Timeline of biotechnology companies

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This is a timeline of biotechnology companies.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some notable or sample biotechnology companies having been launched in the last decades?
    • Sort the full timeline by Event type and look for the rows with value "Company launch".
    • You will see the establishment of a number of companies in different industries, all related or within the realm lf biotechnology.
  • What are some notable studies related to the business of biotechnology?
    • Sort the full timeline by Event type and look for the rows with value "Research".
  • You will see a number of studies by different authors, revealing particular aspects of the biotechnology business.
    • What are some figures illustrating the evoution of the biotechnology industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by Event type and look for the rows with value "Statistics".
  • What are some publications specialized in the business of biotechnology?
    • Sort the full timeline by Event type and look for the rows with value "Literature".
    • You will see a variety of books in the field.
  • What are some other notable events in the history of biotrchnology companies?
    • Sort the full timeline by Event type and look for the rows with value "Notable case".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More deta
1970s "Since 1975, modern capitalist economies have experienced significant change in the structure of industry, the nature of production and the orga�nization of work. Technological developments have transformed pro�duction by expanding the possibilities for flexible and decentralized production techniques. Technological advances, have altered the produc�tion process and facilitated production of specialized products from gen�eralized machinery, particularly in high throughput screening, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), polymerase chain reaction, advances in mass�spectrometry and crystallography. The integration of design and produc�tion functions (rather than their separation as in Fordism) has been possible because of flexibility in production arising from new technologies (Sabel 1995)."[1]
1970s–1980s "The biotech arena emerged in the 1970s and 1980s, when molecular biology, one of the fastest-moving areas of basic science in the twentieth century, met the business world."[2]

Full timeline

Year Industry/specialty (when applicable) Event type Details Location
1951 Artificial insemination of livestock is accomplished using frozen semen.[3]
1958 DNA is made in a test tube for the first time.[3]
1975 "When Kohler and Milstein discovered how to make monoclonal antibodies in 1975 they revolution�ized the medical diagnostics and therapeutics industry sectors. For the first time, specific antibodies to various epitopes (targets) could be isolated and produced in significant quantities for applications in medicine. A number of incremental innovations built on the original approach estab�lished by Kohler and Milstein."[1]
1975 Research J.M. Utterback and W.J. Abernathy explore the concept of dominant design and suggest that its occurrence may effect innovation in a firm or an industry. A dominant design is a new product synthesized from individual technological innovations introduced independently in prior product variants.[4]
1978 Recombinant human insulin is produced for the first time.[3]
1979 Human growth hormone is synthesized for the first time.[3]
1980 "Smallpox is globally eradicated following a 20-year mass vaccination effort."[3]
1980 "The U.S. Supreme Court approves the principle of patenting organisms, which allows the Exxon Oil Company to patent an oil-eating microorganism."[3]
1981 "Scientists at Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other ani�mals into mice."[3]
1982 "The first biotech drug, human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria, is approved by the FDA. Genentech and Eli Lilly developed the product."[3]
1982 "Patents provide some measure of the ‘effectiveness’ of a firm’s R&D (Freeman 1982)"[1]
1982 "The first recombinant DNA vaccine for livestock is developed."[3]
1985 "Genetic markers are found for kidney disease and cystic fibrosis."[3]
1986 Recombinant DNA technology Background Recombivax HB is licensed in the United States. It is the first recombinant vaccine for humans, a vaccine for hepatitis B.[5][3] United States
1986 Genetic engineering Background Interferon becomes the first anticancer drug produced through biotechnology[3] , 29 years after the discovery of the drug, when the development of genetic engineering enables the production of large quantities of high-quality interferon.[6]
1987 Research Monitoring aggregate data over a range of US firms including pharmaceutical companies, Griliches et al. find a very strong relationship between research and development expenditures and patent applications, even after controlling for propensity to patent.[1]
1988 Research S. Majoro suggests that a continuous flow of ideas provides the antecedents for innovation within an organization.[7]
1988 Agricultural biotechnology Background The first pest-resistant corn, Bt corn, is produced.[3] The first permit to field-test transgenic crops containing Bt genes is issued to Monsanto for tomato.[8] United States
1990 Research and development Research According to Cohen and Levinthal, investment in Research and development maintains the absorptive capacity of the firm, a critical aspect of intellectual capital.[1]
1990 (January 1) Biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, environmental consulting, healthcare, medical Company launch Lineage Cell Therapeutics is founded.[9] It engages in the development of novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs.[10] United States (Carlsbad, California)
1990 Research American sociologist Howard E. Aldrich makes the observation that a specialty, technology-based, innovation is often linked to entrepreneurship and business foundings.[1][11] United States
1990 Gene therapy Background The first successful gene therapy is performed on a 4-year-old girl suffering from an immune disorder.[3]
1990 Biotechnology, healthcare[12] Company launch BioGaia is founded.[13] It is a probiotics company engaged in microbiome research. It develops and sells probiotic products.[14] Sweden (Stockholm)
1990 (August 28) Biopharma, biotechnology, health diagnostics, pharmaceutical Company launch Geron Corporation is founded. [15] It researches and develops therapeutic products for cancer.[16] United States (Menlo Park, California)
1990 Biotechnology, chemical, healthcare, therapeutics Company launch Nektar Therapeutics is founded. [17] It focuses on the discovery and development of novel therapies which selectively modulate the immune system to treat cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.[18] United States (San Carlos, California)
1991 Biotechnology, aquaculture Company launch AquaBounty Technologies is founded. [19] Its land-based fish farms produce genetically engineered salmon.[20][21] United States (Maynard, Massachusetts)
1991 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics Company launch ARIAD Pharmaceuticals is founded. [22] An oncology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of medicines for the cancer patients, it would be acquired by Takeda for US$5.2 billion on January, 2017.[23] United States (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
1991 Healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical Company launch Camurus is founded.[24] It is Swedish science-led biopharmaceutical company which develops and commercializing innovative and differentiated medicines for the treatment of severe and chronic conditions.[25] Sweden
1991 (September) Biotechnology, healthcare Company launch Cerus Corporation is founded.[26] Headquartered in Concord, California, it develops and provides a treatment system to pathogen-reduce human blood products for the healthcare industry. United States (Concord, California)
1991 (September 17) Healthcare, pharmaceutical Company launch Synthon is founded. [27] Medications made by Synthon include simvastatin (a statin), tamsulosin (an alpha blocker for the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia), paroxetine (an antidepressant), and fluvoxamine (an antidepressant) Netherlands (Nijmegen)
1991 Healthcare, molecular diagnostics, biotechnology, precision medicine Company launch Myriad Genetics is founded.[28] It is a molecular diagnostic focused on the discovery and commercialization of diagnostic tests for several major diseases, including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes, among others.[29]
1991 Biotechnology, genetics Company launch Santa Cruz Biotechnology is founded by Dr. John Stephenson and his wife Brenda Stephenson in Santa Cruz, California.[30].[31] A developer of biological products for medical research,[32][33] it is one of the world’s largest suppliers of antibodies.[34] United States (Santa Cruz, California)
1991 Research Philip Kotler suggests that a continuous flow of ideas provides the antecedents for the development of new products.[35]
1992 Biotechnology, genetics, medical[36] Company launch Affymetrix is founded as a spin-off from Affymax Research Institute by Stephen Fodor. [37] The company would introduce its first product in 1994, an HIV genotyping chip.[38] Affymetrix is based in Santa Clara, California. United States
1992 Healthcare, pharmaceutical[39] Company launch Angiotech Pharmaceuticals is founded. [40] In 2017, Angiotech would be acquired by a consortium led by the U.S. healthcare investment firm Vivo Capital and China's ZQ Capital.[41][42] Canada
