Timeline of immunology
This is a timeline of immunology.
|Time period||Development summary|
|1980s||Scientists begin the rapid identification of genes for immune cells that continues to the present.|
|430 BC||Intimations already suggest that if one survives a disease, the person thereafter becomes "immune" to any subsequent exposures.|
|1700||A procedure for immunization becomes established in China. The technique is called variolation, derived from the name of the infective agent—the variola virus.||China|
|1798||English physician Edward Jenner pioneers smallpox vaccination.|
|1840||German physician Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle proposes a germ theory of disease.|
|1862||German biologist Ernst Haeckel recognizes phagocytosis.||Germany|
|1874||Moritz Traube and Richard Gscheidlen inject micro-organisms into the blood and find that micro-organisms are rapidly destroyed and bloodstream maintain its sterility.|
|1877||German Jewish physician Paul Ehrlich first describes mast cells.|
|1879||French biologist Louis Pasteur pioneers vaccinations to immunity against viral diseases.||France|
|1883||Russian zoologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov theorizes that cells are involved in the defense of the body. Metchnikoff introduces the concept of cell-mediated or cellular immunity.|
|1884||W. Grohmann notes that cell-free serum is capable of killing microorganism in vitro.|
|1888||French bacteriologists Pierre Paul Émile Roux and Alexandre Yersin discover bacterial toxin, by isolating a toxin secreted by corynebacterium diphtheriae and showing that the toxin—and not the microorganism—gives rise to the symptoms of diphteria.||France|
|1888||American-British bacteriologist George Nuttall inoculates defibrinated blood with bacteria and shows that outside the body, serum retains its bactericidal activity.|
|1889||Hans Buchner first identifies a principle in fresh blood that he terms as "alexin" and is capable of killing bacteria.|
|1889||German bacteriologist Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer conducts a series of experiments that allow the understanding of bactericidal action of serum.||Germany|
|1891||Robert Koch discovers delayed type hypersensitivity.|
|1894||Richard Pfeiffer discovers the phenomenon of bacteriolysis.|
|1900||Paul Ehrlich theorizes about some of the events taking place in immune cells, postulating that cells interact with toxins via "side chains" that stem from protoplasm.|
|1900||Austrian biologist Karl Landsteiner discovers ABO blood group system.|
|1902||Charles Richet coins the term anaphylaxis to describe the most dangerous allergic reaction.|
|1903||British bacteriologists Almroth Wright and Stewart Douglas discover opsonins.||United Kingdom|
|1904||Julius Donath and Karl Landsteiner describe the role of antiself red blood cell antibodies in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria.|
|1906||Clemens von Pirquet coins the term allergy.|
|1907||Svante Arrhenius coins the term immunochemistry.|
|1910||English pharmacologist Henry Hallett Dale identifies histamine, a body chemical responsible for many allergic reactions.||United Kingdom|
|1910||Peyton Rous develops his viral immunology theory.|
|1916||Robert Cooke and Albert Vander Veer report having successfully immunized patients allergic to a variety of grasses, including orchard grass, June grass, and sweet vernal grass.|
|1917||Scientific development||Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner publishes results of an exhaustive study of haptens, contributing greatly to the knowledge of antigen-antibody reactions.|
|1921||Carl Prausnitz and Heinz Küstner discover that components in the blood can reproduce food allergy reactions.|
|1924||Ludwig Aschoff adopts the term reticuloendothelial system (RES).|
|1926||Lloyd D. Felton isolates pure antibody preparation.|
|1930||Elvin Kabat for the first time reports that gamma globulin, also called immunoglobulin, of serum acts as an active component and is mainly responsible for immunological activity after infection.|
|1930||Friedrich Breinl and Felix Haurowitz propose the instructional theory, based on the protein folding hypothesis. According to this theory, the specificity of the antibody is determined by the antigen that provides a template to fold the antibody around itself.|
|1934||John Marrack advances the antigen-antibody binding hypothesis.|
|1936||Peter Gorer identifies the H-2 antigen in mice.|
|1937||Italian pharmacologist Daniel Bovet, working at Pasteur Institute, becomes the first to describe the activity of antihistamines.||France|
|1938||John Marrack expounds the antigen-antibody binding hypothesis.|
|1940||Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Weiner identify Rh antigens.|
|1940||Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov's hypothesis that the main cause of immunity in the immunized animals is active cells rather than the serum components is strengthened by the experimental proof given by Merrill Chase.|
|1941||American immunologist Albert Coons initiates a major revolution in immunology and cell biology for developing a technique for labeling specific antibodies with fluorescent dyes. Coons and his collaborators first describe the possible use of fluorescent antibody for the detection of antigens in situ.|
