Timeline of nursing
This is a timeline of nursing, describing significant events in the development of the field, as well as mentioning notable related organizations around the world.
|Time period||Development summary|
|< 19th century||Palliative care, a related field to nursing, has its origins well before the 19th century. Despite the fact that, as early as the fourth and fifth centuries, men have worked as nurses, the history of nursing is almost exclusively represented by women. In Europe, nurses during the Middle Ages are mostly untrained women helping with delivery of babies or serving as wet nurses. Other formal “nurses” are often nuns who are called to care for the sick and the poor.|
|19th century||Modern nursing begins with the pioneering work of English nurse Florence Nightingale. In the second half of the century, nurses begin wearing uniforms. At the end of the century, the idea of higher education for nurses emerges, and nurse anesthetists begin practicing.|
|20th century||Nursing evolves toward a scientific, research-based defined body of knowledge and practice. Affiliation of nursing education with universities consolidates. Expanded and advanced practice roles emmerge. A larger and more expanded role for nurses develops along the century, with a number of distinct areas introduced in which nurses could specialize in, including such specialty care as orthopedics, trauma, critical care, pediatrics and neonatal nursing. Throughout the years, nursing would also see a shift away from the typical description of a doctors assistant to performing many of these duties themselves, including everything from performing procedures to prescribing medication. Today, nurses can choose to receive training in over 200 unique healthcare specialties.|
|1113||Field development||The Knights of Malta begin an “Order of the Hospital” on the island of Malta, as a work of hospice. The order is sanctioned by Pope Paschal II.||Malta|
|1247||Field development||Bethlem Royal Hospital opens in London as an institution to care for those with mental illness. The hospital would remain open for over 750 years.||Unitd Kingdom|
|1264||Field development||In The Rule and Statues of the Teutonic Knights, Book of the Order, the Knights enter into their rules that women are to do the nursing because service to livestock and sick persons is better performed by women.|
|1550||Field development||The Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God opens in Granada, Spain to care for the poor and needy.||Spain|
|1645||Field development||The Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal is established by Jeanne Mance, a French nurse settled in the Canadian New France. It is the first hospital in North America and later would see several milestones; including the first nephrectomy and the first femur transplant.|
|1837||Field development||A short nurse training program is introduced in Guangdong, China.||China|
|1839||Organization||The Nursing Society of Philadelphia is created.||United States|
|1850||Field development||Florence Nightingale, from England, begins her training as a nurse at the Institute of St. Vincent de Paul at Alexandria, Egypt. Florence Nightingale is widely considered to be the founder of modern nursing. Women’s association with nursing is reaffirmed when Florence Nightingale firmly establishes it as a women’s occupation. To her, every woman is a nurse, and women who enter nurse training are doing only what comes naturally to them as women.||Egypt|
|1853||Field development||Florence Nightingale, along with 38 other nurses, is recruited to serve in the Crimean War. The nurses are employed by Secretary of War, Sidney Herbert, a close ally and confidant of Nightingale.|
|1859||Literature (book)||Florence Nightingale publishes Notes on Nursing, an early instruction manual for nurses.|
|1860||Organization (nursing school)||The Nightingale Training School for nurses opens in England and soon becomes successful. This would lead to a new public image of nurses as professionals.||United Kingdom|
|1861||Field development||Nurses begin wearing uniforms consisting of floor-length outfits with starched aprons, sleeve cuffs and collars.|
|1873||Organization (nursing school)||The Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing is founded in New York City. It is the first nursing school in the United States to be founded on the principles set forth by Florence Nightingale.||United States|
|1885||Organization (nursing school)||The first nurse-training institute in Japan is established.||Japan|
|1893||Field development||The Worlds fair in Chicago introduces the idea of higher education for nurses.||United States|
|1899||Organization||The International Council of Nurses is founded. The group is formed between the United States, Britain and Germany as an organization to advance the profession of nursing.|
|1899||Organization||The Danish Nurses' Organization is founded.||Denmark|
|1900||Literature (journal)||The first edition of the American Journal of Nursing is published. It would become a forum for research activities and updates within the nursing profession.||United States|
|1908||Organization||The United States Naval Nursing Corps is established by the United States Congress.||United States|
|1908||Organization||The Canadian Nurses Association is established.||Canada|
|1909||Organization||The American Red Cross Nursing Service is established.||United States|
