Timeline of contract research organizations

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This is a timeline of contract research organizations.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some notable or sample policies related to business of contract research?
  • What are some books specialized in the field of contract research?

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1960s–1970s Trend towards outsourcing "This changed in the early 1960s, when the tragedy of thalidomide revealed the importance of adverse toxicology and transformed the public policy surrounding drug safety. It was furthered by the introduction in 1977 of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Since these two events, the pharmaceutical industry has adapted outsourcing preclinical safety studies as an integral and essential part of their overall strategy."[1]
21st century "Outsourcing is now an essential element in the strategy of pharmaceutical companies. Far from being solely the province of large company strategy, outsourcing is used intensively by small companies aiming to adopt modern techniques in a flexible and competitive environment."[1]

Full timeline

Year Industry Event type Details Location
1925 Smithers is founded.[2]
1926 The Food and Drug Research Laboratory (FDRL) is formed. It is likely the first recognized CRO that is not considered an extension of a chemical or pharmaceutical organization.[3]
1931 Biotechnology research Harlan is founded, [4] providing services including contract research, comprising toxicology, environmental science, and regulatory services.[5] United States
1936 IIT Research Institute is founded as the Armour Research Foundation (ARF). Initially formed to support the research endeavors of faculty members from the Armour Institute of Technology, it would be renamed IITRI in 1963. In 2002, IITRI would became entirely focused on the life sciences, with all other science and engineering divisions being spun off into Alion Science and Technology, a separate employee-owned corporation. Since 2002, research at IITRIwould be entirely focused on biomedical research, with particular emphasis on pre-clinical toxicology, safety evaluations, and drug discovery and development.[6] United States
1944 Research services[7] MRIGlobal is founded. Based in Kansas City, Missouri, it is a company performing contract scientific and engineering research for government and industry.[8] United States
1946 Organization SRI International is founded. Today, its unit SRI Biosciences carries out basic research, drug discovery, and drug development, and provides contract (CRO) services.[9] United States
1947 Biotechnology, education, healthcare, medical Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute is founded. Based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, it is a research company that offers applied research, development, and testing services.[10] United States
1947 Pharmaceutical manufacturing Hill Top Research is founded.[11] Today, it is one of the world's leading clinical research services companies, with centers in the United States and Canada.[12] Based in Saint Petersburg, Florida, it provides clinical trial services in Dermatology Rx.[13] United States
1947 Biotechnology research[14] Organization Charles River Laboratories is founded.[15] Today, it is one of the leading global contract research organizations.[16] United States
1961 Biotechnology research[17] Lancaster Laboratories is founded.[18] One of the largest commercial contract laboratories in the world, it provides laboratory services in the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and environmental sciences.[19]
1963 Research services Organization Westat is founded.[20] Based in Rockville, Maryland, today, its expertise includes data collection and management, clinical trials, statistical research and survey methods, and evaluation.[21] United States
1964 Research services Organization Sinclair Research Center is founded.[22] Based in Auxvasse, Missouri, it is a nonclinical contract research organization (CRO) offering animal efficacy models, IND-enabling and specialty toxicology services and compliant research capabilities to support biopharmaceutical, animal health and medical device development programs.[23] United States
1972 Organization ERT is founded.[24] It is a global company specializing in clinical services and customizable medical devices to biopharmaceutical and healthcare organizations. United States
1972 Organization The Social Psychiatry Research Institute is founded by two psychiatrists to support and conduct clinical research for antidepressant and anti-anxiety drugs.[25] United States