1992 Bioinformatics, biotechnology Company launch Applied Maths is founded in Belgium as a bioinformatics company developing software for the biosciences.[43] It would gain worldwide recognition with the software GelCompar, used as a standard tool for the normalization and comparative analysis of electrophoresis patterns (PFGE, AFLP, RAPD, REP-PCR and variants, etc).[44] Belgium
1992 (May) Biopharmaceuticals, biotherapeutics Company launch Cubist Pharmaceuticals is founded. [45] On 8 December 2014, Merck & Co. would acquire Cubist for US$102 per share in cash ($8.4 billion).[46]
1992 Biomedicine Conpany launch Dendreon is founded.[47] Its lead product, Provenge (known generically as sipuleucel-T), is an immunotherapy for prostate cancer.[48] United States
1992 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics, medical[49] Company launch MorphoSys is founded.[50] Based in Planegg, Germany, it focuses on the research and development of fully human antibodies.[51] Germany
1992 Dairy farming technology Background The United States FDA approves bovine somatotropin for increased milk production in dairy cows.[3] United States
1992 Background The first version of the Oslo Manual is issued, separating innovations into two types: product and process innovations. A product innovation is "the commercialization of a technologically changed product". A process innovation, alternatively, is a "change in the technology of the production of an item [which] may involve new equipment, new management and organization methods, or both".[1] Norway
1992 (September 8) Biopharmaceutical Company launch Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products is founded. [52] It is a Chinese company that makes vaccines for diseases such as hepatitis B and measles.[53] China
1993 (January 2) Biotechnology, healthcare Company launch Bionor Pharma is founded. [54] It is a Norwegian biopharmaceutical company focused on advancing its proprietary therapeutic vaccine Vacc-4x in combination with other medicines toward a functional HIV cure.[55] Norway
1993 Biomedicine Company launch Applied Spectral Imaging is founded.[56] It is a multinational biomedical company that develops and manufactures microscopy imaging and digital analysis tools for hospitals, service laboratories and research centers.[57] United States
1993 Biotechnology Company launch Biosearch Technologies is founded.[58] It designs, develops, and manufactures custom oligonucleotides and associated reagents for the molecular diagnostics, research and applied markets.[59] United Kingdom
1993 Immunostimulants Background The United States FDA approves Betaseron, the first of several biotech products that have had a major impact on multiple sclerosis treatment.[3]
1993 Biotechnology Company launch Shantha Biotechnics is founded.[60] It is one of the first Indian biotechnology companies to create a recombinant product, obtaining World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification for its Hepatitis B vaccine in 2002.[61] By 2013, Sanofi would complete the acquisition of 100% of the company.[62] India
1993 Biopharma, biotechnology, medical pharmaceutical Company launch Millennium Pharmaceuticals is founded [63]. On May 14, 2008, Japanese company Takeda Pharmaceutical would complete its acquisition of Millennium for a deal worth US$8.8 billion. The new subsidiary would finally be renamed Takeda Oncology. United States
1993 Biotechnology Company launch Ventria Bioscience is founded.[64] It is the first company to commercialize recombinant proteins derived from a plant-based manufacturing system.[65] United States
1994 (January 1) Biotechnology Company launch Fermentek is founded.[66][67] It specializes in the research, development, and manufacture of biologically active natural products isolated from microorganisms and other natural sources such as plants and algae.[68] Israel
1994 (February 16) Literature American journalist Barry Werth publishes The Billion-Dollar Molecule, which recounts the founding and early research efforts of the American biotechnology company Vertex Pharmaceuticals. The book is notable as an inside look at a biotechnology company, and the stresses and marketing pressures on funding research into drug design.[69] United States
1994 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical Company launch Agenus is founded [70]. It develops and commercializes immunotherapies and vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases.[71] United States
1994 Biotechnology Company launch Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine is founded as Advanced Cell Technology, Incorporated (ACT). It would be renamed to Ocata Therapeutics in November 2014.[72] In February 2016 Ocata would be acquired by Astellas for US$379 million.[73] United States
1994 Pharmaceutical Company launch Cinnagen is founded. [74] Based in Tehran, it is a manufacturing company of biotechnology and biopharmaceutical products.[75] Iran
1994 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical Company launch Corixa is founded in Seattle, Washington. [76] Acquired by GlaxoSmithKline in 2005, the company would close in 2016. United States (Seattle, Washington)
1994 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical Company launch ViroPharma is founded. [77] A company focused on product development activities on viruses and human disease, including those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, it would be purchased by Irish drug manufacturer Shire in 2013, with Shire paying around US$4.2 billion.[78] United States
1994 Genetics, Oncology Background The first breast cancer gene is discovered.[3]
1994 Epidemiology Background The International Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication declares the Americas as polio-free.[3]
1994 Immunotherapy, oncology Company launch MediGene is founded.[79] Based in Martinsried, German, this company works on the development of immunotherapies to enhance T cell activity against solid cancers.[80] Germany
1994 Biotechnology Company launch HyTest Ltd is founded.[81] Based in Turku, Finland, it is a producer of monoclonal antibodies and antigens for the diagnostic industry.[82] Finland
1994 (November) Genomics, oncology Company launch Exelixis is founded. [83] Based in Alameda, California, it is a genomics-based drug discovery company, and the producer of Cometriq, a treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medullary thyroid cancer with clinical activity in several other types of metastatic cancer. United States
1995 Biotechnology Company launch Sangamo Therapeutics is founded. [84] It is a genomic medicine company focused on leveraging novel platforms to advance clinical programs.[85] Australia
1995 (May 5) Medical technology Company launch Aclara Biosciences is founded.[86] It develops microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology.[87] United States
1995 Healthcare, biotechnology Company launch Acorda Therapeutics is founded.[88] Based in Ardsley, New York, it is a biotechnology company that develops drugs to improve therapies that improve neurological function in people with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and other disorders of the central nervous system. This company manufactures and markets Zanaflex, Ampyra and Qutenza in the United States.[89] United States
1995 Biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, life sciences Company launch Caliper Life Sciences is founded. [90] It is a provider of cutting-edge technologies enabling researchers in the life sciences industry to create life-saving and enhancing medicines and diagnostic tests more quickly and efficiently.[91] United States
1995 Research According to Brown and Eisenhardt, new product development is critical to the success, survival, growth and renewal of organizations. New products provide a potential source of competitive advantage and allow organizations to diversify, adapt and even re-engineer to match involving markets and technical conditions.[92]
1995 Immunotherapy, Oncology Background Gene therapy, immune-system modulation, and recombinantly produced antibodies enter the clinic for the treatment of cancer.[3]
1995 Biotechnology Company launch Monogram Biosciences is founded.[93] Based in San Francisco, it focuses on the development and commercialization of novel diagnostic technologies to enable individualized patient treatment decisions, and support the discovery and development of new drug and vaccine candidates.[94] United States
1995 Biotechnology Company launch Dharmacon is founded by Stephen Scaringe to develop and commercialize a new technology for RNA oligonucleotide synthesis. [95] United States
1996 Genealogy, Genetic genealogy, Online publishing, Software publishing Company launch Ancestry.com is launched.[96] Based in Lehi, Utah, it is the world's largest provider of DNA services.[97] United States
1996 Research Persidis describes bioentrepreneurship as the wealth creation derived from the application of the biosciences to the business context. "Bioentrepreneurs look for commercial value in every aspect of technology that they utilize. Innovativeness is vital to the creation of a biotechnology venture while credibility remains the backbone of the bioentrepreneur’s character."[1]
1996 Biotechnology Company launch Bharat Biotech is founded.[98] Based in Hyderabad, it has one of the largest pharmaceutical manufacturing plants of its kind in Asia-Pacific. Bharat Biotech specializes in product-oriented research and development leading to the manufacture of vaccines and biotherapeutics with global IPR’s associated to its products.[99] India
1996 Genetic engineering Background The first genetically engineered crop is launched to the market.[3]
1996 Genetics Background A gene associated with Parkinson’s disease is discovered by National Institutes of Health scientists, in collaboration with researchers from the UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and the Istituto de Scienze Neurologiche in Naples, Italy.[100][3] United States, Italy
