Timeline of tobacco smoking and disease

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This is a timeline of smoking and disease, attempting to describe events related to the effect of tobacco on health. In order to provide context, the timeline includes many events related to tobacco production, introduction, and policies regulating its use.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What types of tobacco exposure are described?
  • What are some of the several diseases and health effects related to tobacco exposure?
    • Look for the different values on the column under title "Health impact (when applicable)".
    • You will see a notable number of cancers (especially lung cancer), as well as other diseases as well as behavioral conditions.
  • What are some events describing research related to tobacco smoking?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the rows with the value "Research".
    • You will mostly see medical research on the effect of tobacco smoking on health.
  • What are some events describing tobacco consumption?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the rows with the value "Tobacco consumption".
    • You will mostly see a bunch of historical records of tobacco consumption in early times, as well as some recent notable trends.
  • What are some events describing the introduction of tobacco in some countries?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the rows with the value "Tobacco introduction".
    • You will mostly see the introduction of tobacco from the Americas into European colonial powers.
  • What are some events related to the production of tobacco?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the rows with the value "Tobacco industry".
  • What are some events illustrating governmental implementations related to tobacco use around the world?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the rows with the value "policy".
    • You will see a variety of regulations, mainly smoking bans, with an increasing number of countries hoping to eliminate tobacco use.
  • Other events are described under the following types: "Campaign", "Cigarette advertising", "Concept development", "Public opinion", "Publication", and "Statistics".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
Before 1880 Pre-cigarette era Tobacco is grown as early as in 6000 BC in the Americas. The European colonization of the Americas introduces tobacco in the Old continent. Policies against smoking already appear in the sixteenth century. Addiction is an early found health consequence. By the 18th and 19th century, smoking bans and prohibitions become rare, and trade in tobacco becomes an important source of revenue for monarchs and leaders.[1]
1880 onwards Cigarette era Mass production of cigarettes begins after James Albert Bonsack invention of his cigarette rolling machine, which would allow production and consumption to grow tremendously until the health revelations of the late 20th century.
1950s onwards Tobacco and disease Since the 1950s, increased evidence is found linking smoking to cancer, especially lung cancer. Research on health effects of passive smoking also increases.

Summary by decade

Time period Development summary
1920s A rise of lung cancer prompts epidemiologic research on its causes in the United States and Europe. Initial studies find an association between lung cancer and tobacco smoking.[2]
1930s Scholars and activists in the United States become aware of increasing cancer death rates.[2] Researchers begin to investigate the relationship using the methods of case-control epidemiology.
1940s Cigarettes start being recognized as the cause of the emerging lung cancer epidemic, a very rare disease in the past.[3]
1950s Epidemiologic evidence on lung cancer and smoking becomes abundant and coherent. By the late decade, the amassing evidence that smoking causes lung cancer calls for public health action.[2][4]
1960s Surveys of physicians continue to show decreasing prevalence of smoking and acceptance of the hazards of cigarette smoking.[2]
1970s Researchers find solid evidence that tobacco smoking is addictive, and this behavior is found to resemble other drugs.[2]
1980s Surveys in the United States suggest that only 5–10% of physicians smoke.[2] An increasing number of lawsuits are filed against the tobacco industry because of the harmful effects of its products. Smoking becomes politically incorrect, with more public places forbidding smoking.[4] The tobacco industry starts marketing heavily in areas outside the U.S., especially developing countries in Asia.[4]
1990s An increasing majority of the public in Western Countries acknowledge that cigarette smoking is harmful to health.[2]
2000s Smoking rates decline in multiple countries around the world.[5][6][7]

Full timeline

Year Health impact (when applicable) Tobacco exposure type (when applicablle) Event type Details Country/region
6000 BC Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry Tobacco is recorded to be grown in America since about this time.[8] Americas
1400 BC–1000 BC Tobacco industry Tobacco is cultivated in Mexico.[9] Mexico
c.1 BCE Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption It is believed that use of tobacco begins in the Americas, including smoking (via a number of variations) and in enemas.[1]
c.1 CE Tobacco consumption Tobacco is found "nearly everywhere" in the Americas.[10][1] Americas
1492 (October 15) Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption Christopher Columbus discovers smoking.[1] He is offered dried tobacco leaves as a gift from the American Indians that he encountered.[4] The Bahamas
1518 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption Spanish conquistador Juan de Grijalva lands in Yucatan, and observes cigarette smoking by natives.[1]
1531 Tobacco industry Cultivation of tobacco begins in Europe.[1] Europe
1535 Tobacco consumption French explorer Jacques Cartier encounters natives on the island of Montreal who use tobacco.[1] Canada
1548 Tobacco industry The Portuguese cultivate tobacco in Brazil for commercial export.[1] Brazil
1556 Tobacco introduction Tobacco is introduced in France.[1] France
1558 Tobacco introduction Tobacco is introduced in Portugal.[1] Portugal
1559 Tobacco introduction Tobacco is introduced in Spain.[1] Spain
1560 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Lisbon, is given some seeds by Portuguese sailors returning from the New World. Nicot grows them and sends the leaves to Queen Mother Catherine de' Medici, who likes to sniff the powder made from them.[8] Europe
1563 Mainstream smoke Research Swiss doctor Conrad Gesner reports that chewing or smoking a tobacco leaf "has a wonderful power of producing a kind of peaceful drunkenness".[11] Switzerland
1564 Tobacco introduction Tobacco is introduced in England.[1] United Kingdom
1571 Research Spanish doctor Nicolas Monardes writes a book about the history of medicinal plants of the new world. In this he claims that tobacco could cure 36 health problems.[4] Spain
1575 Mainstream smoke Policy The Roman Catholic Church forbids the use of tobacco in any church in Mexico. This is one of the first documented smoking bans in history.[8][1] Mexico
1588 Nose cancer Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption A Virginian named Thomas Harriet promotes smoking tobacco as a viable way to get one's daily dose of it. Harriet later dies of nose cancer, as it is popular then to breathe the smoke out through the nose.[4] United States
1590 Mainstream smoke Policy Pope Urban VII moves against smoking in church buildings.[12] Italy
1604 Mainstream smoke Policy King James VI and I publishes an anti-smoking treatise, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, that would susequently have the effect of raising taxes on tobacco.