1974 Organization Bioanalytical Systems is founded.[26] "Bioanalytical Systems, Inc. and its subsidiaries, including as operating under the trade name “Inotiv” (“We,” “Our,” “us,” the “Company,” “BASi,” or “Inotiv”) is a contract research organization ("CRO") that provides drug discovery and development services to the pharmaceutical, chemical, and medical device industries, and sells analytical instruments to the pharmaceutical development and contract research industries. Our mission is to provide drug and product developers with superior scientific research and innovative analytical instrumentation in order to bring revolutionary new drugs and products to market quickly and safely. Our strategy is to provide services that will generate high-quality and timely data in support of new drug and product approval or expand their use"[27]
1975 Organization ACM Global Laboratories is founded.[28] It is a provider of clinical trials and central lab services. It offers pharmacodynamic biomarker analysis, nicotine research, cannabinoid testing, pathology, drug monitoring, and other services.[29] United Kingdom
1976 Pharmaceuticals, biotechnology Organization PRA Health Sciences is founded.[30] Based in Raleigh, North Carolina, it provides product development and data solution services to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.[31] Providing coverage to more than 90 countries, it is one of the largest contract research organizations in the world.[32] PRA would be acquired by ICON on 1 July 2021.[33] United States
1976 Pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agrochemical[34] Organization WIL Research Laboratories is founded. It is a contract research organization that offers safety pharmacology testing services.[35] United States
1978 (September 5) Healthcare[36] Organization Labcorp is established as National Health Laboratories Incorporated.[37]
1982 Organization IQVIA is founded as Quintiles and IMS Health, Inc.[38][39] Based in Durham, North Carolina, today, it is a global provider of advanced analytics, technology solutions, and clinical research services to the life sciences industry.[40] As of 2020, IQVIA is the second contract research organization in the world based on its yearly revenue.[16] United States
1982 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical[41] Pacific BioLabs is founded.[42] Based in Hercules, California, it is a CRO specializing in toxicology, microbiology and analytical chemistry.[43] United States
1982 Oncology, clinical trials Theradex is founded. Based in Princeton, New Jersey, the company focuses in cancer research.[44][45] United States
1982 Organization PRA Health Sciencesis founded. Based in Raleigh, North Carolina, it is a multinational CRO serving the biopharmaceutical industry. PRA Health Sciences’ annual revenue in 2018 was $2.8 billion.[39] United States
1982 Organization Schiff & Company is founded. Based in West Caldwell, New Jersey, it specializes in full services to the industries regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration and similar agencies in other countries.[46] United States
1982 Organization Parexel is founded.[47] "Parexel (CEO Jamie Macdonald) is a global CRO offering biopharmaceutical and clinical trial management services for the clinical research sector. Parexel, founded in 1982, has central offices in Waltham, Massachusetts, and employs around 20,000 professionals operating in more than 51 countries. Parexel’s revenue in 2018 was $2.4 billion."[39]
1984 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical, therapeutics Organization Syneos Health is founded.[48] It is a global CRO created through the merger of INC Research and inVentiv Health. Based in Morrisville, North Carolina, it provides integrated biopharmaceutical solutions in more than 110 countries.[39][49] As of 2022, Syneos Health employed more than 25,000 people, with offices across 91 locations.[32]
1984 NCGS Labratories is founded.[50]
1984 Chapel Hill-based Rho is founded. It provides clinical research services to pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies, and to academic and government organizations.[51]
1984 Organization Bio-Synthesis is founded. Based in Seminole, Texas, it is a contract manufacturer of biology products for research purposes.[52] United States
1985 Organization Eurogentec is founded as a spin-off of the University of Liege.[53] Belgium
1985 Organization Pharmaceutical Product Development (PPD) is founded.[54] Based in Wilmington, North Carolina, it provides comprehensive drug development, laboratory, and lifecycle management services. As of 2020, PPD is the third global contract research organizations based on yearly revenue.[16][39] Unioted States
1985 Biotechnology, consultin, healthcare, market research, product research, professional services[55] Concentrics Research is founded.[56] Based in Indianapolis, it offers research and development services in the physical, engineering, and life sciences.