1996 Genetics Company launch deCODE genetics is founded.[101] by Kári Stefánsson and colleagues with the aim of using population genetics studies to identify variations in the human genome associated with common diseases, and to apply these discoveries "to develop novel methods to identify, treat and prevent diseases."[102] Iceland
1996 Biotechnology Company launch Ceres, Inc. is founded.[103] A provider of seeds of genetically modified crops used for biofuel production[104], in 2016 it would be acquired by Land O'Lakes.[105]
1996 (November) Biotechnology Company launch Helixmith is founded.[106] Based in Seoul, it develops biopharmaceuticals for untreated diseases. Helixmith has an extensive gene therapy pipeline, including a CAR-T program targeting several different types of solid tumors and an adeno-associated virus vector program targeting neuromuscular diseases.[107] South Korea
1996 Biotechnology Company launch United Therapeutics is founded.[108] Based in Silver Spring, Maryland, it develops and commercializes innovative pharmaceutical products for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, and infectious diseases.[109] United States
1997 Radiopharmaceuticals, oncology Company launch Algeta is founded.[110] It is a Norwegian therapeutics company focused on the development of alpha particle emitters as radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancer. Algeta targets metastatic and disseminated tumor types for which there is substantial unmet medical need.[111] Norway
1997 Chaston highlights that successful small firms exhibit a proactive commitment to innovation as a means through which to sustain overall performance.[1]
1997 mRNA therapeutics Company launch Merix Bioscience is founded as the first mRNA company. Based in Durham, North Carolina, in 2004 the company would change its name to Argos Therapeutics as a sign of its evolution.[112] United States
1997 Therapeutics Company launch Arena Pharmaceuticals is founded.[113] It is a biotechnology company targeting G-protein-coupled receptors.[114] United States
1997 Biopharmaceuticals, RNA interference Company launch Benitec Biopharma is founded.[115] Based in Melbourne, it focuses on the development of novel genetic medicines.[116] Australia
1997 Biotechnology Company launch Biolex is founded. Focused on expression of difficult-to-synthesize recombinant proteins, it would file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on July 5, 2012.[117] United States
1997 (March) Biopharmaceuticals Company launch BioMarin Pharmaceutical is founded.[118] It is a biotechnology company that develops and commercializes therapies for individuals with serious lifethreatening rare diseases and medical conditions.[119] United States
1997 (August) Biopharmaceuticals, oncology Company launch GPC Biotech is founded. Based in Martinsried, Germany, it is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of anticancer drugs.[120] Germany
1997 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical[121] Company launch South Korean biotechnology company Macrogen is founded.[122] Based in Seoul, this precision medicine biotechnology company is a global genetic service provider.[123] South Korea
1997 Agriculture, biotechnology, chemical, genetics[124] Company launch Mendel Biotechnology is founded.[125] Based in Hayward, California, it is a plant biotechnology company that develops genetic and chemical solutions for a range of agricultural markets.[126] United States
1997 Biotechnology, healthcare, pharmaceutical[127] Company launch Noxxon Pharma is founded.[128] Based in Berlin, Germany, it develops biostable aptamers and substances based on mirror image nucleic acids.[127] Germany
1997 Stem cell research & development Company launch ReNeuron is founded.[129] Based in Surrey, England, it specializes in stem cell research and development.[130] United Kingdom
1997 Cloning Background Dolly the sheep in Scotland becomes the first animal cloned from an adult cell.[3] United Kingdom
1997 Pharmaceutical Company launch Vernalis Research is founded.[131] Based in Cambridge, England, it develops and applies fragment and structure-based methods to drug discovery, and has generated cell active lead compounds and development.[132] United Kingdom
1997 Oncology Company launch Seagen is founded.[133] Based in Bothell, Washington, it is a global biotechnology company that develops and commercializes transformative cancer therapies.[134] United States
1997 Pharmaceutical, biotechnology Company launch Actelion is founded.[135] Based in Allschwil, Switzerland, it is a pharmaceuticals and biotechnology company established focusing on the manufacture of drugs that treat rare diseases and orphan diseases.[136] Switzerland
1998 Research antibodies, kits and assays for biological research Company launch Abcam is founded.[137] Based in Cambridge, England, it is a global life sciences company providing antibodies and other binders and assays to the research and clinical communities to help advance the understanding of biology and causes of disease.[138] United Kingdom
1998 Nanotechnology Company launch American Biotech is founded.[139] Based in Alpine, Utah, it is a nano-silver biotech company with the goal of creating a more stable and powerful silver technology for consumer products.[140] United States
1998 Pharmacogenomics, oncology Background The United States FDA approves Herceptin, a pharmacogenomic breast cancer drug for patients whose cancer overexpresses the HER2 receptor.[3] United States
1998 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical pharmaceutical, therapeutics[141] Company launch Array BioPharma is founded.[142] Based in Boulder, Colorado, it is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of targeted small molecule drugs. Array BioPharma would be later acquired by Pfizer.[141] United States
1998 Concept development Cooper et al. refer portfolio management to the prioritization of a number of new product development projects through the allocation of appropriate resources – capital, labour and materials. They define portfolio management as a tool used to outline the number of new product opportunities presented and the optimal investment mix between risk and return.[1]
1998 Personalized medicine Company launch Avesthagen is founded.[143] Based in Bangalore, it is a life science company focused in the convergence between food, pharma and population genetics leading to Predictive Preventive Personalized Healthcare.[144] India
1998 Agricultural biotechnology Company launch BASF Plant Science is founded.[145] Based in the Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, it is a subsidiary of BASF in which all plant biotechnology activities are consolidated.[146] United States
1998 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical Company launch Biotie Therapies is founded. It is a specialized drug development company focused on the central nervous system and inflammatory diseases.[147] Turkey
1998 DNA sequencing Company launch Celera Corporation is founded.[148] Based in Alameda, California, it focuses on the integration of genetic testing into routine clinical care through a combination of products and services incorporating proprietary discoveries.[149] United States
1998 Agricultural biotechnology Company launch CropDesign is founded. Based in Ghent, Belgium, it is a agricultural biotech company that offers crops like corn and rice to the seed market.[150] Belgium
1998 (September 5) Biotechnology, healthcare, life science, manufacturing, pharmaceutical[151] Company launch Emergent BioSolutions is founded.[152] Based in Gaithersburg, Maryland, it develops, manufactures, and delivers a portfolio of medical countermeasures for biological and chemical threats.[151] United States
1998 Epigenomics, molecular diagnostics, oncology Company launch Epigenomics AG is founded.[153] Based in Berlin, Germany, it is a molecular diagnostics company focused on the development and commercialization of in vitro diagnostic tests for cancer.[154] Germany
1998 Pharmaceuticals Company launch GW Pharmaceuticals is founded.[155] Based in Cambridge,England, in May 2021, it would be acquired by Jazz Pharmaceuticals.[156] United Kingdom
1998 Research Zucker et al. emphasize the impact of intellectual human capital. In their paper based on data from 751 biotechnology companies in the United States and 327 star scientists, they conclude that the growth and diffusion of intellectual human capital was the main determinant of where and when US biotechnology developed.[1]
1998 Research P. Swann and M. Prevezer define a cluster as a large group of firms in related industries at a particular location.[157] In the United States, there are five recognized biotechnology clusters. They are known as BioBay (San Francisco, California), BioBeach (San Francisco, California), GeneTown (Boston, Massachusetts), BioForest (Seattle, Washington; Portland, Oregon; Vancouver, British Columbia), Pharma Country (New York/New Jersey and Pennsylvania) and BioCapital (Maryland/Virginia/ Washington DC).[1] United States
1998 Sequencing, genotyping, gene expression, proteomics Company launch Illumina, Inc. is founded.[158] Based in San Diego, California, it is a provider of sequencing- and array-based solutions for genetic and genomic analysis.[159] United States
1998 Research According to Andrews and Hahn, the more sustainable organizations are likely to be those that are able to continuously collect, archive, retrieve, create, share and leverage information that can be translated into knowledge and wisdom for real-time decision-making.[160]
1999 (January) Agricultural biotechnology Company launch AgBiotechNet is founded.[161] It is a searchable online database of scientific literature on topics related to agricultural biotechnology.
