Timeline of radiology

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Time period Development summary
1950s In the decade comes the development of image intensifier and x-ray television.[1]
1960s Ultrasound gains popularity.[1]
1970s The 1970s are known as the "golden decade" of radiology, when the CT scanner opens up new opportunities and discoveries which would be further developed in the following decades.[2] Magnetic resonance imaging develops.[1]
1980s Position emission tomography (PET) emerges as new technology.[3] Clinical MRI is also introduced in the 1980s.[4]
1990s A rising interest in the construction of a combined PET-CT scanner emerges.[5]
2000s PET/CT becomes one of the fastest growing medical imaging modalities, rivaling the growth of MR during the 1980s and 1990s.[6]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Country/region
1895 Field development German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen first discovers the X-ray.[1][7]
1896 Field development French physicist Antoine-Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.[7] France
1896 Literature Journal Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy launches as the first radiology scientific journal.[7][8] United Kingdom
1896 Field development After learning about Röntgen’s discoveries, American inventor Thomas Edison invents fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopic screens would be then used as an alternation to still x-ray images for some time.[9][7] United States
1898 Literature Marie Curie publishes her paper Rays emitted by uranium and thorium compounds.[7] France
1900 Organization The American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) is founded.[3] United States
1901 Award Wilhelm Röntgen is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to the study of radiation.[10]
1903 Field development Lay x-ray operators start being appointed as assistants.[3]
1913 Field development German surgeon Albert Salomon initiates research leading to mammography.[7] Solomon becomes the first to use x-ray imaging to view the gross anatomy of mastectomy specimens and is the first to demonstrate successful visualization of microcalcifications.[11][12][13] Germany
1914 – 1918 Field development Radiological equipment is used in field hospitals during World War I.[3]
1915 Organization The Western Roentgen Society is founded in Chicago.[14][15][16] United States
1918 Field development George Eastman introduces film, which would replace radiographs made onto glass photographic plates.[1][9]
1918 Literature The Radiological Society of North America publishes journal Radiology.[14] United States
1920 Organization The Society of Radiographers is formed in the United Kingdom as a trade union and professional body for x-ray and radiation technicians.[1][9] United Kingdom
1920 Organization The American Society of Radiologic Technologists is founded.[17] United States
1921 Field development Diagnostic radiology takes a great leap forward with the introduction of pneumoventriculography and pneumoencephalography.[18]
1923 Literature Monthly, peer reviewed, medical journal Radiology is released by the Radiological Society of North America.[19] United States
1927 Field development Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz develops cerebral angiography, a technique using X-rays to visualize arteries and veins that are transiently opacified with the injection of high density agent.[20][21][22][7] Portugal
1934 Field development French scientists Frederic and Irène Joliot-Curie artificially produce radioisotopes.[7] France
1935 The higher radiological qualification known as the Fellowship is created by The British Association of Radiologists.[3] United Kingdom
1935 Organization The Society of Radiotherapists of Great Britain and Ireland is established.[3] United Kingdom
1936 Field development American hematologist John H. Lawrence of the University of California, Berkeley introduces phosphorus-32 for the treatment of leukemia.[23][24][25] United States
1939 Literature Kitty Clark publishes Clark’s Positioning in Radiography, which would become a preeminent text on positioning technique for diagnostic radiographers.[26][27][28][7]
1939 Organization The Faculty of Radiologists is formed, amalgamating the British Association of Radiologists and the Society of Radiotherapists of Great Britain and Ireland.[3] United Kingdom
1953 Field development Swedish radiologist Sven Ivar Seldinger pioneers the Seldinger technique, laying down the foundation of interventional radiology.[29][7] Sweden
1954 Field development David Kuhl, a medical student at the University of Pennsylvania, invents the "photoscan", which would replace the scintiscanner.[30]
1958 Field development Scottish physician Ian Donald develops the first medically used ultrasound to observe the health and growth of fetuses. Donald also uses the ultrasound to study lumps, cysts, and fibroids. Donald, Together with engineer Tom Brown, develop a portable ultrasound machine to be used on patients.[9][7] United Kingdom
1961 Field development James Robertson, working at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, builds the first single-plane positron emission tomography (PET) scan.[9] United States