1986 Pharmaceutical PMC Contract Research is founded. Headquartered in Uppsala, it is the largest contract research and drug development company in Sweden, carrying out clinical trials in its Phase I clinical testing unit and analytical laboratory.[57] Sweden
1986 Biotechnology research[58] BBI Solutions is founded.[59] Based in Crumlin, Wales, it is a manufacturer of biological reagents and finished test platforms for the in-vitro diagnostics market.[60] United Kingdom
1987 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[61] Cytel is founded.[62] Headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is a multinational statistical software developer and contract research organization.[63] United States
1987 Datapharm Australia is established.[64] It is a leading local contract research organization providing clinical trial management monitoring, data management, statistics and reporting for local and global pharma and biotech companies.[65] Australia
1988 Washington Biotechnology is founded.[66][67] It conducts a wide variety of studies in animal models of human diseases especially inflammatory and autoimmune conditions.[68] United States
1988 MAC Clinical Research is founded.[69] It is a contract research arganization that conducts full-service global clinical trials for many of the world's leading pharmaceutical and biotech companies.[70]
1988 Research services[71] Albuquerque Clinical Trials is founded.[72] It is based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. United States
1988 "Technomark (www.technomark.com) has provided a register of CROs since its conception in 1988. Initially focused on toxicology and clinical out�sourcing, an addendum has recently been published which identifies contract pharmaceutical manufacturers and chemical synthesis companies. The infor�mation provided by the Technomark registers has also recently been enhanced by an on-line version of the database. As well as basic contact information, there are details on the finances and the number of staff in the CRO."[1]
1989 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[73] STATKING Clinical Services is founded. Based in Fairfield, Ohio, it is a full service contract research organization serving the pharmaceutical and medical device industries.[73][74] United States
1990 Organization ICON is founded.[75] It is a global provider of outsourced development and commercialisation services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries.[76] As of September 2020, ICON employed more than 15,000 people in 94 locations and across 40 countries.[32] Ireland
1990 CCDRD AG is founded in Germany as contract research organization for clinical phase I-IV trials. CCDRD AG was founded in 1990 and has been active in clinical trial management for 29 years. It is based in Hoppegarten.[77] Germany
1991 BPI Service is founded in Frankfurt am Main as a subsidiary of the Federal Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (BPI).[78] Germany
1992 Biotechnology, healthcare[79] Commonwealth Biotechnologies is founded.[80] Based in Richmond, Virginia, it provides research and development services to biotechnology companies.[79]
1992 Organization Medpace is founded.[81] It provides Phase I-IV clinical development services to the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical device industries.[82]
1993 Pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, healthcare Organization CW - Research & Management GmbH is founded. Based in Vienna, it is an independent contract research organization operating in Germany and Austria in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and healthcare industry.[83] Austria
1993 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[84] SSS International Clinical Research is founded.[85] Based in Germering,Germany, it is a full-service provider covering all aspects of clinical research.[84] Germany
1993 Organization Research Dynamics is founded. Having provided clinical research services and training to the industry for over 20 years, it is a 100% woman owned company.[86] United States
1994 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[87] Pharm-Olam is founded.[88] Based in Houston, Texas, it offers clinical research services to pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries.[87] United States
1994 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical[89] QPS is founded in Springfield, Missouri. It is a GLP/GCP-compliant contract research organization supporting discovery, preclinical and clinical drug development.[90] United States
1994 Advanced Clinical Services LLC is founded with the purpose to provide staffing and consultation support for pharmaceutical companies in the Chicago metropolitan area.[28] United Kingdom
1994 Vital Systems is founded.[91]
1994 Biometrix is founded.[92]
1995 Biotechnology Company launch Antibody Solutions is founded. [93] It is a Contract Research Organization focused on antibody discovery.[94] United States
1995 Organization Dokumeds is founded.[95][96] It is a full-scope contract research organisation in Europe and South Africa.[97] Latvia
2001 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical pharmaceutical[98] ASCOPharm is founded. Based in Paris it is a clinical and medical service group.[99] France
1996 Organization Covance is founded. Based in Princeton, New Jersey, Covance would be acquired by LabCorp and renamed Labcorp Drug Development.[39] As of 2022, the subsidiary employs over 70,000 people, supporting clinical research efforts in almost 100 countries.[32] United States