1610 Addiction Mainstream smoke Research Sir Francis Bacon notes that trying to quit the habit of smoking is really hard.[4] United Kingdom
1612 Policy Use and cultivation of tobacco is borbidden in China.[1] China
1617 Policy Mughal emperor Jahangir prohibits the use of tobacco.[13] Mongolia
1620 Policy Japan outlaws tobacco.[8] Japan
1624 Mainstream smoke Policy Pope Urban VIII issues a worldwide smoking ban, on the logic that tobacco use prompts sneezing, which too closely resembles sexual ecstasy. The pope also threatens excommunication for those who smoke or take snuff in holy places.[14]
1627 Mainstream smoke Policy Russia bans tobacco. The ban would last 70 years.[15] Russia
1632 Mainstream smoke Policy 12 years after the English ship Mayflower arrives on Plymouth Rock, it becomes illegal to smoke publicly in Massachusetts. The ban has more to do with the moral beliefs of the day, than health concerns about smoking tobacco.[4] United States
1632 Mainstream smoke Policy The first anti-smoking law in the United States is passed, when Massachusetts bans smoking in public places.[8] United States
1633 Mainstream smoke Policy The Ottoman Sultan Murad IV prohibits smoking in his empire and has smokers executed.[14] Turkey
1634 Mainstream smoke Policy Tsar Michael of Russia bans smoking, promising even first-time offenders whippings, floggings, a slit nose, and an exile to Siberia.[14]
1634 Intoxication Mainstream smoke, second-hand smoke Policy The Greek Church bans the use of tobacco, claiming that tobacco smoke produces intoxication.[1] Greece
1638 Mainstream smoke Policy China makes the use and supply of tobacco a crime punishable by decapitation.[8] China
1640 Mainstream smoke Policy Bhutan unifier Ngawang Namgyal outlaws the use of tobacco in government buildings.[1] Bhutan
1647 Mainstream smoke Policy In Connecticut, people are only allowed to smoke once a day and public smoking is prohibited.[1] United States
1657 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking is banned in Switzerland.[1] Switzerland
1674 Mainstream smoke Policy Smokers in Russia are deemed criminals subject to the death penalty. Two years later, the smoking ban would be lifted.[14] Russia
1719 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking is banned in most French provinces.[1] France
1723 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking is banned in Berlin.[16] Germany
1760 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry French–American tobacconist Pierre Abraham Lorillard establishes the Lorillard Tobacco Company in New York City to process tobacco, cigars, and snuff.[4] United States
1761 Nose cancer Mainstream smoke Research John Hill in England performs an early clinical study of tobacco effects, warning snuff users they are vulnerable to cancers of the nose.[1] United Kingdom
1795 Lip cancer Mainstream smoke Research German physician Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring reports on cancers of the lip in pipe smokers.[1] Germany
1798 Drunkeness Mainstream smoke, chewing Research American physician Benjamin Rush claims that smoking or chewing tobacco leads to drunkenness.[1] United States
1826 Poisoning Research The pure form of nicotine is discovered. Soon after, scientists conclude that nicotine is a dangerous poison.[4]
1836 Poisoning Research New Englander Samuel Green states that tobacco is an insecticide, a poison, and can kill a man.[4] United States
1830s Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry Cigarettes start to appear in this decade.[8]
1847 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry Phillip Morris is established, selling hand rolled Turkish cigarettes.[4] United States
1876 Mainstream smoke Policy The Old Government Building in Wellington, New Zealand, becomes the first building in the world to ban smoking. The ban is motivated by the threat of fire, as it is the second largest wooden building in the world.[17] New Zealand
1877 Mainstream smoke Policy Rutherford Hayes becomes the first United States president to ban smoking in the White House.[8] United States
1880 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry James Albert Bonsack in the United States invents what is considered to be the first practical cigarette-making machine. This invention allows for a massive production of cigarettes.[18][19] United States
1889 Research Langley and Dickinson publish studies on the effects of nicotine on the ganglia, establishing the ability of nicotine to block the neurons in the superior cervical ganglion.[20]
1890 Mainstream smoke Policy New Brunswick in Canada bans underage smoking. This would be followed by Ontario and Nova Scotia in 1892.[21] Canada
1890 Mainstream smoke Policy 26 American states ban tobacco sales to minors. Further restrictions are imposed over the next decade.[21] United States
1891 Mainstream smoke Policy Grand Ayatollah Mirza Mahdi al-Shirazi issues a fatwa banning Shiites from using or trading tobacco.[14] Iran
1895 Mainstream smoke Policy The sale of cigarettes is banned in North Dakota. Over the next twenty-six years, fourteen other statehouses, propelled by the national temperance movement, would follow suit.[14] United States
1908 Mainstream smoke Policy New York City passes the Sullivan Act, which bans women from smoking in public.[8] United States
1911 Tobacco industry For the first time in over 250 years, tobacco growing is allowed in England.[1] United Kingdom
1912 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research American Dr. Isaac Adler is the first to strongly suggest that lung cancer is related to smoking.[22] United States
1913 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry American businessman R. J. Reynolds begins to market a cigarette brand called Camel.[4] United States
1914 Mainstream smoke Publication American industrialist Henry Ford publishes a pamphlet called “The Case Against the Little White Slaver,” with a foreword by Thomas Edison, who said he didn’t employ smokers"[8] United States
1914–1918 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption The use of cigarette explodes during World War I, where cigarettes are called the "soldier's smoke".[4]
1925–1935 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption Smoking rates among female teenagers triple in this period, after the American Tobacco Company began to market its cigarette to women, gaining 38% of the market.[4] United States
1929 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry American business consultant Edward Bernays proposes an increase of market share for Lucky Strikes by getting women to smoke. Bernays hires models, debutantes and feminists to march down Fifth Avenue while smoking, in a “Torch of Freedom” march.[8] United States