1999 (January 19) Clinical trials, gene therapy Company launch Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation is established.[162] Based in Alachua, Florida, it conducts human clinical trials of adeno-associated virus-based gene therapies for the treatment of rare diseases.[163] United States
1999 (April 6) Pharmaceutical, biotechnology Company launch AstraZeneca is founded through the merger of the Swedish Astra AB and the British Zeneca Group.[164] Since the merger, it would become among the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. AstraZeneca is involved in developing the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine.[165] United Kingdom
1999 (September 9) Omics, genome sequencing Company launch BGI Group is founded.[166] Based in Shenzhen, it is a life science group that operates multiple research labs and entities in the field of genomics, healthcare, precision medicine, and more.[167] China
1999 Life Science Company launch Cell Signaling Technology is founded.[168] United States
1999 Genome engineering, oncology Company launch Cellectis is founded.[169] Based in Paris, it develops adoptive immunotherapies for cancer.[170] France
1999 Diagnostics Background A diagnostic test is introduced for the quick identification of bovine spongicorm encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.[3]
1999 Biosimilars, biopharmaceuticals Company launch Celltrion is founded.[171] It is a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the research, development, and manufacture of biosimilars and novel biopharmaceuticals. South Korea
1999 Dietary supplements, food ingredients Company launch ChromaDex is founded.[172] Based in Los Angeles, California, it is a dietary supplement and food ingredient company.[173] United States
1999 Immunotherapy Company launch EnCor Biotechnology is founded.[174] Based in Gainesville, Florida, it manufactures antibodies to neural and yeast proteins.[175] United States
1999 Immunotherapy, oncology Company launch Genmab is founded.[176] Based in Copenhagen, it is a biotechnology company that develops differentiated human antibody therapies for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.[177] Denmark
1999 Glycobiology Company launch Ludger Limited is founded.[178] Based in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England, it is a life science company specialized in glycan analysis technology.[179] United Kingdom
1999 Biopharmaceuticals Company launch Sinovac Biotech is founded.[180] Based in Beijing, it is a biopharmaceutical company that develops, manufactures and commercializes vaccines.[181]
1999 Immunology, oncology Company launch Trubion is founded. It is a biopharmaceutical company creating a pipeline of product candidates to treat autoimmune disease and cancer.[182] United States
2000 Test/measurement equipment Company launch Arryx is founded.[183] A developer of tools and technology for manipulation and measurement on the micro and nano length scales, in 2006, it would be acquired by Haemonetics.[184] United States
2000 Biopharmaceuticals, therapeutics[185] Company launch CureVac is founded.[186] Based in Tübingen, it provides prophylactic and therapeutic application of messenger RNA.[187] Germany
2000 Research Baum et al. identify a strong correlation between the number of collaborations for a start-up biotechnology firm and their commercial success. "The presence of well-reputed individuals or teams within or associated with a biotechnology firm will not only facilitate the formation of these linkages, but draw knowledge and resources to a firm through a process we have termed intellectual gravity."[1]
2000 Immunodiagnostics, molecular diagnostics Company launch DiaSorin is founded.[188] A global leader in the laboratory diagnostics market, is specializes in the immunodiagnostics and molecular diagnostics segments.[189] Italy
2000 (April) Genetic testing Company launch Gene by Gene is founded.[190] Based in Houston, it is a genetic testing services provider.[191] United States
2000 Agricultural biotechnology Kenya field-tests a virusresistant sweet potato, the country's first biotech crop.[3] Kenya
2000 Pharmaceutical[192] Company launch GlaxoSmithKline is founded.[193] Based in London, it is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies.[194] United Kingdom
2000 (October) Biopharmaceuticals Company launch Renovo plc is founded.[195] Focused in the discovery and development of drugs to reduce scarring, improve wound healing and enhance tissue regeneration,[196] the company would be defunct by May 2011.[197] United Kingdom
2000 Research C.M. Christensen and M. Overdorf described disruptive innovation as a result of research studies conducted during the information technology boom of the 1990s. Disruptive innovation refers to a new product that does not initially address the needs of customers but becomes disruptive to the organization or industry.[198]
2000 Genetics, diagnostic tests Company launch Rosetta Genomics is founded. It engages in the discovery, development and commercialization of diagnostic tests for personalized medicine.[199] United States
2000 Genomics Company launch Strand Life Sciences is founded.[200] It is a genomics-based research and diagnostics company which aims to address health by decoding the genetic information contained in an individual's genome.[201] India
2000 (November 13) Agriculture, farming Company launch Syngenta is founded.[202] Based in Basel, it is an agriculture company that provides products and solutions to help farmers achieve food security.[203] Switzerland
2000 Oncology Company launch TopoTarget is founded.[204] It focuses on the discovery and development of drugs and therapies to treat cancer.[205] Denmark
2000 (June) Biotechnology Company launch 454 Life Sciences is established.[206] Based in Branford, Connecticut, it specializes in high-throughput DNA sequencing using a novel massively parallel sequencing-by-synthesis approach.[207] United States
2000 Research R. Batterham recognizes that the biotechnology industry globally lacks in managers and researchers with appropriate entrepreneurial and commercial skills.[208]
2000 Research According to Hill and Brennan, the facilitation and development of industry clusters, where the colocation of biotechnology firms or related industries complement each other, compete against each other or share common resources leads to increasing economies of scale.[209]
2001 (January 1) Biotechnology, Manufacturing Company launch Abgent is founded. It manufactures primary antibodies.[210]
2001 Literature The U.S. National Research Council publishes Opportunities in Biotechnology for Future Army Applications.[211]
2001 Biomedicine, clinical trials Company launch GeoVax is founded.[212] A biomedical company, it develops, manufactures, tests, conducts human trials, licenses, and commercializes human vaccines for diseases caused by HIV and other infectious agents.[213] United States
2001 Peptide synthesis, therapeutics Company launch CPC Scientific is founded. Based in Sunnyvale, California, it helps pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in synthetic peptide production and therapeutic development.[214] United States
2001 Nano-medicine Company launch Abraxis BioScience is founded.[215] A nano-medicine company developing treatments for critically ill patients, in 2010, it would be acquired by Celgene Corporation.[216] United States
2001 Gene targeting Background The United States FDA approves Gleevec, a genetargeted drug for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Gleevec is the first gene-targeted drug to receive FDA approval.[3] United States
2001 (November) Biotechnology Company launch Ablynx is founded.[217] Acquired by Sanofi in January 2018 for $4.8 Billion[218], it is engaged in the discovery and development of nanobodies. Ablynx is based in Ghent, Belgium.[219] Belgium
2002 (March 1) Immunotherapy, oncology Company launch Advaxisis established. It is a development-stage biotechnology company with the focus on developing cancer vaccines that utilize multiple mechanisms of immunity.[220] United States
2002 Research Based largely on financial and economic criteria, Fisken and Rutherford identifiy three different business models in European biotechnology companies. The Product Business Model: originates from the pharmaceutical model where value is added along the activities of the value chain to deliver a final product to market. This is a proven model where most of the top biotechnology companies in the world are classed as product companies. The Platform Business Model: This is a relatively new concept which aims to generate value from the front end of the industry value chain. It is based on the development of research tools or platform technology that can provide a service to another organization or can be licensed for further development along the value chain The Hybrid Business Model: "This business model is a hybrid of the product and platform business model. It generally consists of a platform technology that is able to generate a pipeline of products. This model is an evolution of the platform business model in that it aims to generate value through downstream activities of the biotechnology value chain. The pipeline of products can be developed organically or through additional in-licensing, purchasing exclusive or semi-exclusive access to another’s technology, to enhance product development opportunities. The convergence of the product and platform business model to create a hybrid model provides investors with the benefit of reduced risk and the potential for future revenue growth. This approach will need to become the preferred model for new and existing biotechnology companies to maintain growth and sustainability in the industry."[1]