1996 Biotechnology Organization ProTrials is founded.[100] Based in San Jose, California, it is a biotechnology firm that provides clinical operations.[101] United States
1996 Clinical trials, healthcare, life science[102] Organization SIRO Clinpharm Private Limited is founded.[103] Based in Thane, Maharashtra, it is an end to end, drug development solutions provider to the global healthcare industry.[104] India
1996 Organization Comparative Biosciences is founded.[105]
1996 Business development The CRO industry in China begins whenQuintiles sets up its Hong Kong Office and MDS Pharma Service starts an investment company in Beijing.[106] China
1996 Organization A-Pharma is founded. It is a privately owned Czech CRO offering complete services in the field of clinical trials, medical devices, drug registration, data management, biostatistics, quality assurance including GCP auditing, translations of medical text and GCP trainings.[85] Czechia
1996 Organization AIX Scientifics is founded.[107]
1997 (January 1) Organization KCR CRO is founded. It is a clinical development solutions provider for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries.[108][109] Poland
1997 Company launch Labcorp Drug Development is founded.[110] It is a global provider of nonclinical safety assessment, clinical trial testing and clinical trial management services.[111] United States
1997 Organization Clintec is founded.[112] Bsed in Glasgow, it would be acquired by IQVIA in late 2018.[32] United Kingdom
1997 Organization Nordic BioSite is founded.[113] It is a Swedish supplier of antibodies, proteins, kits, and assays for medical research and diagnostics.[114] Sweden
1997 Organization Comac Medical is founded.[115] It is a full-service, boutique, contract research organization and site management organization.[116]
1997 "4Clinics is a Contract Research Organization (CRO) providing Data management, Biostatistics, Scientific Writing, Regulatory Affairs and Clinical Operations services for clinical and epidemiological studies with a particular expertise in vaccines, immunology, immuno-oncology and medical devices."[117]
1997 Organization PharmStats is founded.[118]
1997 "MB Quest was founded in Moscow in 1997 as one of the first international CROs to work in Russia."[119] Russia
1997 Biotechnology, healthcare[120] Clinical Supplies Management is founded.[121] Based in Fargo, North Dakota, it specializes in solving complex clinical trial supply problems for biotech and pharmaceutical companies.[120] United States
1998 Biotechnology, clinical trials, life science, pharmaceutical[122] ZEINCRO is established.[123] Based in Sofia,Bulgaria, t is a contract research organization specialist in Central and South-Eastern Europe.[124] Bulgaria
1998 "A key opportunity for the CROs to prosper appeared in 1998 when the Chinese government implemented new drug registration regulations which mandated pharmaceutical companies to submit scientific evidence to prove safety and efficacy of new drugs. In response to these regulatory requirements, both local and global pharmaceutical companies were in immediate need of agents that could provide R&D services. As of 2014, there are about 300 CROs in China which provide preclinical and clinical research services for MNCs, local companies, as well as other R&D organizations such as universities and academic institutes."[106] China
1998 Research services[125] OPIS is founded as a small Italian CRO.[126] Based in Desio, Italy, it is a mid-sized CRO providing a full range of clinical research services. OPIS has nine subsidiaries in Europe and a network of collaborators covering 30 countries.[127] Its e-clinical suite is developed to streamline digitalization of clinical data.[125] Italy
1998 "Inamed was founded in 1998 as a spin-off of the GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health (now called Helmholtz Research Centre). Therefore INAMED profits from more than 30 years of experience in aerosol biophysics and technology."[128]
1998 Avail Clinical Research is founded.[129] It conducts Phase I-IV clinical trials.[130] United States
1998 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[131] BioClinica is founded.[132] Based in Newtown, Pennsylvania, it is a specialty services provider focused in utilizing expertise and technology to create clarity in the clinical trial process.[133]
1998 Consulting, project management, service industry[134] Integrium is founded.[135] Based in Tustin, California, it specializes in cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, oncology, inflammatory, dermatology, wound healing, regenerative, and orphan disease therapeutic areas, providing clinical study solutions to biotechnology, medical device, diagnostic, and medical food companies.[134] United States
1998 Synchron is founded. Based in India, it provides clinical research services from phase I to phase IV, including bioavailability and bioequivalence.[136] India
1999 Organization MonitorCRO is established. It is a pioneering CRO in Turkey.[137] Turkey
1999 Profil is founded. Based in Germany, its key competence is the performance of glucose clamp studies, often combined with isotope dilution techniques and muscle or fat biopsies.[138] Germany
