Timeline of biohacking

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This is a timeline of biohacking.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • Concept development
  • Ideology development

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1960s Movement birth The hacker ethic emerges within the first hacker communities in the United States.[1]
2000s Increased proliferation "the dissemination of genetic engineering techniques has continued, even accelerated, thanks in part to an economic downturn in the 2000s that prompted several struggling biotech firms to sell off their equipment to biohacker collectives"[2]

Visual and numerical data

Mentions on Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of May 13, 2021.

Year biohacking biohacking technology biohacking implant biohacking ethics biohacking gene editing
1995 1 1 0 0 0
2000 0 0 0 0 0
2002 1 1 1 0 0
2004 3 2 0 2 2
2006 2 2 0 5 5
2008 11 9 2 10 5
2010 25 23 7 15 13
2012 60 50 10 32 24
2014 133 116 44 78 49
2016 247 214 83 169 107
2017 303 260 104 185 147
2018 371 327 146 226 178
2019 556 429 182 305 255
2020 527 442 187 333 257

Google Trends

The chart below shows Google Trends data for Biohacking (search term), from January 2004 to Month 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[3]

Biohacking gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Biohacking, from 2000 to 2019.[4]

Biohacking ngram.png

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Biohacking, from July 2015 to April 2021. [5]

Biohacking wv.png

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Approach (when applicable) Details
1930s The Mertonian ethos is proposed by American sociologist Robert K. Merton as an account of scientist's norms of behavior.[1]
1930s Early development "German physician Werner Forssmann performed the first clinical cardiac catheterization on himself and later won the Nobel Prize."[6]
1960 "Manfred Clynes and Nathan Klines’ 1960 article, "Cyborgs and Space""
1984 "1984 - The 1984 Novel Neuromancer by William Gibson is often attributed as the cause in the rise of transhumanism culture popularity in modern times, and for coining terminology and ideas that form the basis of modern Cyberpunk and body hacking culture."[7]
1985 Donna Haraway’s publishes her Cyborg Manifesto, giving rise to the cyborg theory.[8]
1986 Hacker Manifesto
1988 "“You can pick up any recent issue of Science magazine, flip through it and find ads for kit after kit of biotechnology techniques,” says molecular biologist Tom St. John of the Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.21 Remarkably, St. John made this comment in 1988 in a Washington Post article, one titled Playing God in Your Basement and likening biohacking to 1970s computer hacking."[2]
1992 Concept development "The first known use of the word biohacking was in 1992, and the definition informs us that it’s an experimental action done, with the goal of improving the quality of life of a living organism, executed by individuals out of the official scientific and or medical field. "[9]
1998 Organization The global transhumanist foundation Humanity+ is co-founded by Nick Bostrom.
1998 "The Transhumanist Declaration, which was written in 1998, sought to place limits and rules on technology that had not even been developed yet."[10]
1998 Notable case " In 1998, British cybernetics professor Kevin Warwick had a doctor implant a radio frequency identification device (RFID) in his arm, an anti-theft smart label that enabled a computer to track Warwick's every move and store codes that allowed him to unlock certain doors, computers and even smart phones. (RFID implantation has now become part of the biohacker movement, and the materials for a DIY version can be purchased online.)"[6]
2005 "Amal Graafstra is known for implanting an RFID chip in 2005 and developing human-friendly chips including the first ever implantable NFC chip."[11]
2009 "Then in 2009, the National Security Council dramatically changed perspectives. It published the National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats, which embraced “innovation and open access to the insights and materials needed to advance individual initiatives,” including in “private laboratories in basements and garages.”"[12]
2009 Organization American molecular biologist Ellen Jorgensen founds Genspace in Brooklyn, New York, as a non-profit organization and a community biology laboratory. It focuses on supporting citizen science and public access to biotechnology.
2010 December Genspace opens a Biosafety Level One laboratory.[13][14]
2012 June "molecular biologist Ellen Jorgensen put the biohacker movement on the map when she gave a TED talk about Genespace, the DIY science lab she opened in Brooklyn, N.Y., in late 2010. Genespace is one of about 40 (and counting) independent citizen-science groups in the world — more than 20 of them in the United States."[6]
2013 Biotech startup company Dangerous Things is founded by Amal Graafstra.[15]
2014 October 17 Literature Ari R. Meisel publishes Intro to Biohacking.[16]
2015 May Literature James Lee publishes The Biohacking Manifesto: The Scientific Blueprint for a Long, Healthy and Happy Life Using Cutting Edge Anti-Aging and Neuroscience Based Hacks.[17]
2016 " In 2016, sick of suffering from severe stomach pain, Zayner decided to give himself a fecal transplant in a hotel room. He had procured a friend’s poop and planned to inoculate himself using the microbes in it. Ever the public stuntman, he invited a journalist to document the procedure. Afterward, he claimed the experiment left him feeling better."[12]
2020 August 20 German techno-thriller television series Biohackers is released on Netflix.[18]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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What the timeline is still missing

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See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 Delfanti, Alessandro (7 May 2013). Biohackers: The Politics of Open Science. Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-3280-2. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Vargo, Marc E. (11 August 2017). The Weaponizing of Biology: Bioterrorism, Biocrime and Biohacking. McFarland. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4766-2933-9. 
  3. "Biohacking". Google Trends. Retrieved 23 May 2021. 
  4. "Biohacking". books.google.com. Retrieved 23 May 2021. 
  5. "Biohacking". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 23 May 2021. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "The brave new world of biohacking". america.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 20 July 2021. 
  7. "Neuromancer | Summary & Cultural Impact". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-09-24. 
  8. "Close Reading of Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway | Darat al Funun". daratalfunun.org. Retrieved 5 May 2021. 
  9. "Blog | MÁDARA Organic Skincare". www.madaracosmetics.com. Retrieved 20 July 2021. 
  10. Feb. 4th, Bill Gerken. "Biohacking - Technology and the Human Body". Reporter. Retrieved 20 July 2021.  Text " published " ignored (help)
  11. "The xNT implantable NFC chip". Indiegogo. Retrieved 5 April 2021. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Samuel, Sigal (25 June 2019). "How biohackers are trying to upgrade their brains, their bodies — and human nature". Vox. Retrieved 12 April 2021. 
  13. Kean, Sam (2 September 2011). "A Lab of Their Own". Science. 333 (6047): 1240–1241. doi:10.1126/science.333.6047.1240. 
  14. "DIY Biotech Hacker Space Opens in NYC". Wired. Retrieved 20 July 2021. 
  15. "Dangerous Things". Dangerous Things. Retrieved 5 April 2021. 
  16. Meisel, Ari R. Intro to Biohacking. Createspace Independent Pub. ISBN 978-1-5025-1546-9. 
  17. Lee, James. The Biohacking Manifesto: The Scientific Blueprint for a Long, Healthy and Happy Life Using Cutting Edge Anti-Aging and Neuroscience Based Hacks. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-5121-2127-8. 
  18. [biohackers "We are the Biohackers"] Check |url= value (help). Biohackers. Pluto Press. pp. 111–129. Retrieved 17 April 2021.