2002 Pharmaceutical Company launch Alnylam Pharmaceuticals is founded by scientists Phillip Sharp, Paul Schimmel, David Bartel, Thomas Tuschl, and Phillip Zamore, and by investors Christoph Westphal and John Kennedy Clarke[221][222][223], as a spin-off from the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry[224], It is a leader in the study of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics.[225] United States
2002 Agricultural biotechnology[226] Company launch Arcadia Biosciences is founded. It develops products such as nitrogen use crops, salt tolerant plants, sunflower oil, and shelf-life produce.[226] United States
2002 Agricultural biotechnology Background The United States Environmental Protection Agency approves the first transgenic rootworm resistant corn.[3] United States
2002 Healthcare, medical, pharmaceutical Company launch Botanix Pharmaceuticals is founded. It is a pharmaceutical company that focuses on the treatment of skin diseases.[227] Australia
2002 Oncology Company launch OBI Pharma, Inc. is founded.[228] Based in Taipei, it engages in the development and licensing of novel therapeutic agents for unmet medical needs against cancer.[229] Taiwan
2002 (June) Biotechnology, bioinformatics Company launch Phalanx Biotech Group is founded.[230] Taiwan
2002 Biotechnology Company launch Catalyst Pharmaceuticals is founded.[231] United States
2002 Biotechnology Company launch Oxitec is founded.[232] It is a developer of biological solutions to control pests that transmit disease, destroy crops and harm livestock.https://www.weforum.org/organizations/oxitec#:~:text=Oxitec%20is%20a%20leading%20developer,destroy%20crops%20and%20harm%20livestock. United Kingdom
2002 Literature C. Mark Tang publishes The Essential Biotech Investment Guide: How to Invest in the Healthcare Biotechnology & Life Sciences Sector.
2002 Biotechnology Company launch Prosensa is founded.[233] It is a biotech company dedicated to the commercialization of products for the healthcare market based on RNA-based therapeutics.[234] Netherlands
2002 Company launch Codexis is founded.[235] It is a biosciences company applying synthetic chemistry technologies with the purpose to create improved versions of small molecule therapeutics.[236] United States
2002 Biotechnology Company launch Integromics is founded.[237] It provides bioinformatics software for data management and data analysis in genomics and proteomics. Spain
2002 Cloning Background The banteng, an endangered species, is cloned for the first time.[238][3] United States
2002 Biotechnology, stem cell technology Company launch CellResearch Corporation is founded.[239] Based in Singapore, it is a biotechnology company with a primary focus on skin cell and cord lining stem cell research.[240] Singapore
2002 Genomics Company launch NeoGenomics is founded.[241] Based in Fort Myers, Florida, it is a cancer diagnostic, pharma services, and information services company serving oncologists, pathologists, pharmaceutical companies, and academic centers.[242] United States
2002 Biotechnology Company launch DBV Technologies is founded.[243] It is a global biopharmaceutical company that develops investigational epicutaneous immunotherapy technology to treat patients suffering from life-threatening food allergies and other immunological disorders.[244] France
2002 (August) Plant biotechnology, Molecular farming (plant-made pharmaceuticals) Company launch Guardian Biotechnologies is founded.[245] It is a biotechnology company focused on molecular farming to produce vaccines, diagnostic assay kits, and commercial enzymes.[246] Canada
2003 (May 24) Literature Richard W. Oliver publishes The Biotech Age : The Business of Biotech and How to Profit From It.[247]
2003 (June) Biotechnology Company launch Acceleron Pharma is founded.[248] It is a biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel therapies.[249] United States
2003 blood test) Organization Theranos is founded by Elizabeth Holmes. Claiming that it could perform a wildly large number of tests, such as measuring glucose levels and detecting different types of antibodies, the company would later be dissolved and liquidated, with founder indicted for wire fraud and conspiracy.[250][251][252] United States
2003 Oncology Company launch Cleveland BioLabs is founded.[253] It is a drug discovery and development company that focuses on treatments for cancer, radiation exposure and other areas.[254] United States
2003 Literature Martin Grossmann publishes Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology: Managing for Growth from Start-Up to Initial Public Offering.[255]
2003 Whole genome sequencing Background The Human Genome Project completes sequencing of the human genome.[3]
2003 Pharmaceutical Literature John Abraham and Helen Lawton Smith publish Regulation of the Pharmaceutical Industry.[256]
2003 Gene therapy, oncology Background China grants the world’s first regulatory approval of the gene therapy product, Gendicine, which delivers the p53 gene as a therapy for squamous cell head and neck cancer.[3] China
2003 Plant biotechnology Company launch TerraVia is founded.[257] It is a next-generation food, nutrition and specialty ingredients company focused on algae.[258]
2003 Statistics Ernst and Young estimate that over 50 per cent of Australian biotech firms are generated from public sector research organizations.[1] Australia
2003 Cord blood banking Company launch Crioestaminal is founded.[259] It is a privately held biotechnology company that engages in preservation of stem cells to treat future ailments.[260] Portugal
2003 Research Palacios-Marques and Garrigós-Simón operationalize the intellectual capital construct in terms of a multi-dimensional scale of measurement, subsequently validated by surveying managers from a large number of biotech firms. These researchers conclude that for biotech firms, human capital is the most important component, followed by relational capital, and finally structural capital.[1]
2003 Pharmaceuticals Company launch Nanjing Ange Pharmaceutical is founded.[261] It is a leading manufacturer and supplier of Sunitinib, Lapatinib, Nilotinib, Dasatinib, Gefitinib, Erlotinib, Imatinib, Canertinib and relative pharmaceutical intermediates.[262] China
2003 Literature Martin Grossmann publishes Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology: Managing for Growth from Start-up to Initial Public Offering[263]
2003 Biotechnology Company launch BioLineRx is founded.[264] Headquartered near Tel Aviv, it is dedicated to building a portfolio of products for unmet medical needs or with advantages over currently available therapies.[265] Israel
2003 Biotechnology Company launch ATUM is founded.[266] It provides tools for the life sciences, from design and synthesis of optimized DNA to protein production and GMP cell line development.[267]
2003 Biotechnology, renewable chemicals Company launch Amyris is founded. Based in Emeryville, California, it specializes in creating renewable products focusing on fuels and chemicals.[268]
2003 Biotechnology, genetics, health diagnostics, life science[269] Company launch Helicos Biosciences is founded.[270] It is a life science company focused on innovative genetic analysis technologies for the research, drug discovery, and diagnostic markets.[271] United States
2004 (January 1) Monoclonal antibody therapy Company launch Alder Biopharmaceuticals is founded.[272] It is a biopharmaceutical company focused on transforming the migraine treatment paradigm through the discovery, development and commercialization of novel therapeutic antibodies.[273] United States
2004 Biotechnology, healthcare, life science Company launch 3H Biomedical[274] It supplies more than 270 different types of primary human and animal cell-based products for life science research, drug development, screening of chemicals and biomaterials development.[275] Sweden
2004 Biotechnology, genetics Company launch Pacific Biosciences is founded. It designs, develops, and manufactures sequencing systems to resolve genetically complex problems.[276] United States
2004 Biotechnology Company launch Molecular Partners is founded by researchers at the University of Zürich, while studying monoclonal antibodies.[277] Switzerland
2004 Pharmaceutical Company launch Medivation is founded.[278] Focused on the rapid development of novel small molecule drugs to treat serious diseases for which there are limited treatment options,[279] it would be acquired by Pfizer in September 2016.[280] United States
2004 Bioinformatics Company launch Genostar is founded.[281] Based in Grenoble, France, it is a provider of bioinformatics software, databases and complete data analysis services for microbial research.[282] France
2004 Agricultural biotechnology Background The Food and Agriculture Organization endorses biotech crops, stating biotechnology is a complementary tool to traditional farming methods that can help poor farmers and consumers in developing nations.[3]
2004 Pharmaceutical Background The United States FDA approves the first antiangiogenic drug for cancer, Avastin.[3] United States
2004 Literature Bryan Bergeron, Bryan P. Bergeron, and Paul Chan publish Biotech Industry: A Global, Economic, and Financing Overview, which attempts to offer a clear vision of the global biotech market through 2010, including which regions and corporations are best positioned to dominate the market.[283]
2004 Biotechnology Company launch FlexGen B.V. is founded in the Netherlands.[284] A spin-off from Leiden University Medical Centre and Dutch Space (part of EADS), the company would be declared bankrupt on 21 December 2015.[285] Netherlands
2004 Biotechnology, live sciences Company launch CD Genomics is founded.[286] It specializes in sequencing services, as well as genotyping, library construction, bioinformatics, aptamers, microarray, health diagnostics, mutagenesis analyses and others for the genomics industry.[287] United States