1999 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical[139] Wolfe Laboratories is founded.[140] Based in Watertown, Massachusetts, it is a CRO that provides integrated drug development solutions to the biopharmaceutical industry.[141] United States
1999 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical[142] Cyprotex Limited is founded.[143] Based in Macclesfield, England, it specializes in preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME).[144] United Kingdom
1999 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical ResearchPoint Global is founded. Based in Austin, Texas, it is a full-service CRO with 15 global offices and clinical coverage in over 60 countries.[145][146] United States
1999 Intrials is founded.[147] Based in Sao Paulo, Brazil, it is a full-service Latin America CRO with offices in Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile and Mexico City.[148] Brazil
1999 Quattromed is founded.[149] It is medical laboratory services provider for general practitioners, private clinics as well as regional and local hospitals in Estonia, Finland and Lithuania.[150] Estonia
1999 George Institute for Global Health is established. Headquartered in Sydney, it is an independent global medical research institute, with additional major centers in China, India and the United Kingdom.[151] Australia
1999 The Cancer Trials Support Unit is founded[152] as a service of the U.S. National Cancer Institute designed to facilitate access to NCI-funded clinical trials for qualified sites and to support the management and conduct of those trials.[153] United States
1999 Clinical trials, healthcare, medical device, product tesearch, test and measurement[154] Mediconomics is founded.[155] Based in Hanover, it is a contract research organization that specializes in product development, clinical trails, and pharmaceutical consultancy.[154]
1999 (October) "A rather different model is employed by Inceutica (www.inceutica.com), founded in October 1999 to deliver web-enabled solutions for pharmaceutical/biotech R&D. Inceutica’s technology platform aims to connect pharma and biopharma companies to service providers with the particular therapeutic expertise sought, regardless of geographical or organizational boundaries." [1]
2000 Biotechnology research[156] Siron Clinical is founded. It focuses in clinical research.[157] Based in the Netherlands in 2000, it provides regulatory and clinical operation services across Europe, Israel, and Turkey.[158] Netherlands
2000 SanaClis is founded.[159] "SanaClis is a full-service European CRO offering a comprehensive range of services for clinical trials."[160]
2000 MediTech is founded. A European CRO dedicated to medical device clinical trials and services related to development and commercialization of medical devices, it would be acquired by Medpace in 2012.[161]
2000 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[162] Cmed is founded. Based in Horsham, England, it is a full-service contract research organization helping clients execute clinical trials in a variety of therapeutic areas, specializing in oncology and rare diseases.[163] United Kingdom
2000 Organization WuXi AppTec is founded.[164] It is a leading global pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, and medical device outsourcing company with operations in China and the United States.[165] China
2000 Biotechnology[166] AbCRO is founded.[167] Based in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is a clinical research organization providing clinical trial services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.[166] United States
2000 Biotoxtech is founded.[168] It is a non-clinical CRO offering GLP-complaint toxicological studies. It offers general toxicity, genotoxicity, safety pharmacology, developmental toxicology, carcinogenicity and histopathology services, etc.[169] South Korea
2000 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical[170] Alturas Analytics is founded. Based in Moscow, Idaho, it is a contract research organization providing personalized MS/MS bioanalytical services to the pharma and biotech industries worldwide.[171] United States
2000 Research services[172] Vedic Lifesciences is founded.[173] Based in Mumbai, it is a CRO designing and conducting clinical trials and toxicity studies for foods and food supplements.[174] India
2000 Pharmaceutical SanaClis is founded. Based in Bratislava, Slovakia, it is a contract research organization offering a comprehensive range of services.[175][176] Slovakia
2000 Biotechnology, life science, pharmaceutical Pyxant Labs is founded. Based in Colorado Springs, Colorado, it is a bioanalytical contract research organization, providing bioanalysis to pharmaceutical companies for all stages of the drug development process.[177] United States
2000 "Founded in 2000, Chemon is a privately owned, non-clinical Contract Research Organization (CRO), headquartered in Suwon"[178]
2000 "Coventry, UK-headquartered MeDiNova Research was founded in 2000 and is made up of 33 active clinical research sites"[179]
2000 Organization The European Research and Project Office GmbH is founded. It provides support services for the planning, initiation, and implementation of large international collaborative projects.[180]
2001 Organization ePharmaSolutions is founded. It is a provider of e-clinical solutions that helps pharmaceutical companies & CROs accelerate & improve clinical studies.[181]
