Timeline of Neuralink
|Time period||Development summary|
|2017||Neuralink is announced publicly.|
|2018||Neuralink intends to conduct tests on animals. By late year, Elon Musk for the first time publicly invites people to apply for jobs at the company. He also announces Neuralink aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence.|
|2019||A presentation of Neuralink is held, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology. The company cumulates US$158 million in funding and employs a staff of 90 people.|
|2020||Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.|
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Details|
|1970s||Prelude||Research on brain–computer interfaces begins at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA.|
|1997||Prelude||Dr. Richard Norman at the University of Utah develops the Utah electrode array, a tiny piece of silicon, only a quarter of an inch on its side, with 256 electrodes that can be attached to the central nervous system to listen to neural activity.|
|1998||Prelude||The first sensor is implanted in the brain of a paralyzed patient. Since then, at least about a dozen people would receive similar implants.|
|2009||Prelude||American inventor Raymond Kurzweil that by 2020 we’ll have "computers that are powerful enough to simulate the human brain. However, we won’t be finished yet with reverse engineering the human brain and understanding its methods".|
|2011||Competition||Emotiv is founded as a US-based bioinformatics company which works in understanding the human brain using electroencephalography (EEG). It would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.|
|2015||Competition||BrainCo is founded. The company develops brain-machine interface (BMI) technology products including sensors, hardware, software, and AI. It would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.|
|2016||June||Prelude||At Recode’s Code conference, South African entrepreneur Elon Musk discusses his "neural lace" proposal, a brain–computer interface.|
|2016||July 11||Launch||Neuralink is founded by Elon Musk, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo, Max Hodak, Paul Merolla, Philip Sabes, Tim Gardner, Tim Hanson, and Vanessa Tolosa.|
|2016||Competition||Kernel is founded. It builds advanced neural interfaces to treat disease, illuminate the mechanisms of intelligence, and extend cognition. It would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.|
|2017||January||Company||Elon Musk buys the name Neuralink from a pair of neurotechnology researchers that owned the trademark on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.|
|2017||February||Research||Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to the city of San Francisco's planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab.|
|2017||February||Notable comment||Elon Musk claims that "people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age."|
|2017||March 28||Company||Elon Musk confirms the existence of Neuralink, and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website Wait But Why in a week.|
|2017||April 20||Review||Wait But Why editor Tim Urban posts the first deep look at Neuralink, after Musk petition from about a month and a half before. Musk confirms plans for the company, revealing he will be the chief executive of a startup that aims to merge computers with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.”|
|2017||June||Research||Neuralink scientists start researching at the University of California, Davis campus.|
|2017||July 19||Company||Elon Musk talks about Neuralink in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in Washington, DC., and says the reason he went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated with artificial intelligence.|
|2017||August 25||Company||Elon Musk tweets: "Neuralink is not seeking investors."|
|2018||March||Notable comment||At a South by Southwest tech conference in Austin, Texas, Elon Musk calls AI more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligence.|
|2018||March||Research||Report communicates that Neuralink has plans to test products on animals.|
|2018||May||Funding||Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the University of California. The company is expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at UC Davis' California National Primate Research Center, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to the study of health and disease on primates.|
|2018||November||Company||In an interview with podcaster Joe Rogan, Elon Musk says Neuralink aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence that will serve as a tertiary cognition layer augmenting the human cortex and limbic systems.|
|2018||November||Company||In an interview, Elon Musk hints that Neuralink would first introduce microcontrollers to further advance computer-brain interface technology, i.e., possibly unveiling an initial version of what will eventually become a “neural lace.”|
|2018||November 26||Employment||Elon Musk tweets mentioning Neuralink for the first time in 20 months, inviting people to apply for jobs at the firm alongside three of his other companies.|
|2019||May||Funding||Bloomberg reports on Neuralink having raised US$39 million of its planned US$51 million funding target.|
|2019||July 16||Company||Elon Musk and Neuralink president Max Hodak host a presentation of the company in San Francisco, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology.|
|2019||July 18||Company||Elon Musk tweets about Neuralink: "Addressing epilepsy is likely one of the more near-term applications".|
|2019||July||Funding||Neuralink cumulates US$158 million in funding (of which $100 million comes from Musk) and employs a staff of 90 employees.|
|2019||August 28||Notable comment||Elon Musk says during interview that computers are getting smarter, so much so that they could quickly surpass human intelligence "in every single way".|
|2019||September 5||Competition||American Internet entrepreneur Jag Singh publishes a project based on work at the MIT Media Lab to construct a brain–computer interface that allows users to telepathically query Google Search, anticipating Neuralink's BCI.|
|2020||Clinical trial||According to July 19 Elon Musk's report, Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.|
|2029||Prediction||According to 2009 Raymond Kurzweil prediction, by this "scientists will have reverse-engineered, modeled and simulated all the regions of the brain. That will provide humans with the software and algorithmic methods to simulate all of the human brain's capabilities including the emotional intelligence."|
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