2005 (March) Company launch Jazz Pharmaceuticals is founded.[288] It focuses on identifying, developing and commercializing innovative products to meet unmet medical needs in neurology and psychiatry.[289] United States
2005 Biotechnology Company launch Micreos is founded. It is a Netherlands-based phage- and endolysin technology development company.[290] Micreos develops Staphefekt, an endolysin that selectively kills Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.[291] Netherlands
2005 Biofuel Background The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is passed and signed into law in the United States, authorizing numerous incentives for bioethanol development.[3] United States
2005 Company launch Primerdesign is founded.[292] It is a privately held limited company focused on the design, manufacture, validation and supply of dreal-time PCR kits and reagents.[293] United Kingdom
2005 Pharmaceuticals, contract research Company launch Melior Discovery is founded.[294] It is a provider of in vivo pharmacology services.[295] United States
2005 Biomedical engineering Company launch Medicen is founded.[296] It is a French business cluster mainly focused in biomedical engineering.[297] France
2005 Company launch Immune Therapy Holdings is founded.[298] Headquartered at the Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, it is a Swedish biotechnology R&D holding company primarily focused on its Tailored Leukapheresis (TLA) treatment for immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs).[299] Sweden
2005 Company launch Horizon Discovery is founded.[300] A gene editing and modulation technology company, it allows the biopharmaceutical and clinical diagnostics industries to gain a greater understanding of gene function, identify the genetic drivers behind human disease and develop personalised molecular, cell and gene therapies.[301] United Kingdom
2005 Company launch Creative Biolabs is founded.[302] It focuses on the development of human single domain antibodies as therapeutics and affinity reagents.[303]
2005 Company launch CovalX is founded.[304] It specializes in protein interaction analysis based on mass spectrometry. CovalX provides epitope mapping, intact mass analysis, protein interactions, protein aggregation, sequencing, disulfide mapping, and other services.[305] Switzerland
2005 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics Company launch Celsense is founded.[306] Based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, it is a biotechnology company providing magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.[307] United States
2005 (August 5) Biotechnology, diabetes, pharmaceutical Company launch Avid Radiopharmaceuticals is founded. Acquired later by Eli Lilly, it develops molecular imaging agents for detecting and monitoring chronic human diseases.[308]
2006 (March) Genomics Company launch Complete Genomics is founded.[309] It is a life sciences company that focuses solely on complete human genome sequencing.[310] United States
2006 (April) Biotechnology, genetic genealogy Company launch 23andMe is founded.[311] Based in Mountain View, California, it "offers a direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing service based on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to determine ancestry and to identify genetic markers associated with specific diseases and conditions and a few specific causal variants that the company claimed could provide information about their clients’ health and how to improve it".[312] United States
2006 Laboratory equipment, biotechnology, pharmaceutical, healthcare Company launch Thermo Fisher Scientific is founded.[313] Based in Waltham, Massachusetts, it manufactures scientific instruments consumables and chemicals.[314] United States
2006 Genetic engineering, polymers Company launch Kraig Biocraft Laboratories is founded.[315] A fully reporting biotechnology company, it develops genetically engineered spider silk based fiber technologies.[316] United States
2006 Pharmaceutical Background The United States Department of Agriculture grants Dow AgroSciences the first regulatory approval for a plantmade vaccine.[3] United States
2006 Cell therapy Company launch InGeneron is founded.[317] It is a cell therapy company that aims to enable treatments designed to heal certain chronic conditions using a patient's own regenerative cells processed at the bedside for same-day application.[318] United States
2006 Pharmaceutical Company launch Galena Biopharma is founded.[319] It is a biopharmaceutical company developing targeted oncology treatments.[320] United States
2006 Pharmaceutical Company launch F-star is founded.[321] It is an immuno-oncology company focused in the development of tetravalent mAb2 bispecific antibodies.[322] Austria
2006 Obesity Company launch Gelesis is founded.[323] It develops a novel category of therapies for GI-related chronic diseases.[324] United States
2006 Biotechnology, manufacturing, pharmaceutical Company launch Beacon Pharmaceuticals is founded.[325] Based in Dhaka, it is an oncology company that manufactures generic drugs, biotech, hi-tech & conventional general products.[326] Bangladesh
2006 Pharmaceutical Background The United States FDA approves Merck & Co. recombinant vaccine Gardasil, the first vaccine developed against human papillomavirus.[3] United States
2006 Gene therapy Company launch Ablitech, Inc. is founded.[327] It specializes delivering gene therapeutics with the potential to stop cancer and most degenerative diseases.[328] United States
2007 Research reagents Company launch MyBioSource is founded.[329] It is a biotechnology distribution company that supplies life science products, notably research reagents.[330] Canada
2007 Pharmaceutical Background The United States FDA approves the H5N1 vaccine, the first vaccine approved for avian flu.[3] United States
2009 Agricultural biotechnology Background The global biotech crop acreage reaches 330 million acres.[3]
2009 Genetic engineering Background The United States FDA approves the first genetically engineered animal for production of a recombinant form of human antithrombin.[3]
2013 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical Company launch Iovance Biotherapeutics is founded. Based in New York City, it develops T-cell-based immunotherapy products for the treatment of cancer.[331] United States
2008 (March 13) Biopharma, biotechnology, medical Company launch Braasch Biotech is founded. Based in Garretson, South Dakota, it is a biopharmaceutical company working exclusively with therapeutic vaccines.[332] United States
2008 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical[333] Company launch ACT Biotech Inc is founded.[334] Based in San Francisco, California, it is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of cancer drugs.[333] United States
2008 Literature Gordon M. Binder and Philip Bashe publish Science Lessons: What the Business of Biotech Taught Me about Management.[335]
2008 Biotechnology, chemical, greentech[336] Company launch BioAmber is founded.[337] Based in Plymouth, Minnesota, it is a sustainable chemicals firm combining biotechnology and chemical catalysis to convert renewable feedstock into chemicals.[336] United States
2008 Immunotherapy, mRNA-based human therapeutic Company launch BioNTech (see Timeline of BioNTech) is founded.[338] Germany
2008 Renewable chemicals Company launch BioTork is founded.[339] It focuses on sustainability through the development of microbial strains and bioconversion processes.[340] United States
2008 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics, hospital Company launch Epic Sciences is founded. Based in La Jolla, California, it is a diagnostics company engaged in the improvement of cancer management by providing real-time biopsy material to guide personalized medicine.[341] United States
2008 DNA Sequencing Company launch Cofactor Genomics is founded.[342] It focuses in the use of RNA to diagnose disease.[343] Based in San Francisco, California, it is a DNA Sequencing company that focuses on the discovery process.[344] United States
2008 Literature Alexandra Carina Gruber publishes Biotech Funding Trends: Insights from Entrepreneurs and Investors, which seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of current trends in biotech funding.[345]
2008 (July 21) Company launch DuPont Danisco is founded.[346] It focuses in food ingredients, enzymes and bio-based solutions.[347] United States
2008 Immunotherapy Company launch Immunocore is founded.[348] It is a commercial-stage biotechnology company pioneering the development of a novel class of T-cell receptor bispecific immunotherapies called ImmTAX – Immune mobilizing monoclonal TCRs Against X disease – designed to treat a broad range of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune, and infectious diseases.[349] United Kingdom
2008 DNA profiling Company launch PooPrints is founded.[350] It is a US company offering a “DNA solution for dog waste”.[351] United States
2008 Company launch SeSaM-Biotech GmbH is founded.[352] It provides enzyme services in form of Directed Enzyme Evolution, also known as Protein Engineering.[353] Germany
2008 Biotechnology, Human resources, search engine Company launch Stemgent is founded.[354] Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is a provider of reagents, services and training for scientists who study cellular reprogramming (iPS cells).[355] United States
2008 Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical Literature Martin Austin publishes Business Development for the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industry.[356]