1994 Clean energy, CleanTech, solar[182] Organization Fraunhofer USA is founded. Based in Plymouth, Michigan, it performs applied research under contract to government and industry with customers such as federal and state governments, multinational corporations as well as small to medium-sized companies.[182] United States
2001 Larix is founded. Based in Copenhagen, it offers services within statistics, data management, clinical operations, medical writing, pharmacovigilance, data monitoring committees and quality assurance.[183] Denmark
2001 Associated Medical Clinical Science Services is founded.[184]
2001 Astron Research Limited is founded. "Astron Research Limited, a leading IP oriented pharma contract research organization, is a fast growing Pharma Contract Research Organisation (CRO) with a strong quest to deliver best services to the rapidly growing Healthcare industry and has embarked its presence as a prominent global CRO.The Company was established in the year 2001 with an objective to provide prompt and reliable services to Pharma sector worldwide and improve the product quality with the help of Technological Innovations and Upgradations. Astron commenced its UK operations in 2004 for Quality Testing and QP Release of finished formulations and API. This facility is now UK-MHRA approved"[185]
2001 "Established in 2001, Allphase Clinical Research is a full-service Contract Research Organization"[186]
2001 Healthcare, health diagnostics, software Visiopharm is founded. Based in Hørsholm, Denmark, it provides image analysis and stereology software as Quantitative Digital Pathology solution.[187] Denmark
2001 Cellvax is founded.[188]
2001 Clinical Financial Services is founded. "[189]"[190]
2001 "Founded in 2001, VR Analytical is a leading cGMP contract research organization providing extractable and leachable(E/L) testing services"[191]
2001 "Founded in 2001, Reaction is a contract research organization (CRO) that provides a full suite of drug discovery services to over 1,800 biopharmaceutical customers worldwide."[192]
2001 Healthcare, medical[193] Richmond Pharmacology is founded.[194] Based in London, it is one of the largest Early Phase full-service CROs in the United Kingdom.[193] United Kingdom
2001 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics, pharmaceutical[55] Viroclinics Biosciences is founded. Based in Rotterdam, it is a contract research and clinical laboratory service company providing diagnostic and preclinical studies.[55][195]
2001 Bioinformatics BioAlgorithms Inc. is founded as a contract research organization.[196] United States
2001 Biotechnology, manufacturing[197] QuantifiCare is founded as a spin-off of INRIA.[198] Based in Cumming, Georgia, it is a biotechnology firm that develops and manufactures imaging solutions.[197] United States
2001 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical[199] KYMOS Pharma Services is founded.[200] Based in Barcelona, Spain, it supports biopharma companies.[199] Spain
2001 Viroclinics is founded.[201]
2001 "GiantCRO is a Full Service contract research organization, one of leading CROs in China."[202] China
2001 Biotechnology, clinical trials, cosmetics, dietary supplements, life science, medical device pharmaceutical Global Clinical Trials is founded. Based in Princeton, New Jersey, it is a contract research organization.[203] United States
2002 Praxis is founded. It focuses in the approach to patient recruitment.[204]
2002 Synergy Research Group is founded.[205] "Synergy Research Group is a Russian CRO providing a full range of CRO services for pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies in Russia. Synergy CRO is the World's First Agile Risk-Based Contract Research Organization, totally devoted to the Risk-Based Thinking in Drug Development."[206] Russia
2002 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical ClinDatrix is founded.[207] Based in Irvine, California, it is a contract research organization that offers services to the biotech, medical device, and pharmaceutical industries.[208] United States
2002 Biotechnology, genetics, manufacturing[209] GenScript is founded.[210] Based in Piscataway, New Jersey, its product portfolio comprises antibodies, recombinant proteins, stable cell lines, molecular biology reagents, peptides and biochemicals, CRISPR Cas9 reagents and others.[211] United States
2002 Research services[212] ethica CRO is founded.[213] Based in Montreal, Quebec, it is a full-service contract research organization that conducts and manages ethical clinical research for industries across Canada and the United States.[214] Canada
2002 Biotechnology, clinical trials, pharmaceutical Frontage is founded.[215] Based in Exton, Pennsylvania, it is a CRO that provides integrated, science-driven, product development services. [216]
2002 Biotechnology, medical, pharmaceutical[217] HD Biosciences is founded. Based in Shanghai, it specializes in drug discovery contract research.[217] China
2002 Biotechnology[218] NovAliX is founded.[219] Based in Illkirch, Alsace, France, it is a drug discovery-focused CRO focused in chemistry and biophysics.[218] France
2002 Biotechnology, healthcare[220] CorDynamics is founded. Based in Chicago, it is a preclinical cardiovascular contract research organization and consulting group focused on examining the cardiovascular effects of emerging drug candidates.[221] United States
2002 Biotechnology[222] Organization reMYND NV is founded as a spin-off from the University of Leuven. It drives the development of disease-modifying treatments against Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Diabetes and other orphan protein misfolding disorders.[223] Belgium