1930 Cancer Mainstream smoke Research Researchers in Germany find a statistical correlation between cancer and smoking.[1] Germany
1936 Mainstream smoke Research Bogen publishes study on the irritant factors in cigarette smoke, and classifies formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein (propenal) as "irritant factors" in cigarette smoke, rating formaldehyde as a major contributor to cigarette smoke irritation.[23]
1939 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Franz Hermann in Cologne publishes an early study correlating tobacco smoke with lung cancer.[3] Germany
1939 Mainstream smoke Research Ribeiro reports the presence of acrolein (propenal) in tobacco smoke.[23]
1939–1945 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption During World War II cigarette sales climb to an all time high. Cigarettes are included in a soldier's C-Rations (like food). Tobacco companies send millions of cigarettes to the soldiers for free, and when these soldiers came home, the companies gain a steady stream of loyal customers.[4]
1941 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Dr. Michael DeBakey cites a correlation between the increased sale of tobacco and the increasing prevalence of lung cancer.[1]
1942 Mainstream smoke Policy Adolf Hitler directs an aggressive antismoking campaign, including heavy taxes and bans on smoking in many public places.[14] Germany
1942 Addiction Mainstream smoke Research British researcher L.M. Johnston finds that tobacco addiction is not about the act of smoking itself, but the craving for nicotine.[24]
1948 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Statistics Lung cancer is reported to have grown 5 times faster than other cancers since 1938.[1]
1950 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Five separate epidemiological studies are published in this year, all confirming that smokers of cigarettes are far more likely to contract lung cancer than non-smokers.[3] United States
1952 Health impact of asbestos Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry P. Lorillard markets its Kent brand with the "micronite" filter, which contains asbestos. The brand would be later discontinued.[4]
1953 Cancer Third-hand smoke Research Dr. Ernst L. Wynders finds that putting cigarette tar on the backs of mice causes tumors.[4]
1954 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Doll and Hill conclude that smokers of 35 or more cigarettes per day increase their odds of dying from lung cancer by a factor of 40.[3]
1957 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Publication The British Research Council states that "... a major part of the increase [in lung cancer] is associated with tobacco smoking, particularly in the form of cigarettes" and that "the relationship is one of direct cause and effect."[1] United Kingdom
1958 Cancer Mainstream smoke Public opinion 44 percent of people in the United States already believe smoking causes cancer.[25] United States
1958 Lung disease, heart disease Mainstream smoke Research A number of medical associations warns that tobacco use is linked with both lung and heart disease.[25] United States
1959 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Documents show that the industry is well aware of the presence of a radioactive substance in tobacco at this time. Furthermore, the industry is not only cognizant of the potential "cancerous growth" in the lungs of regular smokers but also conducts quantitative radiobiological calculations to estimate the long-term (25 years) lung radiation absorption dose (rad) of ionizing alpha particles emitted from the cigarette smoke.[26]
1960 Mainstream smoke Research As of date, only one-third of all doctors in the United States believe that the case against cigarettes has been established.[3] United States
1962 Heart cancer, lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research A study states a conclusive link between smoking and heart and lung cancer in men. The report also states the same link is likely true for women, although women smoke at lower rates and therefore not enough data is available.[25]
1964 Mainstream smoke Statistics Almost one-half of U.S. adults are cigarette smokers at this time, and smoking is ubiquitous in many public places, including restaurants, theaters, and airplane cabins.[2] United States
1964 Bladder cancer Mainstream smoke Research A report by the Surgeon General of the United States (USDHEW 1964) notes a relationship between smoking and bladder cancer.[27] United States
1965 Mainstream smoke Policy Television cigarette ads are removed from the air in Great Britain.[4] United Kingdom
1966 Mainstream smoke Policy Health warnings on cigarette packs begin to appear.[4]
1968 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research The Surgeon General of the United States concludes that smoking causes lung cancer in women.[27]
1968 Influenza Mainstream smoke Research Research of 1,900 male cadets after the 1968 Hong Kong A2 influenza epidemic at a South Carolina military academy, compares thee groups: nonsmokers, heavy smokers, and light smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) had 21% more illnesses and 20% more bed rest, light smokers (20 cigarettes or fewer per day) had 10% more illnesses and 7% more bed rest.[28]" United States
1968 Mainstream smoke Tobacco industry Bravo is marketed as a non-tobacco cigarette brand. Made primarily of lettuce, it fails spectacularly.[4]
1970 Second-hand smoke Concept development The term "passive smoking" is first used in the title of a scientific paper.[29]
1971 (January 1) Mainstream smoke Policy The last cigarette television advertisement is aired in the United States.[8] United States
1972 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research Surgeon General of the United States report (USDHEW 1972) notes that epidemiologic evidence demonstrates a significant association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the pancreas.[27] United States
1973 Mainstream smoke Policy Arizona becomes the first state to restrict smoking in some public spaces.[2] United States
1973 Mainstream smoke Policy The U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board orders domestic airlines to provide separate seating for smokers and nonsmokers.[2] United States
1974 Second-hand smoke Concept development The term "environmental tobacco smoke" can be traced back to an industry-sponsored meeting held in Bermuda.[29] Bermuda
1974 Mainstream smoke Policy The U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission rules that smoking be restricted to the rear 20% of seats in interstate buses.[2] United States