2008 Pharmaceutical Literature R. Berry Ira and Robert P. Martin publish The Pharmaceutical Regulatory Process.[357]
2009 Biotechnology Literature Alexandra Carina Gruber publishes Biotech Funding Trends: Insights from Entrepreneurs and Investors.[358]
2009 Medical diagnosis Company launch OME Care is founded.[359] Based in San Diego, California, it is a precision medical diagnostic and home-care company with mobile applications. United States
2009 Biotechnology Literature Craig D. Shimasaki publishes The Business of Bioscience: What goes into making a Biotechnology Product.[3]
2009 Biopharmaceutical Company launch Kite Pharma is founded.[360] It designs and develops immune-based therapies to treat cancer indications.[361] United States
2009 Pharmaceutical, cannabis-based medicine Company launch Cannabis Science is registered and receives its initial Federal Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code clearance. It is one of the only companies in its industry with the ability to work directly with the US Federal Government.[362] United States
2009 (August 17) Biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, medical devices Company launch Siam Bioscience is founded.[363] It is a life sciences business focusing on biopharmaceuticals.[364] Thailand
2010 Applied research, R&D Company launch The Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology is founded.[365] It is a privately owned non-profit research center specialized on "bridging the gap between basic academic research and experimental industrial development".[366] Austria
2010 (September) Biomarkers Company launch Abcodia is founded. Based in London, it is an innovative biotech company engaged in the validation and discovery of molecular biomarkers.[367] United Kingdom
2010 (September) mRNA therapeutics Company launch Moderna is founded.[368] Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is a biotechnology company that specializes in drug discovery and drug development based on messenger RNA.[369] See Timeline of Moderna. United States
2010 Biotechnology, information, technology, therapeutics[370] Company launch Ayoxxa Biosystems is founded.[371] It is known for developing protein chip capable of detecting at once multiple biomarkers, biomarker signatures (including markers for cancer, allergies, age related macular degeneration AMD, or infectious diseases) from a small biological sample. The protein chip yields large amounts of data, being primarily aimed for use in biomedical research in academia, clinic and industry.[372][373] Singapore, Germany
2011 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical, therapeutics[374] Company launch Athira Pharma is founded.[375] Based in Seattle, Washington, it is a drug development company that specializes in biotechnology and pharmaceutical.[376] United States
2011 Genomics, data analysis Company launch Personalis is founded. Based in Menlo Park, California, it is a provider of advanced genomic sequencing and analytics solutions to support the development of personalized cancer vaccines and other next-generation cancer immunotherapies.[377] United States
2011 Biotechnology, genetics, pharmaceutical[378] Company launch Cambrian Genomics is founded.[379] IT is a biotechnology company developing technologies to synthesize DNA.[380] Based in San Francisco, California, it is a biotechnology company which uses a novel, laser based technique to synthesize DNA.[378] United States
2011 Biotechnology, chemical, chemical engineering, technical support[381] Company launch Carbios is founded.[382] Based in Saint-Beauzire, Puy-de-Dôme, France, it is a chemistry company that focuses on discovering and developing enzymatic bioprocesses applied to plastic and textile polymers.[381] France
2011 Literature Sally Smith Hughes publishes Genentech: The Beginnings of Biotech.[383]
2011 Biotechnology, healthcare, health diagnostics[384] Company launch Galecto Biotech is founded.[385] It develops small molecules for the treatment of severe diseases.[386] Based in Copenhagen, it focuses on the development of novel treatments for fibrosis and cancer.[384] Denmark
2011 Biopharmaceutical Company launch GEMoaB Monoclonals is founded.[387] Based in Dresden, it is a biopharmaceutical company with a broad pipeline of next generation immunotherapy product candidates for the treatment of advanced blood cancers and solid tumours in pre-clinical and clinical development.[388] Germany
2011 Company launch OvaScience is founded.[389] Based in Boston, Massachusetts, it is a life sciences company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of treatments for infertility. It would be later acquired by Millendo Therapeutics.[390] United States
2011 Biotechnology, healthcare, therapeutics Company launch Permeon Biologics is founded.[391] Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is a developer of therapeutic drugs.[392] United States
2011 Company launch Sophia Genetics is founded.[393] It is a healthcare technology company dedicated to establishing the practice of data driven medicine as the standard of care and for life sciences research.[394] Switzerland, United States
2011 Cellular senescence Company launch Unity Biotechnology is founded.[395] It is a startup biotechnology company that develops drugs which target senescent cells.[396] United States
2011 (December 18) Company launch Vaxess Technologies is founded. Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it engages in developing biomedical innovations with a focus on improving access to vaccines.[397] United States
2012 (May 2) Literature M. O'Neill and M. M. Hopkins publish A Biotech Manager's Handbook: A Practical Guide.[398]
2012 Fitness, genetics, healthcare, wellness Company launch uBiome is founded.[399] Based in San Francisco, California, it is a provider of public access to DNA sequencing technology to understand the microbiome.[400] United States
2012 Nanotechnology Company launch Tecrea is founded.[401] Based in London, it aims to provide vastly improved cell delivery technology for research and the clinic.[402] Tecrea's nanotechnology-based cell delivery system is used as a non-toxic method of transfection.[403] United Kingdom
2012 (October 23) Bioinformatics, plant breeding and phenotyping, software Company launch Computomics is founded.[404] BAsed in Tübingen,Germany, it specializes in machine learning, plant research and bioinformatics, using data "to unlock the diversity of biological life".[405] Germany
2012 Protein for animal and fish feed Company launch Calysta is founded.[406] Based in Menlo Park, California, it develops alternative protein ingredients.[407] United States
2012 Company launch ArtemiFlow is founded.[408] It is a technology-based start-up that uses extracts from a plant called Artemisia Annua to treat malaria, cancer, and other diseases.[409]
2012 Biotechnology Genetics Health Care Medical[410] Company launch 10x Genomics is founded.[410] It provides integrated solutions including instruments, consumables and software for analyzing biological systems.[411]
2012 Literature Martin Austin publishes Licensing, Selling and Finance in the Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Industries: The Commercialization of Intellectual Property.[412]
2012 Biotechnology Literature Michael O'Neill and Michael Hopkins publish A biotech managers handbook: A practical guide.[413]
2012 Literature Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.[414]
2013 Biotechnology, healthcare, medical therapeutics[415] Company launch Stem Cell Theranostics is founded.[415] It is a precision medicine-focused biotechnology company developing genetically-targeted therapies for heart failure.[416] United States
2013 Biopharmaceuticals Company launch AbbVie is founded as a spin off from Abbott Laboratories.[417] It is a research-based biopharmaceutical company, which engages in the development and sale of pharmaceutical products.[418][419] United States
2013 Company launch Barentzymes is founded.[420] It is a biotech company addressing the need for enzyme based solutions in industrial biotechnology and is focused on the development of new original enzymes from genetic resources.[421] Norway
2013 Biotechnology, Health Diagnostics, Nanotechnology Company launch Bikanta is founded. Based in Berkeley, California, it engages in the introduction of nanodiamond-based technology.[422] United States
2013 Pharmaceuticals Company launch CoCo Therapeutics is founded.[423] It is a British biotechnology company focussed on the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[424] United Kingdom
2013 Biotechnology Company launch CRISPR Therapeutics is founded.[425] It is a leading gene editing company focused on developing transformative gene-based medicines for serious diseases using its proprietary CRISPR/Cas9 platform.[426] Switzerland, United States
2013 Biotechnology, clinical Trials, healthcare, medical therapeutics Company launch Juno Therapeutics is founded. Based in Seattle, Washington, it is a clinical-stage company developing immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer.[427] United States
2013 Biotechnology, developer platform, sensor Company launch Kaitek is founded.[428] It is a Chilean biotech company focused on the development of bacterial sensors for environmental monitoring.[429] Chile
2013 Fitness, healthcare, internet Company launch MyGenetics is founded. Based in Novosibirsk, Russia, it is an internet-based service that determines nutrition plans, physical activity levels, and body reactions to various products.[430] Russia
2013 Alternative medicine, biotechnology, cloud data services, genetics, healthcare, life science Company launch NantOmics is founded. Based in Culver City, California, it develops cloud-based molecular profiling tools that help guide cancer patients.[431] United States