2003 Clinical trials, database, healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical[224] H&J CRO International is founded. Headquartered in Shanghai and New Jersey, it is a full-Service CRO providing global clinical trial solutions.[225] China, United States
2003 Literature Shayne C. Gad publishes The Selection and Use of Contract Research Organizations.[226]
2003 Education, healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical Quartesian is founded.[227] Based in Newtown, West Virginia, it offers biostatistics, programming, and medical writing services. It also provides data to organizations performing clinical studies.[228][229] United States
2003 Biotechnology research[230] Blue Sky BioServices is founded.[231] Based in Worcester, Massachusetts, it provides R&D based gene through screen services for biotech and pharma companies from startups to established leaders in the field.[230] United States
2003 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[232] Pharmservice is founded. It delivers services in the Czech and Slovak Republics.[85][85] Czechia
2003 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[233] Medelis is founded.[44] Based in Nashville, Tennessee, it is a full-service oncology contract research organization.[234] United States
2003 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[235] Activa Cro is founded in Buenos Aires.[236] It is a Southern Cone full-service contract research provider.[235] Argentina
2004 (April 26) Organization GB Pharma is founded.[237] Based in Chennai, it is a provider of pharma consulting services, it offers clinical research, regulatory affairs, market access and pharmacovigilance, and other services.[238] India
2004 Organization Neox Clinical Research is founded.[239] Based in Prague, it is a privately owned full-service CRO, offering activities throughout Europe, with a primary focus in Central and Eastern Europe.[240] Czechia
2004 Atlantic Research Group is founded.[44]
2004 Biotechnology, chemical, pharmaceutical[241] Pharmaron is founded.[242] Based in Waltham, Massachusetts, it is a research and development service provider for the pharmaceutical industry.[241] United States
2004 Integrated Clinical Research is founded.[243]
2004 JANIX is founded. It has operations in North America, Europe, Israel, Africa and Asia Pacific.[244]
2004 Biotechnology, clinical trials, medical[245] Clinipace, Inc. is founded.[51] Based in Morrisville, North Carolina, it is a clinical research software company providing a single, integrated data capture and study management platform for post-approval research and registries conducted by biopharmaceutical and medical device companies.[246] United States
2005 Organization ClinLife is founded.[247] It is a global web based platform, which connects patients and study volunteers to relevant and available research studies through an easy-to-follow process.[248] Germany
2005 Medwork is founded.[249]
2005 Crown CRO is established. It specializes in services for clinical trials and regulatory affairs in Europe and the United States, serving the pharmaceutical, biotech, functional food, and medical device industries as well as contract research organizations. Based in Finland, it has strong presence in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.[85]
2005 "Linical was established in June 2005 by a group of professionals who were engaged in new drug development at a major Japanese pharmaceutical company."[250]
2005 Clinical Site Services (CSS) is founded.[251] A patient recruitment and retention company, it provides recruiting services for clinical trials across a range of therapeutic areas.[252] United Kingdom
2006 Biotechnology[253] BioPharma Services is founded. Based in Toronto, it is a full-service Contract Research Organization.[253]
2007 Ascent Clinical Research Solutions is founded.[254] Bsed in Düsseldorf, it is a contract research organization focused on clinical trials. It prepares, manages, and conducts clinical trials."[255] Germany
2007 Libra Medical is founded.[256] Minneapolis"Libra Medical is a contract research organization providing services and clinical data management solutions. It delivers regulatory affairs, clinical trial management, and quality assurance services. In addition, the company offers the MAESTRO clinical trial management system, a software package for clinical study needs. Libra Medical serves the biotech and pharmaceutical industries."[257] United States
2007 Aepodia is founded.[258] It is a solution provider specialized in the early development of drugs/medical devices up to clinical proof-of-concept.[259]
2007 Redoxis is founded.[260] "Redoxis is a Swedish CRO with a core competence and experience in preclinical models for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. We provide a wide range of in vivo and in vitro models validated with standard reference therapies."[261] Sweden
2008 Retrogenix is founded.[262] It is a contract research organization specialising in cell microarray technology and off-target profiling for drug discovery.[263] United Kingdom
2008 "PrimeVigilance, an Ergomed Group company, was established in 2008 by Dr. Miroslav Reljanovic together with co-founder Dr. Elliot Brown. PrimeVigilance offers holistic, top quality, cost-effective, innovative safety services for pharmaceutical, generic and biotechnology companies."[264]