1974 Mainstream smoke Policy Connecticut enacts the first statute to restrict smoking in restaurants.[2] United States
1975 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking restrictions start being put in place in the United States, with the first in Minnesota and carrying on with various local and state governments legislating smoke-free or clean indoor air laws. "In 1975 the U.S. state of Minnesota enacted the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, making it the first state to restrict smoking in most public spaces. At first restaurants were required to have "No Smoking" sections, and bars were exempt from the Act" United States
1975 Mainstream smoke Policy Italy bans smoking on public transit vehicles (except for smokers' rail carriages) and in some public buildings (hospitals, cinemas, theatres, museums, universities and libraries).[30] Italy
1975 Tooth loss Mainstream smoke Research Research concludes that tooth loss is twice higher in smokers than in non-smokers[31]
1977 Mainstream smoke Caimpaign The first national Great American Smokeout takes place. The event challenges people to quit smoking on that day, or use the day to make a plan to quit.[4] United States
1977 Mainstream smoke Policy Berkeley, California, becomes the first city to pass an ordinance limiting smoking in restaurants.[2] United States
1979 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research A report by the Surgeon General of the United States (USDHEW 1979) indicates that a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer has been demonstrated.[27] United States
1979 Influenza Mainstream smoke Statistics Surveillance of a current influenza outbreak at a military base for women in Israel reveals that influenza symptoms developed in 60.0% of the current smokers vs. 41.6% of the nonsmokers.[32] Israel
1979 Mainstream smoke Pulbication In light to the increasing number of women who are taking up the smoking habit, the Surgeon General of the United States reports on the Health Consequences of Smoking for Women.[4] United States
1980 Mainstream smoke Statistics Smoking in the United States peaks to 631.5 billion cigarettes sold in the year.[8] United States
1980 Bladder cancer Mainstream smoke Research The United States Department of Health and Human Services report (USDHHS 1980) notes a dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of bladder cancer.[27] United States
1980–1981 Lung disease Second-hand smoke Research Scientific journals publish epidemiologic research from Greece, Japan, and the United States finding that those who breathe “environmental tobacco smoke” suffer from decreased lung function.[2] Greece, Japan, United States
1982 Kidney cancer Mainstream smoke Research Report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes that cigarette smoking is a contributory factor in the development of kidney cancer.[27] United States
1982 Influenza Mainstream smoke, second-hand smoke Research Research concludes that smoking may substantially contribute to the growth of influenza epidemics affecting the entire population.[33]
1982 Esophageal cancer Mainstream smoke Research Report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes that smoking is a major cause of esophageal cancer.[27] United States
1982 Lung cancer Second-hand smoke Research The Surgeon General of the United States reports that second-hand smoke may cause lung cancer. This causes smoking in public areas to be soon restricted, especially at the workplace.[4]
1985 Lung cancer Mainstram smoke Research Lung cancer becomes the first killer of women, beating out breast cancer.[4]
1986 Pancreatic cancer Mainstram smoke Research The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that smoking causes cancer of the pancreas.[27]
1986 Lung cancer, respiratory symptoms Second-hand smoke Research Two major scientific reviews are released in the United States, the Surgeon General's report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking, and the National Academy of Science's report, Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects, both concluding that secondhand smoke could cause lung cancer in healthy adult nonsmokers and respiratory symptoms in children.[2] United States
1986 Lung cancer, oral cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, Laryngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer Mainstram smoke Research The International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph on tobacco smoking considers the following cancers to be causally related to tobacco smoking: Cancers of the lung, upper aerodigestive tract (oral cancer and cancer of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and oesophagus), urinary bladder and renal pelvis and pancreas.[34]
1987 Mainstream smoke Policy The United States Congress bans smoking on all domestic flights lasting less than 2 hours.[4] United States
1988 Addiction Mainstream smoke Research Research by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes that cigarettes are addicting, similar to heroin and cocaine, and that nicotine is the primary agent of addiction.[2] United States
1989 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research Report by the Surgeon General of the United States estimates that 29 percent of pancreatic cancer deaths in men and 34 percent in women could be attributed to smoking.[27]
1989 Inflammatory bowel disease Mainstream smoke Research Research indicates that smoking increases the risk of symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease.[35]
1990 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking is banned on all domestic flights across the United States, except to Alaska and Hawaii.[4] United States
1990 Bladder cancer Mainstream smoke Research Report by the United States Department of Health and Human Services concludes that smoking causes bladder cancer.[27]
1990 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Report by the United States Department of Health and Human Services concludes that smoking cessation reduces the risk of lung cancer compared with continued smoking.[27]
1990 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research Investigations of K-ras mutations in pancreatic cancer show that the probability of mutation are significantly higher among smokers compared with nonsmokers in several studies.[27]
1992 Second-hand smoke Statistics A review estimates that secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for 35,000 to 40,000 deaths per year in the United States in the early 1980s.[36] United States
1993 Influenza Mainstream smoke Research A study of community-dwelling people 60–90 years of age, finds that 23% of smokers have clinical influenza as compared with 6% of non-smokers.[37]