|1909||Organization (nursing school)||TheUniversity of Minnesota School of Nursing is established, creating the first university-based nurse training program, and awarding a baccalaureate degree to students that complete a three-year program.||United States|
|1909||Organization||The New Zealand Trained Nurses’ Association is founded.||New Zeland|
|1916||Organization (nursing school)||The Royal College of Nursing is founded in London. The organization supports and protects nurses while promoting the academic and professional advancement within the nursing profession.||United Kingdom|
|1920||Field development||The first baccalaureate nursing program opens at Peking Union Medical College.||China|
|1922||Organization||The Philippine Nurses Association is founded.||Philippines|
|1922||Field development||A national diploma in nursing is offered in France.||France|
|1922||Organization||The Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing is founded.||United States|
|1923||Field development||Study known as the Goldman Report concludes that nurses should ideally should be trained at Universities, according to academic standards.|
|1923||Organization (nursing school)||The Yale University School of Nursing is founded as the first independent nursing school, based on a University system. All other schools up until this time would associated with hospitals.||United States|
|1923||Field development||Ethel Gordon Fenwick becomes the first Registered Nurse in the United Kingdom.||United Kingdom|
|1924||Organization||The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation is founded.||Australia|
|1929||Organization||The Japanese Association of Nurses is established.||Japan|
|1929||Organization||The Irish Nurses and Midwives Organisation is established. ||Ireland|
|1931||Organization||The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists is founded.||United States|
|1937||Organization||The Society of Registered Male Nurses is founded in England, with the purpose to promote the professionalism of men in nursing and to act against men's exclusion from the field (around the time, men are relegated to asylum nursing, where their superior strength is required to restrain violent patients).||United Kingdom|
|1946||Organization||The Japanese Nursing Association is founded.||Japan|
|1948||Organization||The Finnish Union of Practical Nurses is established.||Finland|
|1948||Study||The Carnegie Foundation publishes study titled Nursing for the Future, (known as Brown Report), recommending that nursing schools be placed in academic settings rather than hospitals.||United States|
|1952||Field development||The first four-year university course on nursing is introduced in Japan.||Japan|
|1952||Field development||A Columbia University project introduces the concept of two-year, associate degree nursing programs as a research-based plan to test this new education model. The curriculum is composed of half nursing classes and half general-education classes, with clinical experiences gained in the community.||United States|
|1952||Literature (book)||Hildegarde Peplau publishes Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, which introduces the first systematic theoretic framework for psychiatric nursing and focuses in the nurse-patient relationship.|
|1953||Field development||V. Fry introduces the term nursing diagnosis to describe a step necessary in developing a nursing care plan.|
|1955||Organization||The American College of Nurse-Midwives is established. It represents certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and certified midwives (CMs).||United States|
|1958||Field development||Nursing practise is first described as a four-stage nursing process by Ida Jean Orlando.|
|1959||Organization||The Japan Nursing Federation is established as a political lobbying organization.||Japan|
|1962||Field development||NASA announces the Space Nursing Program which requires applicants to have a previous bachelor's degree in nursing. Although no nurse has been to space to date, they do play a large role in monitoring the health of astronauts on the ground.||United States|
|1967||Organization||The Japanese Nursing Society is established.||Japan|
|1971||Organization||the American Assembly for Men in Nursing is established, in response to problems of sexism preventing men nurses from playing a role in professional nursing organizations.||United States|
|1973||Organization||The American Academy of Nursing is formed.||United States|
|1978||Organization||The United States National Council of State Boards of Nursing is founded as a nonprofit organization with the goal of ensuring patient safety and quality healthcare in medical facilities within the country.||United States|
|1980||Organization||The United States National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses is founded in Missouri.||United States|
|1980||Literature (book)||Fundamentals of Nursing, by Sue Delaune, is published. It presents fundamental nursing concepts, and step-by-step clinical procedures.|
|1981||Organization||The Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions is established.||Canada|
|1982||Organization||The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association is established.||United States|
|1984||Organization||The United States Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation is established for the development, administration, and evaluation of programs for certification in oncology nursing.||United States|