2008 PrimeVigilance is founded.[265]
2008 Symphony Pharma Life Sciences is founded. It has expertise in process research/development and scale-up (non-GMP and cGMP).[266]
2008 Biotechnology, clinical trials, medical Venn Life Sciences is fonded. Based in Dublin. It conducts contract research providing clinical trial services from pre-clinical to Phase III.[267] Ireland
2009 Sysdata is founded. It is a niche CRO with expertise in staffing and business resource solutions to biotech/pharmaceutical companies. Areas includes data management, biostatistics, SAS programming, and medical writings.[268] United States
2009 Margaret Liu and Kate Davis publish A Clinical Trials Manual From The Duke Clinical Research Institute.[269]
2010 DataClin is established.[270] It is a research organization specializing in clinical data management, biostatistics and medical writing in support of clinical trials.[271]
2010 Pharmaspecific is founded.[85]
2011 Clinial Trial Consultants is founded. Its track record includes first-in-human, PET/MR, Expert Precision QT, drug-drug and food interaction, biosimilar, bioequivalence, and bioavailability studies, new drug delivery systems, medical device and Phase IIa studies.[272]
2011 (July 19) Bioinformatics, Biopharma, Biotechnology, Food Processing, Nutraceutical Microbion Open Innovation is founded. Based in Verona, Italy, it is a CRO specialized in molecular microbiology and DNA fingerprinting of industrial microbes as well as contaminants.[273] Italy
2011 (August 1) Biotechnology, genetics, healthcare, health diagnostics Personalis is founded. Based in Menlo Park, California, it is a contract research organization and genome-scale diagnostics services company specializing in genome guided medicine.[274] United States
2012 Literature Milind Antani and Gowree Gokhale publish Contract research and manufacturing services, which discusses the legal and regulatory scenario and major concerns and issues of contract research and manufacturing services in India.[275] India
2013 Analytics, big data, clinical trials, healthcare, hospital, pharmaceutical TriNetX is founded. Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is a global health research network focused on clinical research.[276] United States
2013 Literature Jakob Miera publishes Mergers & Acquisitions in the Contract Research Organization Industry.[277]
2013 Spirovation is founded.[51] It is a specialty CRO affiliated with the Marsico Lung Insitute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.[278] United States
2014 Pharmaceutical manufacturing[279] Simbec-Orion is founded.[280] Based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, it is a full-service clinical research organisation with specialist expertise in clinical pharmacology, oncology, rare diseases and orphan indications.[281] United Kingdom
2014 Biotechnology, clinical trials, healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical SciQuus Oncology is founded.[282] Based in Causse-de-la-Selle, France, it offers services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, with experience spanning the development lifecycle from pre-IND studies to the management of large registration trials.[283] France
2014 Literature Jakob Miera publishes CRO – Contract Research Organization: How Drug Research is Evolving.[284]
2014 ProRelix Research is founded.[285] Based in Pune, Maharashtra, and with offices in the United States along with networks in Australia, Europe, and Africa[286], it is a CRO offering several professional services and resources for drug development and analysis on the industry to support clinical research.[287] India
2015 Remo Contract Research Organization is founded. Based in Columbus, Ohio, it offers preclinical, regulatory, and clinical services.[288]
2016 Biopharma, biotechnology, clinical trials, pharmaceutical, product research[289] DRK Pharma Solutions is founded.[290] Based in Vandœuvres, Switzerland, it provides to the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries in the areas of product development, clinical research, bioavailability/bioequivalence studies and GxP and regulatory advisory.[291] Switzerland
2016 HepaPredict is founded as a private spin-off from Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.[292] Sweden
2018 (January 25) Biotechnology, medical, pharmaceutical Innovation Studio d.o.o. is founded. Based in Zagreb, Croatia, it provides contract research and development of new innovative products.[293] Croatia
2018 Clinical trials[294] ACROSS Global is founded.[295] Based in Singapore, it is a worldwide strategic alliance of clinical research organizations (CRO) and specialized service providers.[296] Singapore
2020 Literature Shayne C. Gad, Charles B. Spainhour, and David G. Serota publish Contract Research and Development Organizations-Their History, Selection, and Utilization.[297]
2021 Market size The global contract research organization services market is valued at USD 62.75 billion in the year.[298]
2029 Market size The contract research market is expected to worth USD 163.48 billion by this year.[298]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

  • FIXME

What the timeline is still missing

  • Crunchbase: contract research
  • [1] (check List of CROs by location)
  • [2] (trend)
  • [3]
  • [4]
  • [5]
  • [6]


Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

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