1994 Mainstream smoke Policy A number of academic medical centers in the United States adopt policies barring their faculty and staff from accepting tobacco industry support.[2] United States
1995 Mainstream smoke Policy California becomes the first U.S. state to ban smoking in enclosed public spaces.[25] United States
1996 Impaired vasolidation Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with impaired vasodilation among adult nonsmokers.[38]
1997 Sudden infant death syndrome Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).[39]
1997 Behavioral effects Mainstream smoke Research Medical researchers find that smoking is a predictor of divorce.[40]
1998 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research Research finds that nicotine activates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in lung cancer cells.[41]
1998 Behavioral effects Mainstream smoke Research Research finds that smokers have a 53% greater chance of divorce than nonsmokers.[42]
1999 Stress Mainstream smoke Research American Psychologist states: "Smokers often report that cigarettes help relieve feelings of stress. However, the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers, adolescent smokers report increasing levels of stress as they develop regular patterns of smoking, and smoking cessation leads to reduced stress. Far from acting as an aid for mood control, nicotine dependency seems to exacerbate stress. This is confirmed in the daily mood patterns described by smokers, with normal moods during smoking and worsening moods between cigarettes. Thus, the apparent relaxant effect of smoking only reflects the reversal of the tension and irritability that develop during nicotine depletion. Dependent smokers need nicotine to remain feeling normal."[43]
1999 Second-hand smoke Research Research indicates that second-hand smoke exposure also affects platelet function, vascular endothelium, and myocardial exercise tolerance at levels commonly found in the workplace.[44]
2000 Streptococcus pneumoniae Mainstream smoke Research Research associates being a current smoker with a fourfold increase in the risk of invasive disease caused by the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.[45]
2000 Mainstream smoke Tobacco consumption About 4.2 million hectares of tobacco were under cultivation worldwide in this year, yielding over seven million tons of tobacco.[46]
2001 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research A report by the Surgeon General of the United States on women and smoking concludes that “About 90 percent of all lung cancer deaths among U.S. women smokers are attributable to smoking”.[27] United States
2001 Second-hand smoke Research Research concludes that exposure to tobacco smoke for 30 minutes significantly reduces coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy nonsmokers.[47]
2001 Squamous cell skin cancer Mainstream smoke Research A study conducted in the Netherlands shows that the risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is increased by tobacco smoking.[48] Netherlands
2002 Death Mainstream smoke Statistics Research in Canada shows that about 17% of deaths are due to smoking (20% in males and 12% in females).[49] Canada
2002 Cancer Second-hand smoke Research A study issued by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concludes that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers.[50]
2002 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research The International Agency for Research on Cancer again concludes that smoking causes cancer of the pancreas and that the risk for pancreatic cancer increases with the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily; the risk remains high after allowing for potential confounding factors such as alcohol consumption; and the risk decreases with increasing time since quitting smoking.[27]
2002 Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV/AIDS Mainstream smoke Research A study shows that smoking increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in people without HIV infection.[51]
2003 Mainstream smoke Policy India introduces a law banning smoking in public places like restaurants, public transport or schools. The same law also prohibits advertising cigarettes or other tobacco products.[52] India
2003 (December 3) Mainstream smoke Policy New Zealand passes legislation to progressively implement a smoking ban in schools, school grounds, and workplaces by December 2004.[53] New Zealand
2003 Follicular lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma Mainstream smoke Research Research estimates in a case-control study including 1,319 patients that cigarette smoking has a significant impact on the risk of follicular lymphoma but not on the risk of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.[48]
2003 Second-hand smoke Concept development As of year, "secondhand smoke" is the term most used to refer to other people's smoke in the English-language media.[29]
2004 Asthma, allergies, and other conditions Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with worsening of asthma, allergies, and other conditions.[54]
2004 Endometriosis Mainstream smoke Research Some evidence is found for decreased rates of endometriosis in infertile smoking women.[55]
2004 Bladder cancer Mainstream smoke Research Research observes in a U.S. population that there is a positive association between the use of tobacco and bladder cancer and that gender does not modify this association.[48] United States
2004 (March 29) Mainstream smoke Policy The Republic of Ireland implements a nationwide ban on smoking in all workplaces.[56] Ireland
2004 (June 1) Mainstream smoke Policy Norway implements a nationwide ban on indoor smoking, becoming the second country to implement a nationwide ban on all indoor smoking, following Ireland by 3 months.[57] Norway
2004 Breast cancer Second-hand smoke Research The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that there is "no support for a causal relation between involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke and breast cancer in never-smokers.[58]
2004 Cancer Second-hand smoke Research The International Agency for Research on Cancer concludes that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans.[58]
2004 Third-hand smoke Research A study measures the levels of nicotine in dust in the homes of three different groups of families. Homes where parents smoke with children present in the home have the highest levels of nicotine found in dust in all rooms of the house, including the rooms of infants and children. Homes where parents attempt to limit exposure of cigarette smoke to their children have lower levels of nicotine found in dust. Homes that have not been smoked in do not contain any traces of nicotine.[59]