1962 Field development American scientist David E. Kuhl introduces emission reconstruction tomography. This method later becomes known as SPECT and PET.[3] United States
1962 Organization The European Association of Radiology is established.[31][32][33]
1963 Field development American radiologist Charles Theodore Dotter first proposes the idea of interventional radiology.[29] United States
1964 Field development Charles Theodore Dotter introduces image-guided intervention.[7]
1965 Field development Transcatheter arterial embolization becomes one of the most important basic techniques for interventional radiology.[29]
1965 Literature Benjamin Felson publishes his Principles of Chest Roentgenology.[34][35][7]
1967 Field development The first clinical use of magnetic resonance imaging takes place in England.[3] United Kingdom
1967 Field development Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt becomes a comprehensive interventional radiology technology, in which the biliary system can be reached through a jugular vein.[29]
1971 Field development English electrical engineer Godfrey Hounsfield builds the prototype computerized tomography (CT) machine, which utilizes both x-rays and computer software to create cross-sectional images of the body. In the same year, the first successful medical scan using this machine is done on a live patient.[9] United Kingdom
1972 Field development Godfrey Hounsfield introduces the first clinical prototype of CT scanner.[4][7][1][5][36][37] United Kingdom
1972 Field development The EMI parallel beam scanner is introduced.[36]
1972 Field development Non-vascular interventional techniques becomes an important branch of interventional radiology.[29]
1973 Field development American chemist Paul Lauterbur develops the way to generate the first two-dimensional and three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In the same year, Lauterbur publishes the first nuclear magnetic resonance image.[9][4] United States
1975 Field development Frank T Farmer gives an interesting historical review of the physical basis of radiology and demonstrates diffraction patterns as obtained by Von Laue.[38]
1975 Field development Michael E. Phelps, Michel Ter-Pogossian, and co-workers at Washington University School of Medicine introduce the modern PET scanner. The design is a ring system surounding the patient.[5] United States
1975 – 1980 Field development "Real-time" ultrasound machines are introduced.[1]
1977 Field development English physicist Peter Mansfield of the University of Nottingham describes the general principles of echo-planar imaging.[39] Mansfield develops echo-planar imaging for MRIs by mathematically analyzing the radio signals from magnetic resonance imaging. This development allows for images to be collected much faster than previously possible.[9] United Kingdom
1977 Field development American physician Raymond Damadian completes the first MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).[40][41][42] United States
1979 Award South African physicist Allan McLeod Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of computer assisted tomography".
c.1980 Field development The first commercial PET scanner is introduced.[5]
1985 Field development Argentine physician Julio Palmaz develops the balloon-expandable stent, thus transforming interventional radiology.[43][44][45][9] United States
1989 Field development 3D data acquisition becomes available with the introduction of spiral CT by W.A. Kalender.[36][46][47]
1991 The first functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain is conducted by Belliveau et al.[37]
1998 Ronald Nutt and David Townsend present the first combined PET-CT prototype scanner. It combines positron emission tomography and computerized tomography in such a way as to make it easier for physicians to locate tumors and other structures on the images. The combination also makes it much easier and less expensive for physicians and hospitals to have access to both forms of technology.[9][5] United States
2000 The PET-CT scanner, attributed to David Townsend and Ronald Nutt, is named by TIME Magazine as the medical invention of the year.[5]
2001 The first commercial PET-CT system, Discovery LS, is released by American multinational GE Healthcare. It consists in a single-slice spiral CT integrated with a PET scanner with BGO detectors.[5] United States
2003 Award Peter Mansfield shares with Paul Lauterbur the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, , for discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
2004 Field development The Siemens 64-slice spiral CT is introduced.[36]
2006 PET-only scanners are no longer obtainable as major medical centers and clinics opt for PET/CT to replace their PET-only scanners and newly-established diagnostic imaging centers go directly to PET-CT.[6]
2008 Field development As of date, over 2500 PET-CT scanners are operational worldwide.[6]
2012 The International Day of Radiology (IDoR) is introduced. It is celebrated on November 8 each year.[7]

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See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Origins of radiology". bir.org.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2018. 