2013 Background Commercial production of artemisinin using engineered yeast.
2013 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical Company launch Spark Therapeutics is founded.[432] It is a US-based gene therapy company that specializes in rare disease medicines.[433] United States
2014 Biotechnology, genetics, healthcare, personal health[434] Company launch Veritas Genetics is founded.[435] Based in Danvers, Massachusetts, it is a provider of a genetic testing platform intended to empower people to live healthier and longer. It will be later acquired by LetsGetChecked.[434] United States
2014 (May 10) Literature Richard W. Oliver publishes The Coming Biotech Age: The Business of Bio-Materials.[436]
2014 (July 15) Analytics, big data Company launch MyGene is founded. Based in Beijing, it a human genome big data analytics platform.[437] China
2014 Pharmaceutical Literature Jie Jack Li publishes Blockbuster Drugs: The Rise and Decline of the Pharmaceutical Industry.[438]
2014 Literature Biotechnology Entrepreneurship: Leading, Managing and Commercializing Innovative Technologies.[439]
2014 Biotechnology Literature Craig Shimasaki publishes Biotechnology Entrepreneurship. Starting, Managing, and Leading Biotech Companies.[440]
2015 Biotechnology, pharmaceutical Company launch Baxalta is founded.[441] It has a portfolio of differentiated therapies that seek to address unmet medical needs across many disease areas like hemophilia, immunology and oncology.[442]
2015 Bioinformatics, biotechnology, genetics, healthcare, therapeutics Company launch BioViva is founded. Based in the Greater Seattle Area, it is committed to creating regenerative medicine to alleviate diseases caused by cellular degeneration and genetic disorders.[443] United States
2015 Genealogical DNA tests Company launch Embark Veterinary is founded.[444] Based in Boston, Massachusetts, it sells canine DNA test to help dog owners better understand their pet's breed and ancestry.[445] United States
2015 Artificial intelligence, genomics Company launch iCarbonX is founded.[446] Based in Shenzhen, it is an artificial intelligence platform for health data company.[447] China
2015 Genomics Company launch Phase Genomics is founded.[448] It is a life sciences innovation and biotechnology company specializing in genome assembly and analysis.[449]
2015 (December 7) Precision health Company launch Verily is founded.[450] It is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. focused on life sciences and healthcare.[451] United States
2016 (January 1) Health information technology, big data Company launch RxAll is founded.[452] This company would be the recipient of 2018 CIO Review Most Promising PharmaTech Vendor Award and 2018 Katapult FutureFest's Glstart-up award in Oslo, Norway.[453][454] United States
2016 Hemophilia-focused pharmaceutical Company launch Bioverativ is founded.[455] Based in Waltham, Massachusetts, it focuses on the discovery, research, development and commercialization of innovative therapies for the treatment of hemophilia and other blood disorders.[456] United States
2016 Biotechnology, healthcare, life science[457] Company launch Mylab Discovery Solutions is founded.[458] Based in Lonavla, Maharashtra, it is a molecular biology company focused on developing tests for human diagnostics, food safety, agriculture, and veterinary.[459] India
2016 Mental healthcare Company launch Neurovation Labs is founded.[460] It is a biotechnology company that specializes in the diagnostics and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders.[461]
2016 T cell immunotherapy Company launch Vaccitech is founded.[462] A spin-out company from the University of Oxford's Jenner Institute[463], it is a clinical stage T cell immunotherapy company developing products to treat and prevent cancer and infectious diseases.[464] United Kingdom
2016 (September) Genealogical DNA test Company launch Living DNA is founded.[465] A DNA testing company, it offers an ancestry that provides a biogeographical ancestry analysis with Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroup reports combined with autosomal DNA relative matching. The company also offers a wellbeing test which reports on nutrition and fitness.[466]
2016 (November) Consumer electronics, healthcare[467] Company launch Galvani Bioelectronics is founded as a joint venture by GlaxoSmithKline and Verily, with the purpose to create implants that can precisely target nerves to specific organs and can stay inside a patient for the rest of their life.[468] Based in Stevenage, England, it develops ways to treat chronic illnesses by controlling electrical impulses in the body.[467] United Kingdom
2017 Literature Gary Gereffi publishes The pharmaceutical industry and dependency in the Third World.[469]
2017 Biotechnology, healthcare, information technology, software[470] Company launch OmniVis is founded.[471] Based in San Francisco, it focuses on rapid disease detection technology with the ability to reach communities anywhere in the world.[472] United States
2017 (September) Literature Françoise Simon and Glen Giovannetti publish Managing Biotechnology: From Science to Market in the Digital Age, which provides a comprehensive overview of the new business context and marketing models for biotech companies.[473]
2017 (November 24) Literature Leah Cannon publishes How to Start a Life Science Company: A Comprehensive Guide for First-Time Entrepreneurs.[474]
2018 Gene therapy Company launch Reborna Biosciences, Inc. is founded.[475] Based in Fujisawa, Japan, it is a research and development start-up focusing on the field of rare genetic diseases.[476] Japan
2019 Literature Florentina Matei and Daniela Zirra publish Introduction to Biotech Entrepreneurship: From Idea to Business: A European Perspective.[477]
2019 Genetic testing Organization 54gene is founded. Based in Washington, D.C., it is a healthcare startup that offers a genetics testing platform.[478] United States
2019 Metabolic engineering, synthetic biology Company launch Cysbio is established as a spinout from The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, DTU (Technical University of Denmark).[479] Based in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, it uses advanced metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches to construct bacterial cell factories for transforming the production of biochemicals from renewable feedstocks.[480] Denmark

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References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 Hine, Damian; Kapeleris, John (1 January 2006). Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology, an International Perspective: Concepts, Theories and Cases. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84542-885-3. 
  2. Rasmussen, Nicolas (15 May 2014). Gene Jockeys: Life Science and the Rise of Biotech Enterprise. JHU Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1341-9. 
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