2004 Policy Bhutan becomes the first country to completely outlaw the cultivation, harvesting, production, and sale of tobacco products.[60] Bhutan
2004 Irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth, rapid heart beat Mainstream smoke Research Research indicates that most smokers, when denied access to nicotine, exhibit withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth, and rapid heart beat.[61]
2004 Mainstream smoke, second-hand smoke Research A study shows bars and restaurants in New Jersey have more than nine times the levels of indoor air pollution of New York City, which has already enacted its smoking ban.[62] United States
2004 Mainstream smoke Statistics Smoking rates decline to about 21% of Americans by this year.[8] United States
2005 Cardiovascular disease Second-hand smoke Research Research concludes that secondhand tobacco smoke exposure has immediate and substantial effects on blood and blood vessels in a way that increases the risk of a heart attack, particularly in people already at risk.[63]
2005 Erectile dysfunction Mainstream smoke Research Research shows that smoking is a key cause of erectile dysfunction (ED).[64]
2005 Intoxication Second-hand smoke Research Research shows that inhaled sidestream smoke is about four times more toxic than mainstream smoke.[65][66]
2005 Breast cancer Second-hand smoke Research The California Environmental Protection Agency concludes that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger, primarily premenopausal females by 70%.[67]
2005 Pulmonary emphysema Second-hand smoke Research Research shows that pulmonary emphysema can be induced in rats through acute exposure to sidestream tobacco smoke (30 cigarettes per day) over a period of 45 days.[68]
2006 Mainstream smoke Policy Scottish politician Andy Kerr introduces in Scotland a ban on smoking in public areas.[69] United Kingdom (Scotland)
2006 Sudden infant death syndrome Second-hand smoke Research A report by the Surgeon General of the United States concludes: "The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke and sudden infant death syndrome."[70] United States
2006 Asthma Second-hand smoke Research Research finds positive association between household secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and the relative risk of developing asthma during childhood.[71][72]
2006 Sudden infant death syndrome Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoking with 430 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) deaths in the United States annually.[73] United States
2007 Mainstream smoke Policy Smoking is banned in all public places in the whole of the United Kingdom.[74] United Kingdom
2007 Mainstream smoke Cigarette advertising As of year, only one Formula One team, Scuderia Ferrari, receives sponsorship from a tobacco company; Marlboro.[75][76][77]
2007 Mainstream smoke Public opinion A poll by Gallup finds that 54% of Americans favour completely smoke-free restaurants, 34% favour completely smoke-free hotel rooms, and 29% favour completely smoke-free bars.[78] United States
2007 Low birth weight Mainstream smoke, second-hand smoke Research Research suggests that environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy cause lower infant birth weights.[79]
2007 Mainstream smoke Research Research suggests that smoking increases levels of liver enzymes that break down drugs and toxins. That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working. Specifically, levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 are induced.[80]
2008 (December) Mainstream smoke Public opinion Gallup poll, of over 26,500 Europeans, finds that "a majority of EU citizens support smoking bans in public places, such as offices, restaurants and bars. The poll further finds that "support for workplace smoking restrictions is slightly higher than support for such restrictions in restaurants (84% vs. 79%). Two-thirds support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs.[81] Europe
2008 Neurobehavioral effects Second-hand smoke Research Research identifies neurobehavioral effects of second-hand smoking.[82]
2008 Endometrial cancer Mainstream smoke Research A meta-analysis of 34 studies notes that endometrial cancer, which is considered as one of the most common female genital tumors, is negatively associated with ever smoking.[83]
2008 (September) Inflammatory bowel disease Second-hand smoke Research Research suggests that prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure does not appear to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.[84]
2008 (October) Tooth decay Second-hand smoke Research Research finds an increase in tooth decay (as well as related salivary biomarkers) associated with passive smoking in children.[85]
2008 (October) Mainstream smoke Policy India introduces a ban on smoking in public.[86] India
2008 Mainstream smoke, second-hand smoke Statistics More than 161,000 deaths attributed to lung cancer are counted in the year in the United States. Of these deaths, an estimated 10% to 15% are caused by factors other than first-hand smoking; equivalent to 16,000 to 24,000 deaths annually. Slightly more than half of the lung cancer deaths caused by factors other than first-hand smoking are found in nonsmokers. Clinical epidemiology of lung cancer links the primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in non-smokers as exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, carcinogens including radon, and other indoor air pollutants.[87] United States
2008 Mainstream smoke Policy The World Health Organization declares that it does not consider the e-cigarette to be a legitimate smoking cessation aid.[24]
2008 Death Mainstream smoke Research The World Health Organization names tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death.[88]
2009 (July 1) Mainstream smoke Policy Ireland prohibits the advertising and display of tobacco products in all retail outlets.[89] Ireland
2009 Third-hand smoke Research The term "third-hand smoke" is coined to identify the residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished and secondhand smoke has cleared from the air.[90][91]
2009 Myocardial infarction Mainstream smoke Research A systematic review and meta-analysis find that bans on smoking in public places are associated with a significant reduction of incidence of heart attacks.[92]
2009 Coronary heart disease Mainstream smoke Research A report by the U.S. Institute of Medicine concludes that smoking bans reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attacks, but the report's authors are unable to identify the magnitude of this reduction.[93] United States
