75] October 19, 2011[64] No
Fiscal Year 2013 (begins October 1, 2012) N/A N/A April 2, 2012[76] June 11, 2012[77] June 7, 2012[77][64] No
Fiscal Year 2014 (begins October 1, 2013) March 15, 2013[78][79] April 15, 2013[78][79] April 1, 2013[78] April 5, 2013[80] April 5, 2013[80] Yes
Fiscal Year 2015 (begins October 1, 2014) March 25, 2014[81] April 28, 2014[81] April 1, 2014[82] April 7, 2014[83] April 7, 2014[83] Yes
Fiscal Year 2016 (begins October 1, 2015) March 12, 2015[84] May 11, 2015 (initially announced)[84]
Later revised to April 27, 2015[85]
April 1, 2015[84] April 7, 2015[86] April 7, 2015[86] Yes
Fiscal Year 2017 (begins October 1, 2016) March 16, 2016[87] May 16, 2016 (initially announced)[87]
Later revised to May 12, 2016[88]
April 1, 2016[87] April 7, 2016[89] April 7, 2016[89] Yes
Fiscal Year 2018 (begins October 1, 2017) N/A (Premium Processing suspended) N/A (Premium Processing suspended) April 3, 2017[90] April 7, 2017[91] April 7, 2017[89] Yes

There are also some other online sources tabulating H-1B cap season since the mid-2000s.[92][93][64]

Data before Fiscal Year 2006

This period was characterized by significant flux in caps as well as the way petitions count toward the cap. Notes explaining the reason for changes in numbers are included. See the #Full timeline for more context on the specific changes. Data is from the United States Chamber of Commerce.[64]

Fiscal Year Cap Number used Date cap reached Explanation of changes to cap Explanation of changes to number used or date cap reached
Fiscal Year 1992 (begins October 1, 1991) 65,000 48,600 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1993 (begins October 1, 1992) 65,000 61,600 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1994 (begins October 1, 1993) 65,000 60,300 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1995 (begins October 1, 1994) 65,000 54,200 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1996 (begins October 1, 1995) 65,000 55,100 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1997 (begins October 1, 1996) 65,000 65,000 September 1, 1997 N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1998 (begins October 1, 1997) 65,000 65,000 May 1, 1998 N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 1999 (begins October 1, 1998) 115,000 115,000 June 15, 1999 American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) temporarily increases cap Increased demand for programmers due to the dot-com bubble
Fiscal Year 2000 (begins October 1, 1999) 115,000 115,000 July 21, 2000 N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 2001 (begins October 1, 2000) 195,000 163,600 N/A American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) temporary increases cap N/A
Fiscal Year 2002 (begins October 1, 2001) 195,000 79,100 N/A N/A Two effects. First, the various provisions of AC21 that mean fewer petitions (including change of job, and petitions by nonprofit research institutions) count toward the cap. Second, the dot-com bubble gives way to the early 2000s recession
Fiscal Year 2003 (begins October 1, 2002) 195,000 78,000 N/A N/A N/A
Fiscal Year 2004 (begins October 1, 2003) 65,000 65,000 February 17, 2004 Cap returns to normal after temporary increases due to ACWIA and AC21 expire N/A
Fiscal Year 2005 (Begins October 1, 2004) 65,000 65,000 October 10, 2004 Note that although the H-1B Visa Reform Act of 2004, adding 20,000 slots for people with United States Masters degrees, is passed in December 2004, during this Fiscal Year, it looks like this gets activated only the next year, in Fiscal Year 2006. There is some uncertainty around this. N/A

See also

References

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  5. 6.0 6.1 "70 FR 23775 - ALLOCATION OF ADDITIONAL H-1B VISAS CREATED BY THE H-1B VISA REFORM ACT OF 2004". Federal Register. May 5, 2005. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
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