|1985||Organization||The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners is founded.||United States|
|1985||Literature (book)||Fundamentals of Nursing, by Anne Griffin Perry and Patricia Ann Potter, is published. It provides base for nursing education.|
|1985||Field development||The first nursing minimum data set (NMDS) is developed in the United States, in response to the absence of nursing information in healthcare information databases. NMDS is designed to facilitate the extraction of essential, core minimum data elements to describe nursing practice.||United States|
|1985||Field development||The House of Delegates of the American Nurses' Association recommends that “associate nurse” be established as the legal title for the person licensed to practice technical nursing. The educational requirement for such licensure should be an associate degree with a major in nursing awarded by state-chartered institutes of learning, such as community or junior colleges.||United States|
|1985–1989||Field development||Several schools in the United States start offering master's level programs in nusing informatics.||United States|
|1986||Organization||The American Psychiatric Nurses Association is founded.||United States|
|1986||Literature (book)||Nursing Care Plans: Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes, by Meg Gulanick and Judith L. Myers, is published. It compiles care plans specific to patient problems requiring hospitalization.|
|1987||Organization||The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care is founded.||United States|
|1988||Literature (book)||Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, by Judith Hopfer Deglin and April Hazard Vallerand, is published. It delivers information needed to administer medications safely.|
|1989||Organization||The American Association of Legal Nurse Consultants is founded.||United States|
|1989||Organization||The International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists is established, aimed at developing standards of education, practice, and a code of ethics in the specialty.|
|1990||Nursing Day is officially declared in Japan, on May 12, coinciding with Florence Nightingale’s birthday.||Japan|
|1991||Organization||The U.S. Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses is established.||United States|
|1991||Organization||The American Nurses Credentialing Center is incorporated with aims at offering nursing specialty certification.||United States|
|1991||Literature (book)||Nursing Care Plans & Documentation, by Lynda Carpenito, is published.|
|1991||Organization||The Space Nursing Society is founded as an international space advocacy organization devoted to space nursing and space exploration by registered nurses.|
|1993||Literature (book)||Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, by Betty J. Ackley, is published.|
|1995||Organization||The American College of Nurse Practitioners is founded.||United States|
|1996||Field development||The Nightingale project is launched in Britain to provide curricula in nursing informatics for all levels of nursing education and training. The project would be extended across Europe.||United Kingdom|
|1996||Organization||The Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa is established.||South Africa|
|1997||Literature||The first edition of the Nursing Outcomes Classification is published. NOC is a classification system which describes patient outcomes sensitive to nursing intervention.|
|1999||Organization||Nursing Students Without Borders is established with the goal to provide global community health care to under-served communities.||United States|
|2001||Organization||The Academy of Neonatal Nursing is established with the mission to provide quality neonatal education to ensure that providers have the most up-to-date information to improve neonatal care. It serves worldwide.||United States|
|2005||Literature (book)||Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care, by Alice C. Geissier-Murr, Marilynn E Doenges, and Mary Moorhouse, is published.|
|2005||Organization||The Professional Association of Nurse Travelers is founded.|
|2007||Event||The International Council of Nurses holds its global conference in Yokohama, seeking to set up networking and educational experiences for professional nurses who work all over the world.||Japan|
|2009||Organization||The U.S. National Nurses United is founded. It is the largest organization of registered nurses in the United States.||United States|
|2011||Organization||The United Nurses Association is established in India.||India|
|2011||Literature (book)||The Nurse's Social Media Advantage: How Making Connections and Sharing Ideas Can Enhance Your Nursing Practice, by Robert Fraser, is published. It describes how nurses can use social media to share nursing information with one another.|
|2012||Literature (book)||Nursing Ethics in Everyday Practice, by Connie M. Ulrich, is published. It provides guidelines on current and future ethical challenges in the field.|
|2013||Organization||The American Association of Nurse Practitioners is formed by the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners and the American College of Nurse Practitioners.||United States|
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