2009 Atherosclerosis Second-hand smoke Research Epidemiological studies show that both active and passive cigarette smoking increase the risk of atherosclerosis.[94]
2009 Pancreatic cancer Mainstream smoke Research Research shows that current smokers are diagnosed with pancreas cancer six to eight years sooner than never-smokers.[48]
2010 Birth defect Second-hand smoke Research Studies comparing females exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and non-exposed females, demonstrate that females exposed while pregnant have higher risks of delivering a child with congenital abnormalities, longer lengths, smaller head circumferences, and low birth weight.[95]
2010 Health risk Third-hand smoke Research Research suggests that by-products of third-hand smoke may pose a health risk.[96]
2010 Cancer Third-hand smoke Research A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that nicotine residue which coats smokers as well as interior car or room surfaces can react with nitrous acid present in the air to create tobacco-specific nitrosamines, carcinogens found in tobacco products. It is also found that ensuring ventilation while a cigarette is smoked does not eliminate the deposition of third-hand smoke in an enclosed space, according to the study's authors.[97]
2010–2011 Third-hand smoke Research Studies show that humans can be exposed to third-hand smoke through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. There are also many surfaces that can accumulate THS compounds. Common surfaces that humans come into contact with daily include couches, furniture, curtains, and car seats. THS is thought to potentially cause the greatest harm to infants and young children because younger children are more likely to put their hands in their mouths or be cuddled up to a smoker with toxins on their skin and clothes. Infants also crawl on the floor and eat from their hands without washing them first, ingesting the toxins into their still developing systems.[98][99]
2011 (May 31) Mainstream smoke Policy Venezuela introduces a restriction upon smoking in enclosed public and commercial spaces.[100] Venezuela
2011 (July) Mainstream smoke Public opinion A Gallup poll reports that for the first time, a majority of Americans (59%) support a ban on smoking in all public places. United States
2011 (October) Third-hand smoke Policy Christus St. Frances Cabrini Hospital in Alexandria, Louisiana seeks to eliminate third-hand smoke and forbids its employees to work if their clothing smells of smoke. This prohibition is enacted after it is known that third-hand smoke poses a special danger for the developing brains of infants and small children.[101] United States
2011 Stroke Second-hand smoke Research Research strongly associates passive smoking with an increased risk of stroke, and this increased risk is disproportionately high at low levels of exposure."[102]
2011 Breast cancer Mainstream smoke Research Research finds that smokers exhibit an increased risk for breast cancer when compared to never-smokers.[103]
2011 Stillbirth, congenital malformation Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke in women with stillbirth and congenital malformations in children.[104]
2011 Second-hand smoke Research A commentary in Environmental Health Perspectives argues that research into "thirdhand smoke" renders it inappropriate to refer to passive smoking with the term "secondhand smoke", which the authors state constitutes a pars pro toto.[105]
2012 Cancer Mainstream smoke Research According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 22% of cancer-deaths are attributable to tobacco use.[106]
2012 Pancreatic cancer Second-hand smoke Research A Study finds no evidence that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.[107]
2012 Middle ear infection Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with increased risk of middle ear infections.[108][109]
2012 (March) Mainstream smoke Policy Brazil becomes the first country in the world to ban all flavored tobacco, including menthols. The majority of the estimated 600 additives used are also banned, permitting only eight. This regulation applies to domestic and internationally imported cigarettes.[110][111] Brazil
2012 Cancer Mainstream smoke Research Jensen et al. show that nicotine is carcinogen for the gastrointestinal system.[112]
2013 Lung cancer Second-hand smoke Research Research shows that passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.[113]
2013 Third-hand smoke Concept development A study with six focus groups in metro and rural Georgia (USA) asks participants whether they have heard of third-hand smoke. Most of the participants have not heard about it and does not know what third-hand smoke is.[114]
2013 Neural tube defects Second-hand smoke Research Research associates maternal exposure to secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy with an increased risk of neural tube defects.[115]
2013 Cognitive impairment, dementia Second-hand smoke Research Research concludes that exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over.[116]
2013 DNA damage Third-hand smoke Research Research suggests that thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells.[117]
2014 Lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research A review finds that smoking cannabis doubles the risk of lung cancer, though cannabis is in many countries commonly mixed with tobacco.[118]
2013 Prostate cancer Mainstream smoke Research Research suggests that current smokers have a reduced risk of prostate cancer compared with never-smokers.[48]
2014 Learning difficulties, developmental delays, executive function problems Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with learning difficulties, developmental delays, and executive function problems.[119]
2014 Sinusitis Second-hand smoke Research The majority of studies find a significant association between secondhand smoke exposure and sinusitis.[120]
2014 Miscarriage Second-hand smoke Research A meta-analysis finds that maternal secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of miscarriage by 11%.[121]
2014 Allergic diseases Second-hand smoke Research A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a slightly increased risk of allergic diseases among children and adolescents. The evidence for an association is weaker for adults.[122]
2015 (January) Sleep disordered breathing Second-hand smoke Research Most studies find a significant association between passive smoking and sleep disordered breathing in children.[123]
2015 Type 2 diabetes Second-hand smoke Research A study associates second-hand smoke with type 2 diabetes.[124]
2015 Asthma Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke exposure with an almost doubled risk of hospitalization for asthma exacerbation among children with asthma.[125]