|1942||Hungarian born American immunologist Jules Freund and Katherine McDermott publish a paper on their experiments on immunization of guinea pigs with horse serum containing killed tubercle bacilli and adjuvant. Their paper is generally considered to be a landmark in immunology.|
|1943||Journal||The monthly peer-reviewed medical journal Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology is established.||United States|
|1944||Peter Medawar develops the immunological hypothesis of allograft rejection.|
|1948||Astrid Fagraeus demonstrates the production of antibodies in plasma B cells.|
|1948||George Snell develops congenic strains of mice.|
|1949||Australian scientists Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner hypothesize that developing antigen-reactive cells are susceptible to tolerance induction.||Australia|
|1949 – 1957||British biologist Peter Medawar and Frank Macfarlane Burnet discover how the immune system rejects or accept organ transplantation, and develop the immunological tolerance hypothesis, which is created as a platform for developing methods of transplanting solid organs.|
|1950||Howard Gershon and Koichi S. Kondo discover suppressor T cells.|
|1953||J.F. Riley and G.B. West first report localization of histamine in mast cells.|
|1953||The Graft-versus-host disease is first described.|
|1953||British scientists Rupert E. Billingham, Leslie Brent, and Peter Medawar demonstrate the induction of immunological nonresponsiveness by injecting neonatal mice with foreign cells.||United Kingdom|
|1953||The immunological tolerance hypothesis is developed.|
|1953 – 1978||Michael Heidelberg and Oswald Avery show that polysaccharides of pneumococcus are antigens, enabling to show that antibodies are proteins.|
|1956||Niels Kaj Jerne, David Talmage and Frank Macfarlane Burnet develop the clonal selection hypothesis, which proposes that before a lumphocyte ever encounters an antigen, the lymphocyte has specific receptors for that antigen on its surface.|
|1956 – 1961||Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, and George Davis Snell discover genetically-determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.|
|1957||British virologist Alick Isaacs and Suiss colleague Jean Lindemann discover interferon.|
|1957||German-American immunologist Ernest Witebsky and Noel Rose publish the initial description of antiself antibodies, leading to an autoimmune disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis).||United States|
|1958 – 1962||Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter discover human leukocyte antigens and antibody structure, thymus involvement in cellular immunity and T and B cell cooperation in immune response.|
|1958||French immunologist Jean Dausset discovers the first human protein that allows the body's immune system to distinguish its own cells from foreign cells.|
|1959||British biochemist Rodney Robert Porter discovers the antibody structure.|
|1959||British immunologist James Learmonth Gowans discovers lymphocyte circulation.|
|1959||Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne, American immunologist David Talmage, and Australian virologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet develop clonal selection theory.|
|1962||Rodney Robert Porter proposes a basic four-chain model for immunoglobulin molecules.|
|1962||Team led by Australian scientist Jacques Miller discovers thymus involvement in cellular immunity.|
|1962||Scientific development||Noel Warmer and Alexander Szenberg in Australia, and Max Cooper in the United States, experimenting with chicken, are able to report that the bursa and the thymus are responsible for different immunological functions.||Australia, United States|
|1964||Anthony Davis identifies T and B cell cooperation in immune response.|
|1967||Japanese immunologists Teruko Ishizaka and Kimishige Ishizaka identify immunoglobulin E (IgE), the allergy antibody.|
|1968||Anthony Davis and team discover T cell and B cell cooperation in immune response.|
|1972||The structure of the antibody molecule is revealed.|
|1974||Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Peter C. Doherty discover how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells.|
|1975||Cesar Milstein, Georges J.F. Köhler and Niels K. Jerne develop theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies. This discovery would lead to an enormous expansion in the exploitation of antibodies in science an medicine.|
|1976||Japanese scientist Susumu Tonegawa discovers a genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.|
|1980||Journal||The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology is launched.||United States|
|1980||Journal||Peer-reviewed academic journal Human Immunology is launched.||United States|
|1985||Susumu Tonegawa and Leroy Hood identify immunoglobulin genes.|
|1985||Leroy Hood identifies genes for the T. cell receptor.|
|1986||Journal||The International Reviews of Immunology is first published.|
|1987||" Leroy Hood and team identify genes for the T cell receptor."|
|1990||American biologist Leroy Hood identifies genes for the T-cell receptor.|
|1990||Gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is developed.|
|1994||French immunologist Polly Matzinger develops the "danger" model of immunological tolerance.|
|1995||Japanese immunologist Shimon Sakaguchi discovers regulatory T cells.||Japan|
|1996 – 1998||Toll-like receptors are identified.|
|2000||United States Food and Drug Administration approves the first anti-IgE drug, rhu-MAb-E25.|
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