  2. "History of radiology". bir.org.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 "Historical timeline". rcr.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2018. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Orrison, William W.; Lewine, Jeffrey; Sanders, John; Hartshorne, Michael F. Functional Brain Imaging. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Functional Imaging in Oncology: Biophysical Basis and Technical Approaches -, Volume 1 (Antonio Luna, Joan C. Vilanova, L. Celso Hygino da Cruz Jr., Santiago E. Rossi ed.). 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Townsend, David W. "Combined PET/CT: the historical perspective". PMID 18795489. doi:10.1053/j.sult.2008.05.006. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 "History of radiology". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018. 
  8. "Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 "10-Minute History of Radiology: Overview of Monumental Inventions". bicrad.com. Retrieved 13 August 2018. 
  10. "An Illuminating Accident". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018. 
  11. Bassett, Lawrence W.; Mahoney, Mary C; Apple, Sophia; D'Orsi, Carl. Breast Imaging Expert Radiology Series E-Book. 
  12. Kaiser, Werner A. Signs in MR-Mammography. 
  13. Classic Papers in Modern Diagnostic Radiology (Adrian M. K. Thomas, Arpan K. Banerjee, Uwe Busch ed.). 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Adler, Arlene M.; Carlton, Richard R. Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences and Patient Care - E-Book. 
  15. Mould, R.F. A Century of X-Rays and Radioactivity in Medicine: With Emphasis on Photographic Records of the Early Years. 
  16. Hussey, David H.; Beck, Bill. ASTRO: A Celebration of 50 Years. 
  17. "History of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists". asrt.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018. 
  18. Tandon, Prakash Narain; Ramamurthi, Ravi. Textbook of Neurosurgery, Third Edition, Three Volume Set. 
  19. The Medical Basis of Psychiatry (S. Hossein Fatemi, Paula J. Clayton ed.). 
  20. Oakes, Elizabeth H. Encyclopedia of World Scientists. 
  21. Neuroimaging, Part 1. 
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  23. Oreskes, Naomi; Krige, John. Science and Technology in the Global Cold War. 
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  25. "Clark's Positioning in Radiography 13E". crcpress.com. Retrieved 14 September 2018. 
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  27. Yeung, Andy WK. "Tube shift or tube tilt? The terminology of dental radiography is heterogeneous relative to radiological convention". hkmj.org. Retrieved 14 September 2018. 
  28. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 Tang, Z; Jia, A; Li, L; Li, C. "[Brief history of interventional radiology].". PMID 25208839. 
  29. Kevles, Bettyann. Naked to the Bone: Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century. 
  30. The British Journal of Radiology. 
  31. Weber, Robert L. Physics on stamps. 
  32. Calder, John F. The History of Radiology in Scotland 1896-2000. 
  33. "Felson's Principles of Chest Roentgenology—A Programmed Text". ejradiology.com. Retrieved 13 September 2018. 
  34. "Principles of Chest Roentgenology : A Programmed Text". thriftbooks.com. Retrieved 13 September 2018. 
  35. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Shreve, Paul; Townsend, David W. Clinical PET-CT in Radiology: Integrated Imaging in Oncology. 
  36. 37.0 37.1 Freberg, Laura. Discovering Behavioral Neuroscience: An Introduction to Biological Psychology. 
  37. "1970s medical physics". bir.org.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2018. 
  38. Poustchi-Amin, Mehdi; Mirowitz, Scott A.; Brown, Jeffrey J.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Li, Tao. "Principles and Applications of Echo-planar Imaging: A Review for the General Radiologist". 
  39. Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences. 
  40. Reece, Richard L. Innovation-Driven Health Care: 34 Key Concepts for Transformation. 
  41. Winterstein, Andrew P. Athletic Training Student Primer: A Foundation for Success. 
  42. Fogarty, Thomas J.; White, Rodney A. Peripheral Endovascular Interventions. 
  43. Price, Matthew J. Coronary Stenting: A Companion to Topol's Textbook of Interventional Cardiology E-Book. 
  44. Mauro, Matthew A.; Murphy, Kieran P.J.; Thomson, Kenneth R.; Venbrux, Anthony C.; Morgan, Robert A. Image-Guided Interventions E-Book: Expert Radiology Series. 
  45. Schoepf, U. Joseph. Multidetector-Row CT of the Thorax. 
  46. Shreve, Paul; Townsend, David W. Clinical PET-CT in Radiology: Integrated Imaging in Oncology.