2015 Orofacial cleft Second-hand smoke Research A study suggests that maternal passive smoking increases the risk of non-syndromic orofacial clefts by 50% among their children.[126]
2015 Diabetes Second-hand smoke Research Research indicates that it remains unclear whether the association between passive smoking and diabetes is causal.[127]
2015 Meningococcal disease Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with invasive meningococcal disease.[128]
2015 Mainstream smoke Research A study finds that about 17% of mortality due to cigarette smoking in the United States is due to diseases other than those usually believed to be related.[129] United States
2015 Psychosis Mainstram smoke Research A meta-analysis finds that smokers are at greater risk of developing psychotic illness.[130]
2015 Breast cancer Second-hand smoke Research A meta-analysis finds that the evidence that passive smoking moderately increases the risk of breast cancer has become "more substantial than a few years ago."[131]
2015 Tuberculosis Second-hand smoke Research Review suggests that passive smoking may increase the risk of tuberculosis infection and accelerate the progression of the disease, but the evidence remains weak.[132]
2015 Cervical cancer Second-hand smoke Research An overview of systematic reviews finds that exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of cervical cancer.[128]
2015 Depression Second-hand smoke Research Research suggests that exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms.[133]
2015 Mainstream smoke Statistics It is calculated than more than 1.1 billion individuals worldwide smoked tobacco in this year.[48] Worldwide
2016 (January) Mainstream smoke Policy Turkmenistan president Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov reportedly bans all tobacco sales in the country.[134] Turkmenistan
2016 Bladder cancer Second-hand smoke Research A study finds that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a significant increase in the risk of bladder cancer.[135]
2016 Third-hand smoke Research A study is done to look at how long third-hand smoke (THS) stay in three different fabrics over a timespan of 72 hours and post washing. The three different fiber types include wool, cotton, and polyester. Levels of THS are measured using a self-designed surface acoustic wave gas sensor (SAW) which measures a frequency change when a compound is laid down on the surface of the sensor. The results of this study find that third-hand smoke tends to stay in wool the most right after smoking and polyester the least. Wool has the slowest desorption while polyester has the fastest. Also, the study concludes that even though doing laundry and washing these fibers with detergent is an effective way to get rid of some of the smoke, there is still a remaining THS residue left on all the fibers.[136]
2016 Atopic dermatitis Second-hand smoke Research A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a higher rate of atopic dermatitis.[137]
2016 Cognitive deficits Second-hand smoke Research Research reports that children exposed to secondhand smoke show reduced vocabulary and reasoning skills when compared with non-exposed children as well as more general cognitive and intellectual deficits.[138]
2016 Periodontitis Second-hand smoke Research A study associates second-hand smoke with a possible increased risk of periodontitis.[139]
2016 Second-hand smoke Research A systematic review and meta-analysis find that passive smoking is associated with a higher rate of atopic dermatitis.[140]
2016 Third-hand smoke Research According to a study conducted by Northrup, 22% of infants and children are exposed to second-hand smoke, and third-hand smoke in their homes each year, comprising a major proportion of the 126 million nonsmokers exposed to harmful tobacco products annually.[141]
2016 (October) Cardiovascular disease Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of children.[142]
2017 Second-hand smoke Research As of date, passive smoking causes about 900,000 deaths a year, which is about 1/8 of all deaths caused by smoking.[143]
2017 Anesthesia complications Second-hand smoke Research Research associates second-hand smoke with anesthesia complications and some negative surgical outcomes.[144]
2017 Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma Mainstream smoke Research Research including almost 44,000 individuals finds an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma and a decreased risk of basal cell carcinoma in current smokers compared to never-smokers.[48]
2017 Third-hand smoke Research A paper uses the concept of "cessation imperative", explaining that the only way to fully protect people from exposure to thirdhand smoke is for smokers to quit smoking because even smoking in places when others are not present can expose people to tobacco smoke contaminants.[145]
2018 Non-communicable disease Mainstream smoke Statistics Research finds that 18% of noncommunicable disease (NCD) deaths are attributable to tobacco use in the European Region, meaning almost 1 in 5 premature NCD deaths could be avoided by eliminating tobacco use.[146] WHO European Region
2018 Mainstream smoke Research A report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes, “while it is biologically plausible that nicotine can act as a tumor promoter, the existing body of evidence indicates this is unlikely to translate into increased risk of human cancer.”[147]
2018 Mainstream smoke Policy As of year, 169 states have signed the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which governs international tobacco control.[148][149] Worldwide
2019 Mainstream smoke Research The Surgeon General of the United States announces a link between serious disease and e-cigarettes, an alternative to smoking in which traditional tobacco companies heavily invest.[25] United States
2019 Tracheal cancer, bronchus cancer, lung cancer Mainstream smoke Research The report from WHO/Europe “European tobacco use – trends report 2019” notes that almost 9 in 10 deaths (including premature deaths) from trachea, bronchus and lung cancer in the European Region are related to tobacco. In other words, 90% of lung cancers could be avoided by eliminating tobacco use.[146] WHO European Region
2025 Mainstream smoke Program New Zealand hopes to achieve being tobacco-free by this year.[150] New Zealand
2035 Mainstream smoke Program The British Medical Assocation establishes the goal of a smokeless Britain by this year.[8] United Kingdom
2040 Mainstream smoke Program Finland hopes to achieve being tobacco-free by this year.[151] Finland

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